Hanoi

Hanoi (UK: /hæˈnɔɪ/,[3] US: /hɑː-/;[4] Vietnamese: Hà-nội [hàː nôjˀ] (listen))[5] is Vietnam's capital and second largest city by population (7.7 million in 2015). The city mostly lies on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is 1,720 km (1,070 mi) north of Ho Chi Minh City and 105 km (65 mi) west of Haiphong.

From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam. It was eclipsed by Huế, the imperial capital of Vietnam during the Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1945). In 1873 Hanoi was conquered by the French. From 1883 to 1945, the city was the administrative center of the colony of French Indochina. The French built a modern administrative city south of Old Hanoi, creating broad, perpendicular tree-lined avenues of opera, churches, public buildings, and luxury villas, but they also destroyed large parts of the city, shedding or reducing the size of lakes and canals, while also clearing out various imperial palaces and citadels.

From 1940 to 1945 Hanoi, as well as most of French Indochina and Southeast Asia, was occupied by the Japanese empire. On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). The Vietnamese National Assembly under Ho Chi Minh decided on January 6, 1946, to make Hanoi the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Vietnam, and it became the capital of a reunified Vietnam in 1976, after the North's victory in the Vietnam War.

October 2010 officially marked 1,000 years since the establishment of the city.[6] The Hanoi Ceramic Mosaic Mural is a 6.5 km (4.0 mi) ceramic mosaic mural created to mark the occasion.

On July 16, 1999, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) presented the title “City for Peace” to Hanoi.[7]

Hanoi

Thành phố Hà Nội
Ha Noi City
(from left) top: Temple of Literature, Turtle Tower; middle: Flag Tower of Hanoi, Hanoi Opera House, Long Biên Bridge; bottom: One Pillar Pagoda, Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum
Official seal of Hanoi

Seal
Nicknames: 
The City for Peace
The Capital of Thousand Years of Civilization
Little Paris of the East
Provincial location in Vietnam
Provincial location in Vietnam
Hanoi is located in Vietnam
Hanoi
Hanoi
Provincial location in Vietnam
Hanoi is located in Asia
Hanoi
Hanoi
Hanoi (Asia)
Hanoi is located in Earth
Hanoi
Hanoi
Hanoi (Earth)
Coordinates: 21°01′42″N 105°51′15″E / 21.02833°N 105.85417°ECoordinates: 21°01′42″N 105°51′15″E / 21.02833°N 105.85417°E
CountryVietnam
Central cityHà Nội
Central districtHoan Kiem and Ba Dinh
Foundation as capital of the Annam1010
Establishment as capital of Vietnam2 September 1945
Founded byLý Thái Tổ
DemonymHanoians
Government
 • Party's SecretaryHoàng Trung Hải
 • Chairman of People's CouncilNguyễn Thị Bích Ngọc
 • Chairman of People's CommitteeNguyễn Đức Chung
Area
 • Municipality3,328.9 km2 (1,292 sq mi)
 • Urban
319.56 km2 (123.38 sq mi)
 • Metro
24,314.7 km2 (9,388.0 sq mi)
Population
(2018)[1]
 • Municipality7,781,631
 • Rank2nd in Vietnam
 • Density2,300/km2 (6,000/sq mi)
 • Urban
3,642,131
 • Urban density14,708.8/km2 (38,096/sq mi)
 • Metro
16,100,000
 • Metro density662.1/km2 (1,715/sq mi)
GDP (nominal)
 (2018 estimate)
 • Total40.1 billion USD
 • Per capita5,080 USD[2]
 • GrowthIncrease 7.2%
Time zoneUTC+07:00 (ICT)
Area codes24
ClimateCwa
Websitewww.english.hanoi.gov.vn
Hanoi
Hanoi (Chinese characters)
"Hanoi" in chữ Hán
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese alphabetHà Nội
Chữ Hán河內

Names

Hanoi had many official and unofficial names throughout history.

