Hans Scholl

Hans Fritz Scholl (22 September 1918 – 22 February 1943) was a founding member of the White Rose resistance movement in Nazi Germany. He was executed by the Nazi regime during time of war.

Hans Scholl
Hans Scholl roi
Born
Hans Fritz Scholl

22 September 1918
Crailsheim, Germany
Died22 February 1943 (aged 24)
Cause of deathExecution by guillotine
Parent(s)Robert Scholl
Magdalena Müller
RelativesInge Scholl (sister)
Sophie Scholl (sister)

Biography

Scholl was born in Ingersheim (now a part of Crailsheim, Baden-Württemberg). His father, Robert, later became the mayor of Forchtenberg am Kocher. Hans was the second of six children:

  1. Inge Aicher-Scholl (1917–1998)[1][2]
  2. Hans Scholl (1918–1943)
  3. Elisabeth Scholl Hartnagel (born 1920), married Sophie's long-term boyfriend, Fritz Hartnagel
  4. Sophie Scholl (1921–1943)
  5. Werner Scholl (1922–1944) missing in action and presumed dead in June 1944
  6. Thilde Scholl (1925–1926)

Scholl was raised as a Lutheran, although he did at one point consider converting to Catholicism. Hans was enrolled in the military service in spring of 1941 as a medic in France against Russia.

Scholl joined the Hitler Youth in 1933, but quickly became disillusioned with the group when he realised its true principles. He later studied medicine at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München Medizin.

White Rose

In the early summer of 1942, Scholl, his sister Sophie, Willi Graf, Kurt Huber, Christoph Probst and Alexander Schmorell co-authored six anti-Nazi Third Reich political resistance leaflets. Calling themselves the White Rose, they instructed Germans to practice nonviolent resistance against the Nazis. The group had been horrified by the behavior of some German soldiers on the Eastern Front, where they had witnessed cruelty towards Jews in Poland and Soviet Union.

The leaflets were distributed around the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich,[3], where the group's members studied, and at the University of Hamburg. Leaflets were also mailed to doctors, scholars, and pub owners throughout Germany.

On 18 February 1943, Hans and Sophie were spotted by a custodian while throwing leaflets from the atrium at Ludwig Maximilians University. They were arrested by the Gestapo and, with Probst, tried for treason by Judge Roland Freisler. They were found guilty and condemned to death on 22 February.

Only a few hours after the judgment, Hans and Sophie Scholl and Christopher Probst were beheaded by Johann Reichhart in Munich's Stadelheim Prison. The execution was supervised by Dr. Walter Roemer, the enforcement chief of the Munich district court. Scholl's last words were "Es lebe die Freiheit!" ("Long live freedom!").

Shortly thereafter, most of the other students involved with the group were arrested and executed as well.

Legacy

Bommersheim, Geschwister-Scholl-Gedenkstein
Scholl memorial in Bommersheim

Following the deaths, a copy of the sixth leaflet was smuggled out of Germany through Scandinavia to the UK by German jurist Helmuth James Graf von Moltke, where it was used by the Allied Forces. In mid-1943, they dropped millions of copies of the tract, retitled The Manifesto of the Students of Munich, over Germany.

The White Rose's legacy has been considered significant by many historical commentators, both as a demonstration of exemplary spiritual courage, and as a well-documented case of social dissent in a time of violent repression, censorship and pressure to conform.

Playwright Lillian Garrett-Groag stated in Newsday (22 February 1993):

It is possibly the most spectacular moment of resistance that I can think of in the twentieth century... The fact that five little kids, in the mouth of the wolf, where it really counted, had the tremendous courage to do what they did, is spectacular to me. I know that the world is better for them having been there, but I do not know why.

In the same issue of Newsday, Holocaust historian Jud Newborn noted:

You cannot really measure the effect of this kind of resistance in whether or not X number of bridges were blown up or a regime fell... The White Rose really has a more symbolic value, but that's a very important value.

In film

Hans was portrayed by Fabian Hinrichs in the film Sophie Scholl: The Final Days.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Inge Aicher-Scholl" at the Wayback Machine (archived December 31, 2007). 6 September 1998. Archived from the original on 31 December 2007.
  2. ^ "Inge Scholl: 'Die Weiße Rose'" (in German). Weisse-Rose-Studien. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007.
  3. ^ Halpern, Sue M. (17 August 1986). "Students Against The Reich". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 June 2008.

