Hans-Georg Backhaus

Hans-Georg Backhaus (born 1929) is a German Marxian economist and philosopher. He is considered one of the most important theorists on the field of Marx's theory of value. He began a long-term cooperation with Helmut Reichelt already from his years of university studies.

Selected publications

Main work

  • Backhaus, Hans-Georg: Dialektik der Wertform. Untersuchungen zur Marxschen Ökonomiekritik. Freiburg i. Br. 1997.

Further publications

  • Hans-Georg Backhaus (1984). "Zur Marxschen 'Revolutionierung' und 'Kritik' der Ökonomie: Die Bestimmung ihres Gegenstandes als Ganzes 'verrückter Formen'". Mehrwert: Beiträge zur Kritik der politischen Ökonomie (in German). 25: 7–35.
  • Backhaus, Hans-Georg: Über den Doppelsinn der Begriffe „Politische Ökonomie“ und „Kritik“ bei Marx und in der Frankfurter Schule. In: Wolfgang Harich zum Gedächtnis. Eine Gedenkschrift in zwei Bänden. Hrsg. von Stefan Dornuf und Reinhard Pitsch. Bd. 2. München 2000, S. 12-213.


External links

Alfred Schmidt bibliography

The following is a list of the works by Alfred Schmidt, a 20th-century German philosopher, sociologist and critical theorist associated closely with the Frankfurt School. This list also includes information regarding his work as translator and editor.


Backhaus is a German surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Georg F. Backhaus, (born 1955), German agricultural scientist specializing in horticulture and phytomedicine

George Henry Backhaus (1811–82 Bendigo), Catholic priest

Gerd Backhaus (born 1942), German soccer player

Hans-Georg Backhaus (born 1929), German economist and philosopher

Heiner Backhaus (born 1982), German soccer player and manager

Helmuth M. Backhaus (1920–89), German actor, screenwriter and film director

Robin Backhaus (born 1955), American swimmer

Robin Backhaus (German swimmer) (born 1989), German freestyle swimmer

Till Backhaus (born 1959), German politician

Wilf K. Backhaus (1946–2009), Role-playing game designer, business professor, and lawyer

Wilhelm Backhaus, (1884-1969), German pianist

Character mask

In Marxist philosophy, a character mask (German: Charaktermaske) is a prescribed social role that serves to conceal the contradictions of a social relation or order. The term was used by Karl Marx in various published writings from the 1840s to the 1860s, and also by Friedrich Engels. It is related to the classical Greek concepts of mimesis (imitative representation using analogies) and prosopopoeia (impersonation or personification) as well as the Roman concept of persona, but also differs from them (see below). The notion of character masks has been used by neo-Marxist and non-Marxist sociologists, philosophers and anthropologists to interpret how people relate in societies with a complex division of labour, where people depend on trade to meet many of their needs. Marx's own notion of the character mask was not a fixed idea with a singular definition.

Gáspár Miklós Tamás

Gáspár Miklós Tamás (G. M. Tamás; Hungarian: Tamás Gáspár Miklós; born 28 November 1948), often referred to in the media as TGM, is a Hungarian marxist-anarcho-syndicalist philosopher and public intellectual. He writes primarily about political and aesthetic questions.


Hans-Georg may refer to:

Hans Georg Anscheidt (born 1935), Grand Prix motorcycle road racing World Champion

Hans Georg von Arnim-Boitzenburg (1583–1641), Field Marshal of Holy Roman Empire and the Electorate of Saxony, diplomat, and politician

Hans-Georg Aschenbach (born 1951), former East German ski jumper

Hans-Georg Backhaus (born 1929), German economist and philosopher

Hans Georg Berger, German-born photographer and writer who lives in Elba and in Laos

Hans-Georg Beyer (born 1956), former East German handball player who competed in the 1980 Summer Olympics

Hans Georg Bock (born 1948), German university professor for mathematics and scientific computing

Hans-Georg Bohle, German geographer and development researcher

Hans-Georg Borck (1921–2011), highly decorated Hauptmann in the Wehrmacht during World War II

Hans-Georg Bürger (1952–1980), racing driver from West Germany

Hans Georg Calmeyer (1903–1972), German lawyer who saved thousands of Jews from certain death during 1941 to 1945

Hans-Georg von Charpentier, Sturmbannführer (Major) in the Waffen SS during World War II

Hans-Georg Dallmer (born 1942), former East German pair skater who competed with partner Irene Müller

Hans Georg Dehmelt (born 1922), German-born American physicist, co-developer of the ion trap technique