  • During the Chinese occupation of Vietnam, it was known first as Long Biên (, "dragon edge"), then Tống Bình (, "Song peace") and Long Đỗ (, "dragon belly"). Long Biên later gave its name to the famed Long Biên Bridge, built during French colonial times, and more recently to a new district to the east of the Red River. Several older names of Hanoi feature long (, "dragon"), linked to the curved formation of the Red River around the city, which was symbolized as a dragon.[8]
  • In 866, it was turned into a citadel and named Đại La (, "big net"). This gave it the nickname La Thành (, "net citadel"). Both Đại La and La Thành are names of major streets in modern Hanoi.
  • When Lý Thái Tổ established the capital in the area in 1010, it was named Thăng Long (, "rising dragon"). Thăng Long later became the name of a major bridge on the highway linking the city center to Noi Bai Airport, and the Thăng Long Boulevard expressway in the southwest of the city center. In modern time, the city is usually referred to as Thăng Long – Hà Nội, when its long history is discussed.
  • During the Hồ dynasty, it was called Đông Đô (, "eastern metropolis").
  • During the Minh dynasty, it was called Đông Quan (, "eastern gate").
  • During the Lê dynasty, Hanoi was known as Đông Kinh (, "eastern capital"). This gave the name to Tonkin and Gulf of Tonkin. A square adjacent to the Hoàn Kiếm lake was named Đông Kinh Nghĩa Thục after the reformist Tonkin Free School under French colonization.
  • After the end of the Tây Sơn had expanded further south, the city was named Bắc Thành (, "northern citadel").
  • Minh Mạng renamed the city Hà Nội (, "inside (the) rivers") in 1831. This has remained its official name until modern times.
  • Several unofficial names of Hanoi include: Kẻ Chợ (marketplace), Tràng An (long peace), Hà Thành (short for Thành phố Hà Nội, "city of Hanoi"), and Thủ Đô (capital).

History

Pre-Thăng Long period

Hanoi has been inhabited since at least 3000 BC. The Cổ Loa Citadel in Dong Anh district[9] served as the capital of the Âu Lạc kingdom founded by the Thục emigrant Thục Phán after his 258 BC conquest of the native Văn Lang.

In 197 BC, Âu Lạc Kingdom was annexed by Nanyue, which ushered in more than a millennium of Chinese domination. By the middle of the 5th century, in the center of ancient Hanoi, the Liu Song Dynasty set up a new district (縣, huyện) called Songping (Tong Binh), which later became a commandery (郡, quận), including two districts Yihuai (義懷) and Suining (綏寧) in the south of the Red River (now Từ Liêm and Hoài Đức districts) with a metropolis (the domination centre) in the present inner Hanoi. By the year 679, the Tang dynasty changed the region's name into Annan (Pacified South), with Songping as its capital.[10]

In order to defeat the people's uprisings, in the later half of the 8th century, Zhang Boyi (張伯儀), a Tang dynasty viceroy, built Luocheng (羅城, La Thanh or La citadel, from Thu Le to Quan Ngua in present-day Ba Dinh precinct). In the earlier half of the 9th century, it was further built up and called Jincheng (金城, Kim Thanh or Kim Citadel). In 866, Gao Pian, the Chinese Jiedushi, consolidated and named it Daluocheng (大羅城, Dai La citadel, running from Quan Ngua to Bach Thao), the largest citadel of ancient Hanoi at the time.[10]

Thăng Long, Đông Đô, Đông Quan, Đông Kinh

In 1010, Lý Thái Tổ, the first ruler of the Lý Dynasty, moved the capital of Đại Việt to the site of the Đại La Citadel. Claiming to have seen a dragon ascending the Red River, he renamed the site Thăng Long (, "Soaring Dragon") – a name still used poetically to this day. Thăng Long remained the capital of Đại Việt until 1397, when it was moved to Thanh Hóa, then known as Tây Đô (西), the "Western Capital". Thăng Long then became Đông Đô (), the "Eastern Capital."

