Hans F. K. Günther

Hans Friedrich Karl Günther (16 February 1891 – 25 September 1968) was a German writer and eugenicist in the Weimar Republic and the Third Reich. He was also known as Race Günther (Rassengünther) or Race Pope (Rassenpapst). He is considered to have been a major influence on Nazi racialist thought. He taught at the universities of Jena, Berlin, and Freiburg, writing numerous books and essays on racial theory. Günther's Short Ethnology of the German People (1929) was a popular exposition of Nordicism. In May 1930, he was appointed to a new chair of racial theory at Jena. He joined the Nazi Party in 1932 as the only leading racial theorist to join the party before it assumed power in 1933.[1][2]

Hans F. K. Günther
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-1989-0912-500, Prof. Hans Günther
Hans F. K. Günther
Born
Hans Friedrich Karl Günther

16 February 1891
Died25 September 1968 (aged 77)
Freiburg, West Germany
NationalityGerman
Other namesRace Günther (Rassengünther) or Race Pope (Rassenpapst)
EducationAlbert Ludwigs University of Freiburg, University of Vienna
OccupationPhysician, writer, eugenicist
EmployerUniversity of Jena, University of Berlin, University of Freiburg
Known forNazi Eugenics, Scientific racism
Home townFreiburg
Political partyNational Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP)

Life and career

Hans F. K. Günther - Short Ethnology of the German People (1929) pp. 34-5
Pages 34-5 of Short Ethnology of the German People. On the left page (right of two) there is an image of Josef Stalin as representative of the Armenoid race while on the right page (bottom two of four) there are two images of Jews from Germany and Austria respectively, described as "mainly Near Eastern", which is also known as Armenoid.

Günther was the son of a musician. He studied comparative linguistics at Albert Ludwigs University in Freiburg, but also attended lectures on zoology and geography. In 1911, he spent a semester at the Sorbonne, Paris. He attained his doctorate in 1914. In the same year he enlisted in the infantry at the outbreak of World War I, but became sick and was hospitalized. He was declared unfit for combat, so to compensate for his inability to fight, he served with the Red Cross.

In 1919, after the end of the war, he started his writing career. He wrote a polemical work entitled "The Knight, death and the devil: the heroic idea", a reworking of the tradition of German Pagan-Nationalist Romanticism into a form of "biological nationalism". Heinrich Himmler was very impressed by this book. In 1922 Günther studied at the University of Vienna while working in a museum in Dresden. In 1923 he moved to Scandinavia to live with his second wife, who was Norwegian. He received scientific awards from the University of Uppsala and the Swedish Institute for Race Biology, headed by Herman Lundborg. In Norway he met Vidkun Quisling. In May 1930 he was appointed to the University of Jena by Wilhelm Frick who had become the first NSDAP minister in a state government when he was appointed minister of education in the right-wing coalition government formed in Thuringen following an election in December 1929. In 1935 he became a professor at the University of Berlin, teaching race science, human biology and rural ethnography. From 1940 to 1945 he was professor at Albert Ludwigs University.

He received several honors during the Third Reich, notably in 1935 he was declared "pride of the NSDAP" for his scientific work. In the same year he received the Rudolph Virchow plaque, and in 1940 the Goethe Medal for arts and science from Hitler. In March 1941, he was received as an honored guest for the opening conference of Alfred Rosenberg's "Institute for the Study of the Jewish Question". At the conference the obliteration of Jewish identity, or "people death" (Volkstod) of the Jews was discussed. Various proposals were made, including the "pauperization of European Jews and hard labor in massive camps in Poland". Günther's only recorded comment was that the meeting was boring.

After World War II, Günther was placed in internment camps for three years until it was concluded that, though he was a part of the Nazi system, he was not an instigator of its criminal acts, making him less accountable for the consequences of his actions. The University of Freiburg came to his defense at his post-war trial. Nevertheless, even after Nazi Germany's fall, he did not revise his thinking, denying the Holocaust until his death. In 1951 he published the book How to choose a husband in which he listed good biological qualities to look for in marriage partners. He continued to argue that sterilization should remain a legal option, and played down the mandatory sterilization used in Nazi Germany. Another eugenics book was published in 1959 in which he argued that unintelligent people reproduce too numerously in Europe, and the only solution was state-sponsored family planning.