External links

2959 Scholl

2959 Scholl, provisional designation 1983 RE2, is a carbonaceous Hildian asteroid from the outer regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 34 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 4 September 1983 by English–American astronomer Edward Bowell of the Lowell Observatory at Anderson Mesa Station near Flagstaff, Arizona. The asteroid was named after German astronomer Hans Scholl.

Alexander Schmorell

Alexander Schmorell (16 September 1917 in Orenburg, Russia; – 13 July 1943 in Munich) was one of five Munich University students who formed a resistance group known as White Rose (Weiße Rose) which was active against Germany's Nazi regime from June 1942 to February 1943. In 2012, he was glorified as a saint and passion bearer by the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia.

Christoph Probst

Christoph Ananda Probst (born 6 November 1919, Murnau am Staffelsee – 22 February 1943, Munich) was a German student of medicine and member of the White Rose (Weiße Rose) resistance group.

Fabian Hinrichs

Fabian Hinrichs (born 1974) is a German actor. He is probably best known for his performance as Hans Scholl in Sophie Scholl – The Final Days, which was nominated for Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film.

Hinrichs has also been a member of the German Film Academy and the European Film Academy. From 2000 to 2006, he was a member of the Volksbühne Berlin ensemble.

Falk Harnack

Falk Harnack (2 March 1913 – 3 September 1991) was a German director and screenwriter. During Germany's Nazi era, he was also active with the German Resistance and toward the end of World War II, the partisans in Greece. Harnack was from a family of scholars, artists and scientists, several of whom were active in the anti-Nazi Resistance and paid with their lives.

Geschwister-Scholl-Platz

Geschwister-Scholl-Platz (Scholl Siblings Plaza) is a short semi-circular plaza located in front of the main building of the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München), located on the Ludwigstraße in Munich, Germany. The plaza is named in memory of Sophie Scholl and her brother, Hans Scholl, students at Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich during World War II who were among the founding members of the White Rose (Weiße Rose) resistance movement. They were the Geschwister Scholl (Scholl Siblings).

Geschwister-Scholl-Preis

The Geschwister-Scholl-Preis is a literary prize which is awarded annually by the Bavarian chapter of the German Publishers and Booksellers Association (Börsenverein des Deutschen Buchhandels - Landesverband Bayern e. V.) and the city of Munich. Every year, a book is honoured, which "shows intellectual independence and supports civil freedom, moral, intellectual and aesthetic courage and that gives an important impulse to the present awareness of responsibility".The prize is named in memory and honor of Sophie and Hans Scholl, who are collectively referred to as the Geschwister Scholl ("Scholl siblings"). It is endowed with 10,000 euros and is presented at a ceremony at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität in Munich.

Hans Scholl (astronomer)

Hans Scholl (born 1942) is a German astronomer, who worked at the Astronomisches Rechen-Institut in Heidelberg, Germany, and at the Côte d'Azur Observatory in Nice, France. In 1999, he was part of a team that discovered three moons of Uranus: Prospero, Setebos and Stephano. He has also co-discoverered 55 minor planets together with Italian astronomer Andrea Boattini at ESO's La Silla Observatory site in northern Chile during 2003–2005.Scholl is known for his theoretical work on the orbits of minor planets. He has studied the orbital resonance of outer main-belt asteroids, as well as the orbits of 2062 Aten, a near-Earth object, and 2060 Chiron, a centaur and comet. His broad range of minor planet research included problems from mass determination to asteroid missions and from libration to depletion. He was honored by the outer main-belt asteroid 2959 Scholl, discovered by English–American astronomer Edward Bowell in 1983.

Lutz-Michael Harder

Lutz-Michael Harder (born 1951, Langenfeld/Długoszyn near Küstrin) is a German lyric tenor known mostly for his interpretation of Mozart opera roles and as a baroque concert soloist.

Paaliaq

Paaliaq ( PAH-lee-ahk) is a prograde irregular satellite of Saturn. It was discovered by Brett J. Gladman, John J. Kavelaars, Jean-Marc Petit, Hans Scholl, Matthew J. Holman, Brian G. Marsden, Philip D. Nicholson and Joseph A. Burns in early October 2000, and given the temporary designation S/2000 S 2. It was named in August 2003 after a fictional shaman in the book The Curse of the Shaman, written by Michael Kusugak, who supplied Kavelaars with the names of giants from Inuit mythology that were used for other Saturnian moons.

Paaliaq is thought to be about 22 kilometres in diameter, and orbits Saturn at an average distance of 15.2 million km in 687 days. It is a member of the Inuit group of irregular satellites. It also has a proximity with 9 other moons reaching up to ten miles from each.