In 1408, the Chinese Minh Dynasty attacked and occupied Vietnam, changing Đông Đô's name to Dongguan (Chinese: , Eastern Gateway), or Đông Quan in Sino-Vietnamese. In 1428, the Vietnamese overthrew the Chinese under the leadership of Lê Lợi,[11] who later founded the Lê Dynasty and renamed Đông Quan Đông Kinh (, "Eastern Capital"-not Tokyo) or Tonkin. Right after the end of the Tây Sơn Dynasty, it was named Bắc Thành (, "Northern Citadel").

During Nguyễn Dynasty and the French colonial period

ExpositionHanoi1902 GrandPalais (1)
Grand Palais was built for the Hanoi Exhibition, as the city became the capital of French Indochina
TongDoc Hanoi 14-07-1884
People in Ha Noi, 1884
Viet Nam - Tonkin Hanoi Election d´un Chef de Rue
Postcard depicting election day in Hà Nội during French Indochina, around 1910
Vietnam1973.JPEG
Ha Noi, New Year's Day, 1973

When the Nguyễn Dynasty was established in 1802, Gia Long moved the capital to Huế. Thăng Long was no longer the capital, its Hán tự was changed from ("Rising dragon") to ("Ascent and prosperity"), aiming to reduce the sentiment of Lê dynasty.[12] Emperors of Vietnam usually used dragon ( long) as a symbol of their imperial strength and power. In 1831, the Nguyễn emperor Minh Mạng renamed it Hà Nội (, "Between Rivers" or "River Interior"). Hanoi was occupied by the French in 1873 and passed to them ten years later. As Hanoï, it was located in the protectorate of Tonkin became the capital of French Indochina after 1887.[11]

During two wars

The city was occupied by the Imperial Japanese in 1940 and liberated in 1945, when it briefly became the seat of the Viet Minh government after Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the independence of Vietnam. However, the French returned and reoccupied the city in 1946. After nine years of fighting between the French and Viet Minh forces, Hanoi became the capital of an independent North Vietnam in 1954.

During the Vietnam War, Hanoi's transportation facilities were disrupted by the bombing of bridges and railways. These were all, however, promptly repaired. Following the end of the war, Hanoi became the capital of a reunified Vietnam when North and South Vietnam were reunited on 2 July 1976.

Modern Hanoi

After the Đổi Mới economic policies were approved in 1986, the Communist Party and national and municipal governments hoped to attract international investments for urban development projects in Hanoi.[13] The high-rise commercial buildings did not begin to appear until ten years later due to the international investment community being skeptical of the security of their investments in Vietnam.[13] Rapid urban development and rising costs displaced many residential areas in central Hanoi.[13] Following a short period of economic stagnation after the 1997 Asian financial crisis, Hanoi resumed its rapid economic growth.[13]

On 29 May 2008, it was decided that Hà Tây Province, Vĩnh Phúc Province's Mê Linh District and 4 communes of Lương Sơn District, Hòa Bình Province be merged into the metropolitan area of Hanoi from 1 August 2008.[14] Hanoi's total area then increased to 334,470 hectares in 29 subdivisions[15] with the new population being 6,232,940.,[15] effectively tripling its size. The Hanoi Capital Region (Vùng Thủ đô Hà Nội), a metropolitan area covering Hanoi and 6 surrounding provinces under its administration, will have an area of 13,436 square kilometres (5,188 sq mi) with 15 million people by 2020.

Hanoi has experienced a rapid construction boom recently. Skyscrapers, popping up in new urban areas, have dramatically changed the cityscape and have formed a modern skyline outside the old city. In 2015, Hanoi is ranked # 39 by Emporis in the list of world cities with most skyscrapers over 100 m; its two tallest buildings are Hanoi Landmark 72 Tower (336 m, second tallest in Vietnam after Ho Chi Minh City's Landmark 81 and third tallest in south-east Asia after Malaysia's Petronas Twin Towers) and Hanoi Lotte Center (272 m, also, third tallest in Vietnam).