Racial theories

Günther's theories arose from the Nordicist ideology prevalent at the time. Eugen Fischer, the professor of anthropology in Freiburg, was an influential proponent of these ideas and had lectured at Albert Ludwigs University when Günther studied there.

He wrote that a race could be identified in the following manner.

A race shows itself in a human group which is marked off from every other human group through its own proper combination of bodily and mental characteristics, and in turn produces only its like.[3]

This definition of "race" was used in Nazi propaganda.[4]

Günther in his writings was quick to mark out the distinction between "race" and "Volk". He acknowledged that both the Germans and Jews were not "races" in the strictest sense of the word but thought that it would cause no harm to refer to the latter as such in non-scientific popular racial works.[5] Similarly, he rejected the usage of "Aryan" and "Semitic" as racial terms (he argued they were only linguistic terms) and stated that regarding them as such would cause more problems in distinguishing between Germans and Jews.[5]

Günther described in a chapter of one of his works "Racial Characteristics of the Jewish People" that Jews belonged predominantly to the "Near Eastern Race".[6] He thought that Jews had become so racially mixed that they could possibly be regarded as a "race of the second order".[7] He described Ashkenazi Jews as being mixed of Near Eastern, Oriental, East Baltic, Inner-Asian, Nordic, Hamite, and Negro, and Sephardic Jews as being mixed of Oriental, Near Eastern, Western, Hamite, Nordic, and Negro.[8] He believed that Jews had different physical characteristics to Europeans.[7]

Günther in his 1927 book The Racial Elements of European History outlined the differences between racial and linguistic definitions: "We find, in general, the most confused notions as to how the European peoples are composed of various races. We often hear, for example, a 'white race' or a 'Caucasian race' spoken of, to which the Europeans are said to belong. But probably, were he asked, no one could tell us what its bodily characteristics are. It is, or should be, quite clear that a 'race' must be embodied in a group of human beings each of whom presents the same physical and mental picture. Physical and mental differences, however, are very great, not only within Europe (often called the home of the 'white' or 'Caucasian' race) and within each of the countries in it, but even within some small district in one of the latter. There is, therefore, no 'German race,' or 'Russian race,' or 'Spanish race.' The terms 'nation' and 'race' must be kept apart.

People may be heard speaking of a 'Germanic,' a 'Latin,' and a 'Slav' race; but it is at once seen that in those lands where Germanic, Romance, or Slav tongues are spoken there is the same bewildering variety in the outward appearance of their peoples, and never any such uniformity as suggests a race.

We see, therefore, that the human groups in question -- the 'Germans,' the 'Latins,' and the 'Slavs' -- form a linguistical, not a racial combination.

The following consideration will probably be enough to keep racial and linguistical grouping distinct from one another. Is a North American negro -- a man, that is, speaking American English, a Germanic tongue, as his own -- is he a German, taking this term in its wider meaning? The usual answer would be: No; for a German is tall, fair, and light-eyed. But now a fresh perplexity comes in: In Scotland are found many tall, fair, light-eyed men and women, speaking Keltic. Are there, then, Kelts who look like 'Germans'? It is from Kelts (according to a still prevalent belief in south Germany) that the dark, short people of Germany come. Many of the ancient Greeks and Romans are described as like Germans. Fair, light-eyed men and women are not seldom met with in the Caucasus. There are Italians of 'Germanic' appearance. I have taken the anthropometrical measurements of a Spaniard with this appearance. On the other hand, there are very many Germans, men belonging, that is, to a people speaking a Germanic tongue, who have no Germanic appearance whatever."[9]

Günther divided the European population into six races, the Nordic, Phalic, Eastern, Western, Dinaric and East Baltic. "Western" and "Eastern" were, in practice, alternatives for the more widely used terms "Mediterranean" and "Alpine". The "Phalic" race was a minor category dropped in many of his writings.[6]

Günther in his book Rassenkunde des deutschen Volkes (Racial Science of the German People) categorized Germans as belonging to the Nordic, Mediterranean, Dinaric, Alpine and East Baltic races.[6] In the book, he argued for Germans to avoid race mixing.[10]

Opposed to the Nordics were the Jews, who were "a thing of ferment and disturbance, a wedge driven by Asia into the European structure."[11] Günther argued that the Nordic peoples should unite to secure their dominance.