It is light red in color, and in the infrared the Paaliapian (Paaliaqan) spectrum is very similar to the Inuit-group satellites Kiviuq and Siarnaq, supporting the thesis of a possible common origin of the Inuit group in the break-up of a larger body.

People's Court (Germany)

The People's Court (German: Volksgerichtshof) was a Sondergericht ("special court") of Nazi Germany, set up outside the operations of the constitutional frame of law. Its headquarters were originally located in the former Prussian House of Lords in Berlin, later moved to the former Königsberg Wilhelmsgymnasium at Bellevuestrasse 15 in Potsdamer Platz (the location now occupied by the Sony Center; a marker is located on the sidewalk nearby).The court was established in 1934 by order of Nazi leader Adolf Hitler, in response to his dissatisfaction at the outcome of the Reichstag fire trial, in which all but one of the defendants was acquitted. The court had jurisdiction over a rather broad array of "political offenses", which included crimes like black marketeering, work slowdowns, defeatism, and treason against the Third Reich. These crimes were viewed by the court as Wehrkraftzersetzung ("disintegration of defensive capability") and were accordingly punished severely; the death penalty was meted out in numerous cases.

The Court handed down an enormous number of death sentences under Judge-President Roland Freisler, including those that followed the plot to kill Hitler on 20 July 1944. Many of those found guilty by the Court were executed in Plötzensee Prison in Berlin. The proceedings of the court were often even less than show trials in that some cases, such as that of Sophie Scholl and her brother Hans Scholl and fellow White Rose activists, trials were concluded in less than an hour without evidence being presented or arguments made by either side. The president of the court often acted as prosecutor, denouncing defendants, then pronouncing his verdict and sentence without objection from defense counsel, who usually remained silent throughout. It almost always sided with the prosecution, to the point that being hauled before it was tantamount to a death sentence. While Nazi Germany was not a rule of law state, the People's Court frequently dispensed with even the nominal laws and procedures of regular German trials, and was thus easily characterized as a kangaroo court.

Prospero (moon)

Prospero ( PROS-pər-oh) is a relatively small retrograde irregular satellite of Uranus discovered on 18 July 1999 by the astrophysicist Matthew Holman and his team, and given the provisional designation S/1999 U 3. Confirmed as Uranus XVIII it was named after the sorcerer Prospero in William Shakespeare's play The Tempest.

The orbital parameters suggest that it may belong to the same dynamic cluster as Sycorax and Setebos, suggesting common origin. However, this suggestion does not appear to be supported by the observed colours. The satellite appears neutral (grey) in visible light (colour indices B-V=0.80, R-V=0.39), similar to Setebos but different from Sycorax (which is light red).

Scholl

Scholl is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Andreas Scholl (born 1967), German countertenor

Aurélien Scholl (1833–1902), French journalist and writer

Chiara Scholl (born 1992), American tennis player

Elisabeth Scholl (born 1966), German soprano

Hans Scholl (1918–1943), member of the White Rose resistance movement in Nazi Germany

Hans Scholl (astronomer) (born 1942), German astronomer

Inge Scholl (1917–1998), German activist

Mehmet Scholl (born 1970), German footballer

Robert Scholl (1891–1973), German politician

Roland Scholl (1865–1945), Swiss-German chemist

Sophie Scholl (1921–1943), member of the White Rose resistance movement in Nazi Germany

William Scholl (1882–1968), US chiropodist and inventor of Dr. Scholl's brand footwear

Sophie Scholl

Sophia Magdalena Scholl (9 May 1921 – 22 February 1943) was a German student and anti-Nazi political activist, active within the White Rose non-violent resistance group in Nazi Germany.She was convicted of high treason after having been found distributing anti-war leaflets at the University of Munich (LMU) with her brother, Hans. As a result, she was executed by guillotine. Since the 1970s, Scholl has been extensively commemorated for her anti-Nazi resistance work.

Stadelheim Prison

Stadelheim Prison (German: Justizvollzugsanstalt München), in Munich's Giesing district, is one of the largest prisons in Germany.

Founded in 1894, it was the site of many executions, particularly by guillotine during the Nazi period.

Stephano (moon)

Stephano ( STEF-ə-noh or stə-FAH-noh) is a retrograde irregular satellite of Uranus. It was discovered by Brett J. Gladman, et al. in 1999, and given the provisional designation S/1999 U 2.Confirmed as Uranus XX, it was named after the drunken butler in William Shakespeare's play The Tempest in August 2000.The orbital parameters suggest that it may belong to the same dynamic cluster as Caliban, suggesting common origin.