Public outcry in opposition to the redevelopment of culturally significant areas in Hanoi persuaded the national government to implement a low-rise policy surrounding Hoàn Kiếm Lake.[13] The Ba Đình District is also protected from commercial redevelopment.[13]

Geography

Location, topography

Hanoi is located in northern region of Vietnam, situated in the Vietnam's Red River delta, nearly 90 km (56 mi) away from the coastal area. Hanoi contains three basic kinds of terrain, which are the delta area, the midland area and mountainous zone. In general, the terrain is gradually lower from the north to the south and from the west to the east, with the average height ranging from 5 to 20 meters above the sea level. The hills and mountainous zones are located in the northern and western part of the city. The highest peak is at Ba Vi with 1281 m, located west of the city proper.

Climate

Hanoi SPOT 1120
Satellite view of Hanoi

Hanoi features a warm humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa) with plentiful precipitation.[16] The city experiences the typical climate of northern Vietnam, with four distinct seasons.[17] Summer, from May until August, is characterized by hot and humid weather with abundant rainfall.[17] September and October comprise the fall season, characterized by a decrease in temperature and precipitation.[17] Winter, from November to January, is dry and cool by national standards.[17] The city is usually cloudy and foggy in winter, averaging only 1.5 hours of sunshine per day in February and March.

Hanoi averages 1,612 millimetres (63.5 in) of rainfall per year, the majority falling from May to October. There are an average of 114 days with rain.[17]

The average annual temperature is 23.6 °C (74 °F), with a mean relative humidity of 79%.[17] The highest recorded temperature was 42.8 °C (109 °F) in May 1926, while the lowest recorded temperature was 2.7 °C (37 °F) in January 1955.[17]

Administrative divisions

Hà Nội is divided into 12 urban districts, 1 district-leveled town and 17 rural districts. When Hà Tây was merged into Hanoi in 2008, Hà Đông was transformed into an urban district while Sơn Tây degraded to a district-leveled town. They are further subdivided into 22 commune-level towns (or townlets), 399 communes, and 145 wards.

Bản đồ Hà Nội
Administrative divisions of Hanoi

List of local government divisions

Subdivisions of Hanoi
Provincial Cities/Districts[24] Wards[24] Area (km2)[24] Population[24]
1 town (Thị xã)
Sơn Tây TownHT 15 117,43 181,831
12 urban districts (Quận)
Ba Đình District 14 9.224 247,100
Bắc Từ Liêm District 13 43.35 333,300
Cầu Giấy District 8 12.04 266,800
Đống Đa District 21 9.96 420,900
Hai Bà Trưng District 20 10.09 318,000
Hà Đông DistrictHT 17 47.917 319,800
Hoàn Kiếm District 18 5.29 160,600
Hoàng Mai District 14 41.04 411,500
Long Biên District 14 60.38 291,900
Nam Từ Liêm District 10 32.27 236,700
Tây Hồ District 8 24 168,300
Thanh Xuân District 11 9.11 285,400
Subtotal 145 233.56 3,642,131
17 rural districts (Huyện)
Ba Vì DistrictHT 31 + 1 town 428.0 282,600
Chương Mỹ DistrictHT 30 + 2 towns 237,4 331,100
Đan Phượng DistrictHT 15 + 1 town 78.8 162,900
Đông Anh District 23 + 1 town 185.6 381,500
Gia Lâm District 20 + 2 towns 116.0 276,300
Hoài Đức DistrictHT 19 + 1 town 95.3 229,400
Mê Linh District 16 + 2 towns 142.26 226,800
Mỹ Đức DistrictHT 21 + 1 town 230.0 204,800
Phú Xuyên DistrictHT 26 + 2 towns 171.1 211,100
Phúc Thọ DistrictHT 25 + 1 town 113.2 182,300
Quốc Oai DistrictHT 20 + 1 town 136.0 (2001) 188,000
Sóc Sơn District 25 + 1 town 306.51 340,700
Thanh Trì District 15 + 1 town 63.4 256,800
Thanh Oai DistrictHT 20 + 1 town 129.6 205,200
Thạch Thất DistrictHT 22 + 1 town 128.1 207,500
Thường Tín DistrictHT 28 + 1 town 130.7 247,700
Ứng Hòa DistrictHT 28 + 1 town 188.72 204,800
Subtotal 399 + 22 towns 3,266.186 4,139,500
Total 559 + 22 towns 3,344.47 7,781,631