Although Günther seemed to admire Mediterraneans and Dinarics, as well as the highly praised Nordics, the East Baltic race was considered inferior in nearly every instance Günther mentioned it in his book, The Racial Elements of European History.

Günther believed Slavic people to be of an "Eastern race" separate from Germany and Nordics and warned about mixing "German blood" with Slavic one.[12]

Among Günther's disciples was Bruno Beger who, after an expedition to Tibet, concluded that the Tibetan peoples had characteristics that placed them between the Nordic and Mongol races, and were thus superior to other East Asians.

Influence on Hitler

Timothy Ryback, who examined the books retrieved from Adolf Hitler's private collection, notes that Hitler owned six books by Günther, four of which were different editions of Rassenkunde des deutschen Volkes.[13] These were given to him by Günther's publisher Julius Lehmann, who inscribed three of them. The earliest, a third edition from 1923, is for "the successful champion of German racial thinking," while the 1928 edition bears a "Christmas greeting." The 1933 sixteenth edition, with a detailed appendix on European Jews, shows signs of extended, sustained use. Lehmann dedicated it to "the trailblazer of racial thinking." Ryback notes that Hitler included Günther's book on a list of books recommended for all National Socialists to read.[14] When newly appointed Thuringian Education Minister Wilhelm Frick—the first NSDAP minister in government—appointed Günther to a chair in "Social Anthropology" at the University of Jena in 1930 (for which Jena professors considered him unqualified), Adolf Hitler and Hermann Göring demonstratively attended his inaugural lecture.

See also

References

  1. ^ Steinweis 2008, p. 26.
  2. ^ Donna F. Ryan, John S. Schuchman. 2002. Deaf People in Hitler's Europe. Gallaudet University Press p. 19
  3. ^ Gunther, Hans F. K., The Racial Elements of European History, translated by G. C. Wheeler, Methuen & Co. LTD, London, 1927, p. 3
  4. ^ "You and Your People (Volk)" [Du und dein Volk]. 1940.
  5. ^ a b Steinweis 2008, p. 29.
  6. ^ a b c Steinweis 2008, p. 28.
  7. ^ a b Steinweis 2008, p. 33.
  8. ^ Steinweis 2008, p. 32.
  9. ^ Hans F. K. Günther (1927). "REMARKS ON THE TERM 'RACE,' ON THE DETERMINATION OF FIVE EUROPEAN RACES, AND ON SKULL MEASUREMENT". The Racial Elements of European History.
  10. ^ Yeomans & Wendt 2013, p. 38.
  11. ^ Anne Maxwell, Picture Imperfect: Photography and Eugenics, 1870-1940, p. 153
  12. ^ Wulf D. Hund, Racisms Made in Germany, (2011), p. 19
  13. ^ Timothy Ryback, Hitler's Private Library: The Books that Shaped His Life (New York: Knopf, 2008), 110.
  14. ^ Timothy Ryback, Hitler's Private Library: The Books that Shaped His Life (New York: Knopf, 2008), 69. Ryback does not cite a source for this list, which may have been a book list distributed by Alfred Rosenberg's Kampfbund für deutsche Kultur. See Jan-Pieter Barbian, Literaturpolitik im Dritten Reich: Institutionen, Kompetenzen, Betätigungsfelder(Nördlingen, revised edition 1995), p. 56ff.
  • Christopher Hale Himmler's Crusade: the True Story of the 1938 Nazi Expedition into Tibet Bantam, 2004 ISBN 978-0-553-81445-3

Bibliography

  • Steinweis, Alan E (2008). Studying the Jew: Scholarly Antisemitism in Nazi Germany. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674027612.
  • Yeomans, Rory; Wendt, Anton Weiss (2013). Racial Science in Hitler's New Europe, 1938-1945. U of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-4605-6.

Further reading

  • Spiro, Jonathan P. (2009). Defending the Master Race: Conservation, Eugenics, and the Legacy of Madison Grant. Univ. of Vermont Press. ISBN 978-1-58465-715-6. Lay summary (29 September 2010).

External links

Alfred Ploetz

Alfred Ploetz (August 22, 1860 – March 20, 1940) was a German physician, biologist and eugenicist known for coining the term racial hygiene (Rassenhygiene) and promoting the concept in Germany. Rassenhygiene is a form of eugenics.