Hans-Georg Dreßen (born 1964), retired German football player

Hans-Georg Dulz (born 1936), retired German football player

Hans Georg Feichtinger (born 1951), Austrian mathematician

Hans-Georg von Friedeburg (1895–1945), the deputy commander of the U-Boat Forces of Nazi Germany

Hans-Georg Gadamer (1900–2002), German philosopher of the continental tradition, best known for his 1960 work Truth and Method

Hans Georg Friedrich Groß, (1860–1924), German balloonist and airship constructor

Hans-Georg Herzog (1912–1959), highly decorated Oberstleutnant der Reserve in the Wehrmacht during World War II

Hans Georg Herzog (born 1915), Romanian field handball player of German origin who competed in the 1936 Summer Olympics

Hans-Georg Hess (1923–2008), German U-boat commander of the Second World War

Hans-Georg Jaunich (born 1951), former East German handball player who competed in the 1980 Summer Olympics

Hans-Georg Jörger (born 1903), German Olympic fencer

Hans Georg Klamroth (1898–1944), involved in the 20 July Plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler

Hans-Georg Kraus (born 1949), former professional German footballer

Hans-Georg Leyser (1896–1980), highly decorated Generalmajor in the Wehrmacht during World War II

Hans-Georg von der Marwitz, World War I flying ace credited with 15 aerial victories

Hans-Georg Moldenhauer (born 1941), former football goalkeeper

Hans Georg Nägeli (1773–1836), composer and music publisher

Hans-Georg von der Osten began his career as a World War I flying ace credited with five aerial victories

Hans-Georg Panczak (born 1952), German television actor and voice actor

Hans Georg Rupp (1907–1989), German judge

Hans-Georg Schierholz (1921–1986), highly decorated Oberfeldwebel in the Luftwaffe during World War II

Hans-Georg Schwarzenbeck (born 1948), retired German football player

Hans-Georg von Seidel (1891–1955), German military leader in the German Army during World War I and in the Luftwaffe during World War II

Hans Georg Jacob Stang (minister of defence) (1858–1907), the Norwegian Minister of Defence 1900–1902 and 1902–1903

Hans Georg Jacob Stang (prime minister) (1830–1907), the Norwegian Prime Minister in Stockholm 1888–1889

Hans Georg Stehlin (1870–1941), Swiss paleontologist and geologist

Hans-Georg Stephan (born 1950), German university professor specializing in European medieval archaeology and post-medieval archaeology

Hans-Georg Stümke (1941–2002), German author, teacher, historian and publisher

Hans-Georg Tersling (1857–1920), Danish architect who lived and worked for most of his life on the French Riviera

Hans Georg Vaupel (born 1934), German sculptor

Helmut Reichelt

Helmut Reichelt (born 1939, Borås) is a German Marxian economist, sociologist and philosopher. Reichelt is one of the main authors of the “Neue Marx-Lektüre” (new Marx reading) and considered to be one of the most important theorists in the field of Marx's theory of value.

He studied economics, sociology and philosophy in Frankfurt where Theodor W. Adorno supervised his diploma in 1968. In 1970 Reichelt obtained his Ph.D at the Institute for Social Research. In 1971 he became professor of sociology at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Frankfurt am Main. One year later he was also appointed as the dean of the philosophy department in Frankfurt.

On the initiative of Alfred Sohn-Rethel Reichelt accepted the Professorship for social theory at the department of Sociology at the University of Bremen in 1978. He remained in Bremen until his retirement in 2005.

Reichelt's research interests are the theory of society with special emphasis on the problems of the theory of economic value. Already during his time as a university student he began a long-term cooperation with Hans-Georg Backhaus. Together with Backhaus he considered engaging with economic phenomena and economic theory as fundamental for critical theory. Since 1998 Reichelt and Backhaus contributions have spawned a rich debate on theories of economic value and its relation to critical theory. Reichelt has published widely on Marx, on Adorno's social theory and on economic theory. Reichelt also oversaw an edition of Hegel's Philosophy of Right in the Ullstein Verlag. He is the current chair of the German Marx-Society.

Isaak Illich Rubin

Isaak Illich Rubin (Russian: Исаа́к Ильи́ч Ру́бин; 12 June 1886, in Dinaburg, now Latvia – 27 November 1937, in Aktobe, now Kazakhstan) was a Soviet Marxian economist. His main work Essays on Marx's Theory of Value was published in 1924. He was executed in 1937 during the course of the Great Purge, but his ideas have since been rehabilitated.

Jindřich Zelený

Jindřich Zelený (13 November 1922 – 11 September 1997) (translation: Henry Green) was a Czech philosopher and the author of several books.

List of Marxian economists

This is an alphabetical list of notable Marxian economists, that is, experts in the social science of economics that follow and develop Marxian economic theory. The list also includes some economic sociologists who have written from a Marxian perspective.