Traute Lafrenz

Traute Lafrenz (born May 3, 1919) is a German-American physician and anthroposophist, who was a member of the White Rose anti-Nazi group during World War II.She was born in Hamburg. Together with Heinz Kucharski, Lafrenz studied under Erna Stahl at the Lichtwark-Gymnasium, a liberal arts school in Hamburg. When coeducation was abolished in 1937, Lafrenz moved to a convent school, where she and classmate Margaretha Rothe graduated in Easter 1938. Together with Rothe, Lafrenz began to study medicine at the University of Hamburg in the summer semester of 1939. After the semester she worked in Pomerania, where she met Alexander Schmorell who had begun studying in the summer of 1939 at the Hamburg University's Medical School but continued his studies from 1939/40 in Munich.

In May 1941 Lafrenz moved to Munich to study there, where she got to know Hans Scholl and Christoph Probst. In her opposition to the Nazi regime, she found inspiration in the writings of Rudolf Steiner. She attended many talks and discussions of the White Rose group, including those with Kurt Huber. In late 1942 she brought the third White Rose flyer to Hamburg and redistributed them via her former classmate Heinz Kucharski. When on 18 February 1943 Hans and Sophie Scholl were arrested in Munich University, Traute Lafrenz also was put under investigation by the Gestapo. She was arrested shortly afterwards on 15 March, together with Alexander Schmorell and Kurt Huber and sentenced to one year in prison on 19 April 1943. During her interrogation by the Gestapo Lafrenz succeeded in disguising the full extent of her involvement in the leaflet distribution. After her release she was arrested again by the Gestapo and imprisoned again.In 1947 she emigrated to the United States, completing her medical studies at Saint Joseph's Hospital in San Francisco, California. After moving to Chicago, she served from 1972 to 1994 as head of Esperanza School, a private, therapeutic day school serving students with developmental disabilities between the ages of 5 and 21. She has been involved in the anthroposophical movement in the United States for more than half a century. She is now retired and lives on Yonges Island near Meggett, South Carolina.

Weiße Rose (opera)

Weiße Rose (White Rose) is a chamber opera in one act by Udo Zimmermann. The opera tells the story of Hans and Sophie Scholl, a brother and sister in their early twenties, who were guillotined by the Nazis in 1943 for leading Die Weiße Rose, a non-violent resistance group. The opera premiered at the Dresden Conservatory on 17 June 1967 with a German libretto by the composer's brother, Ingo Zimmermann, a well known journalist and writer in Germany. The opera was received fairly well. Zimmermann revised it the following year for a professional production in Schwerin.

A completely new and less conventionally narrative opera with the same title and a libretto by Wolfgang Willaschek was premiered at the Hamburg State Opera on 27 February 1986 and was a success with both audience and critics. The opera became an international success and has had performances at many of the world's leading opera houses and with leading orchestras including the Vienna State Opera, Komische Oper Berlin, Zurich Opera, the Salzburg Festival, and the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra among many others. The United States premiere of the opera was presented by Opera Omaha in 1988 with soprano Lauren Flanigan as Sophie.

White Rose

The White Rose (German: die Weiße Rose) was a non-violent, intellectual resistance group in the Third Reich led by a group of students and a professor at the University of Munich. The group conducted an anonymous leaflet and graffiti campaign that called for active opposition to the Nazi party regime. Their activities started in Munich on 27 June 1942, and ended with the arrest of the core group by the Gestapo on 18 February 1943. They, as well as other members and supporters of the group who carried on distributing the pamphlets, faced show trials by the Nazi People's Court (Volksgerichtshof), and many of them were sentenced to death or imprisonment.

The group wrote, printed and initially distributed their pamphlets in the greater Munich region. Later on, secret carriers brought copies to other cities, mostly in the southern parts of Germany. In total, the White Rose authored six leaflets, which were multiplied and spread, in a total of about 15,000 copies. They denounced the Nazi regime's crimes and oppression, and called for resistance. In their second leaflet, they openly denounced the persecution and mass murder of the Jews. By the time of their arrest, the members of the White Rose were just about to establish contacts with other German resistance groups like the Kreisau Circle or the Schulze-Boysen/Harnack group of the Red Orchestra. Today, the White Rose is well-known both within Germany and worldwide.

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