Alpine race

The Alpine race is a historical race concept defined by some late 19th-century and early 20th-century anthropologists as one of the sub-races of the Caucasian race. The origin of the Alpine race was variously identified. Ripley argued that it migrated from Central Asia during the Neolithic revolution, splitting the Nordic and Mediterranean populations. It was also identified as descending from the Celts residing in Central Europe in Neolithic times. The Alpine race is mainly distinguished by its cranial measurements, such as high cephalic index.

Armenoid race

In the racial anthropology of the early 20th century, the Armenoid type was a subtype of the Caucasian race. According to anthropologist Carleton Coon,questionable source the countries of the northern part of Western Asia, namely Armenia and the rest of the South Caucasus, Iran, Upper Mesopotamia, Southeastern Turkey, and the Levant, were considered the center of distribution of the Armenoid race.

Aryan race

The Aryan race is a racial grouping that emerged in the period of the late 19th century and mid-20th century to describe people of Indo-European heritage.The concept derives from the notion that the original speakers of the Indo-European languages and their descendants up to the present day constitute a distinctive race or subrace of the Caucasian race.

Dinaric race

The Dinaric race, also known as the Adriatic race, were terms used by certain physical anthropologists in the early to mid-20th century to describe the perceived predominant phenotype of the contemporary ethnic groups of southeast Europe (a sub-type of Caucasoid race).

East Baltic race

The East Baltic race is one of the subcategories of the Europid (Caucasian) race, into which it was divided by biological anthropologists and scientific racists in the early 20th century. Such racial typologies have been rejected by modern anthropology for several reasons.The term East Baltic race was coined by the anthropologist Rolf Nordenstreng, but was popularised by the race theorist Hans F. K. Günther. This race were living in Finland, Estonia and north-western Russia. It was characterized as "short-headed, broad-faced, with heavy, massive under-jaw, chin not prominent, flat, rather broad, short nose with low bridge; stiff, light (ash-blond) hair; light (grey or whitish blue) eyes, standing out; light skin with a greyish undertone.The American Eugenics Society described East Baltic people as being Mongolized.The Nazi philologist Josef Nadler declared the East Baltic race to be the main source of German Romanticism. Also in the Third Reich the philologist Julius Petersen wrote that Ludwig Tieck's Romanticism might have been promoted by his possible Slavic heritage, referring to the American biographer Edwin H. Zeydel's theory, that Tieck's grandmother was Russian.

Eastphalia

Eastphalia (German: Ostfalen; Eastphalian: Oostfalen) is a historical region in northern Germany, encompassing the eastern Gaue (shires) of the historic stem duchy of Saxony, roughly confined by the River Leine in the west and the Elbe and Saale in the east. The territory corresponds with the southeastern part of the present-day states of Lower Saxony, western Saxony-Anhalt and northern Thuringia. Together with Westphalia, central Angria and Nordalbingia it was one of the four main Saxon administrative regions. It should not be confused with East Westphalia (Ostwestfalen).

Egon Freiherr von Eickstedt

Egon Freiherr von Eickstedt (April 10, 1892 – December 20, 1965) was a German physical anthropologist who classified humanity into races.

Expert Committee on Questions of Population and Racial Policy

The Expert Committee on Questions of Population and Racial Policy (German: Sachverständigen-Beirat für Bevölkerungsfragen und Rassenpolitik) was a Nazi Germany committee formed on 2 June 1933 that planned Nazi racial policy. On July 14, 1933, the committee's recommendations were made law as the Law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring, or the "Sterilization Law".The committee was organized by Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick, and brought together many important Nazi figures on racial theory, including Ernst Rudin, Alfred Ploetz, Arthur Gutt, Heinrich Himmler, Fritz Thyssen, Fritz Lenz, Friedrich Burgdorfer, Walther Darre, Hans F. K. Günther, Charlotte von Hadeln, Bodo Spiethoff, Paul Schultze-Naumburg, Gerhard Wagner, and Baldur von Schirach.

February 16

February 16 is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 318 days remain until the end of the year (319 in leap years).

Hans Günther

Hans Günther may refer to:

Hans F. K. Günther (1891–1968), German race researcher and eugenicist in the Nazi Party

Hans Günther (SS officer) (1910–1945), officer of the Schutzstaffel (SS)

Hanns Günther, pen name of Walter de Haas, 19th century science writer

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Nazism and race

Nazism and race concerns the Nazi Party's adoption and further development of several hypotheses concerning their concept of race. Classifications of human races were made and various measurements of population samples were carried out during the 1930s.