Neue Marx-Lektüre

Neue Marx-Lektüre (German for “New Marx Reading″) in its broader meaning refers to the reception of the economic theory of Karl Marx, which started in the mid-1960s in Western and partly Eastern Europe, in distinction from both Marxism-Leninism and Social Democracy. In its specific meaning, Neue Marx-Lektüre refers to a loose group of authors mainly from the German-speaking countries, who go beyond to revise a certain historising and empirical interpretation of Marx' analysis of economic forms which can be traced back to Friedrich Engels.

Open Marxism

Open Marxism is a school of thought which draws on libertarian socialist critiques of party communism and stresses the need for openness to praxis and history through an anti-positivist (dialectical) method grounded in the "practical reflexivity" of Karl Marx's own concepts. The "openness" in open Marxism also refers to a non-deterministic view of history in which the unpredictability of class struggle is foregrounded.The sources of open Marxism are many, from György Lukács' return to the philosophical roots of Marx's thinking to council communism and from anarchism to elements of Autonomism and situationism. Intellectual affinities with autonomist Marxism were especially strong and led to the creation of the journal The Commoner (2001–2012) following in the wake of previous open Marxist journals Arguments (1958–1962) and Common Sense (1987–1999). In the 1970s and 1980s, state-derivationist debates around the separation of the economic and the political under capitalism unfolded in the San Francisco-based working group Kapitalistate and the Conference of Socialist Economists journal Capital & Class, involving many of the theorists of Open Marxism and significantly influencing its theoretical development.Three volumes entitled Open Marxism were published by Pluto Press in the 1990s. Recent work by open Marxists has included a revaluation of Theodor W. Adorno. Those commonly associated with open Marxism include John Holloway, Simon Clarke, Werner Bonefeld, Ana C Dinerstein, Richard Gunn, Kosmas Psychopedis, Adrian Wilding, Peter Burnham, Mike Rooke, Hans-Georg Backhaus, Helmut Reichelt, Harry Cleaver, Johannes Agnoli, Kostas Axelos and Henri Lefebvre.

Tendency of the rate of profit to fall

The tendency of the rate of profit to fall (TRPF) is a hypothesis in economics and political economy, most famously expounded by Karl Marx in chapter 13 of Capital, Volume III. Economists as diverse as Adam Smith, John Stuart Mill, David Ricardo and Stanley Jevons referred explicitly to the TRPF as an empirical phenomenon that demanded further theoretical explanation, yet they each differed as to the reasons why the TRPF should necessarily occur.In his 1857 Grundrisse manuscript, Marx called the TRPF "the most important law of political economy" and sought to give a causal explanation for it in terms of his theory of capital accumulation. In Capital, Volume III, Marx described the TRPF as "the mystery around which the whole of political economy since Adam Smith revolves" and in a letter he called his own TRPF theory "one of the greatest triumphs" over all previous economics. The tendency is already foreshadowed in chapter 25 of Capital, Volume I (on the "general law of capital accumulation"), but in Part 3 of the draft manuscript of Marx's Capital, Volume III, edited posthumously for publication by Friedrich Engels, an extensive analysis is provided.Geoffrey Hodgson stated that the theory of the TRPF "has been regarded, by most Marxists, as the backbone of revolutionary Marxism. According to this view, its refutation or removal would lead to reformism in theory and practice". Stephen Cullenberg stated that the TRPF "remains one of the most important and highly debated issues of all of economics" because it raises "the fundamental question of whether, as capitalism grows, this very process of growth will undermine its conditions of existence and thereby engender periodic or secular crises".Marx regarded the TRPF as proof that capitalist production could not be an everlasting form of production since in the end the profit principle itself would suffer a breakdown. However, because Marx never published any finished manuscript on the TRPF himself, because the tendency is hard to prove or disprove theoretically and because it is hard to test and measure the rate of profit, Marx's TRPF theory has been a topic of global controversy for more than a century.


The value-form or form of value (German: Wertform) is a concept in Karl Marx's critique of political economy, Marxism, the Frankfurt School and post-Marxism. It refers to the social form of a tradeable thing as a symbol of value, which contrasts with its physical features, as an object which can satisfy some human need or serves a useful purpose. The physical appearance of a commodity is directly observable, but the meaning of its social form (as an object of value) is not.Narrating the paradoxical oddities and metaphysical niceties of ordinary things when they become instruments of trade, Marx seeks to provide a brief morphology of the category of economic value as such—what its substance really is, the forms which this substance takes, and how its magnitude is determined or expressed. He analyzes the forms of value in the first instance by considering the meaning of the value-relationship that exists between two quantities of commodities.


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