Nordic race

The Nordic race was one of the putative sub-races into which some late-19th to mid-20th century anthropologists divided the Caucasian race. People of the Nordic type were mostly found in Scandinavia, Northwestern Europe, and countries surrounding the Baltic Sea, such as Germans and Finnic peoples. The psychological traits of Nordics were described as truthful, equitable, competitive, naïve, reserved and individualistic. Other supposed sub-races were the Alpine race, Dinaric race, Iranid race,

East Baltic race, and the Mediterranean race.

Nordicism is an ideology of racial separatism which views Nordics as an endangered and superior racial group, most notably outlined in Madison Grant's book The Passing of the Great Race, Arthur de Gobineau's An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races, and Houston Stewart Chamberlain's The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century. This ideology was popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in Northwestern, Central, and Northern European countries as well as in North America and Australia. The idea of the Nordic phenotype being superior to others was originally embraced as "Teutonicism" in Germany, "Anglo-Saxonism" in England and the United States, and "Gallicism" in France. The notion of the superiority of the "Nordic race" and the Northwestern European nations that were associated with this supposed race influenced the United States' Immigration Act of 1924 (which effectively banned or severely limited the immigration of Italians, Jews, and other Southern and Eastern Europeans) and the later Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 and it was also present in other countries outside Northwestern Europe such as Australia, Canada, and South Africa. By the 1930s, the Nazis claimed that the Nordic race was the most superior branch of the "Aryan race" and constituted a master race (Herrenvolk).

Northern League (United Kingdom)

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Roger Pearson formed the Northern League in collaboration with Peter Huxley-Blythe, who was active in a variety of neo-Nazi groups with connections in Germany and North America. The League published the periodical The Northlander.The stated purpose was to save the "Nordic race" from "annihilation of our kind" and to "fight for survival against forces which would mongrelize our race and civilization". The Northern League merged newsletters with Britons Publishing Company, an anti-Semitic publisher and a major distributor of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion.

Leading members of the Northern League included the Nazi racial eugenicist Hans F. K. Günther, who continued his work in the post-war period under a pseudonym. Other active members included the founder of Mankind Quarterly, Robert Gayre, and its editors Robert E. Kuttner and Donald A. Swan; the American segregationist Earnest Sevier Cox, the ex-Waffen SS officer and post-war neo-Nazi leader Arthur Ehrhardt, and a number of post-war British fascists, though even among fascists, the Northern League was considered extremist (Billig, 1979). Among its co-founders and activists were Alastair Harper, the United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP) parliamentary candidate in Dunfermline West in 2001.Northern League literature was written in the style of scientific racism (e.g., the work of Pearson's collaborator Raymond B. Cattell) and its Statement of Aims reflects 19th century conceptions of Rasse and Volk. Andrew S. Winston of the University of Guelph writes in an analysis of this group:

According to the "Aims", Northern Europeans are the "purest survival of the great Indo-European family of nations, sometimes described as the Caucasian race and at other times as the Aryan race". Almost all the "classic civilisations of the past were the product of these Indo-European peoples". Intermarriage with conquered peoples was said to produce the decay of these civilizations, particularly through interbreeding with slaves. "The rising tide of Color" threatens to overwhelm European society, and would result in the "biological annihilation of the sub-species", according to the Northern League.

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Stephen Goodson

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The Hoax of the Twentieth Century

The Hoax of the Twentieth Century: The Case Against the Presumed Extermination of European Jewry is a book by Northwestern University electrical engineering professor Arthur Butz. The book was first published in 1976 in the United Kingdom by Anthony Hancock’s Historical Review Press, known as a Holocaust denial publisher. An antisemitic work (Alan Davies described it as an "antisemitic classic"), it has been influential in the Holocaust denial movement.Butz argues that Nazi Germany did not exterminate millions of Jews using homicidal gas chambers during World War II but that the Holocaust was a propaganda hoax.The book has been banned in Canada and is X-rated in Germany where it cannot be displayed or advertised. In 2017, the online book seller Amazon.com removed the book, along with other holocaust-denying titles, from its US and UK sites. Barnes & Noble has also stopped selling the book online.

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