HT – formerly an administrative subdivision unit of the defunct Hà Tây Province

Demographics

Ao dai APEC
Vietnamese women wearing traditional costume Áo dài during APEC Summit 2006

Hanoi's population is constantly growing (about 3.5% per year), a reflection of the fact that the city is both a major metropolitan area of Northern Vietnam, and also the country's political centre. This population growth also puts a lot of pressure on the infrastructure, some of which is antiquated and dates back to the early 20th century.

The number of Hanoians who have settled down for more than three generations is likely to be very small when compared to the overall population of the city. Even in the Old Quarter, where commerce started hundreds of years ago and consisted mostly of family businesses, many of the street-front stores nowadays are owned by merchants and retailers from other provinces. The original owner family may have either rented out the store and moved into the adjoining house or moved out of the neighbourhood altogether. The pace of change has especially escalated after the abandonment of central-planning economic policies and relaxing of the district-based household registrar system.

Hanoi's telephone numbers have been increased to 8 digits to cope with demand (October 2008). Subscribers' telephone numbers have been changed in a haphazard way; however, mobile phones and SIM cards are readily available in Vietnam, with pre-paid mobile phone credit available in all areas of Hanoi.

Economy

Hanoi has the highest Human Development Index among the cities in Vietnam. According to a recent ranking by PricewaterhouseCoopers, Hanoi will be the fastest growing city in the world in terms of GDP growth from 2008 to 2025.[25] In the year 2013, Hanoi contributed 12.6% to GDP, exported 7.5% of total exports, contributed 17% to the national budget and attracted 22% investment capital of Vietnam. The city's nominal GDP at current prices reached 451,213 billion VND (21.48 billion USD) in 2013, which made per capita GDP stand at 63.3 million VND (3,000 USD).[26] Industrial production in the city has experienced a rapid boom since the 1990s, with average annual growth of 19.1 percent from 1991–95, 15.9 percent from 1996–2000, and 20.9 percent during 2001–2003. In addition to eight existing industrial parks, Hanoi is building five new large-scale industrial parks and 16 small- and medium-sized industrial clusters. The non-state economic sector is expanding fast, with more than 48,000 businesses currently operating under the Enterprise Law (as of 3/2007).[27]

West Hanoi
West Hanoi

Trade is another strong sector of the city. In 2003, Hanoi had 2,000 businesses engaged in foreign trade, having established ties with 161 countries and territories. The city's export value grew by an average 11.6 percent each year from 1996–2000 and 9.1 percent during 2001–2003. The economic structure also underwent important shifts, with tourism, finance, and banking now playing an increasingly important role. Hanoi's traditional business districts are Hoàn Kiếm, Hai Bà Trưng and Đống Đa; and newly developing Cầu Giấy and Nam Từ Liêm in the west.

Similar to Ho Chi Minh City, Hanoi enjoys a rapidly developing real estate market.[28] The current most notable new urban areas are central Trung Hòa Nhân Chính, Mỹ Đình, the luxurious zones of The Manor, Ciputra, Royal City in the Nguyễn Trãi Street (Thanh Xuân District) and Times City in the Hai Bà Trưng District.

Agriculture, previously a pillar in Hanoi's economy, has striven to reform itself, introducing new high-yield plant varieties and livestock, and applying modern farming techniques.[29]

After the economic reforms that initiated economic growth, Hanoi's appearance has also changed significantly, especially in recent years. Infrastructure is constantly being upgraded, with new roads and an improved public transportation system.[30] Hanoi has allowed many fast-food chains into the city, such as Jollibee, Lotteria, Pizza Hut, KFC, and others. Locals in Hanoi perceive the ability to purchase "fast-food" as an indication of luxury and permanent fixtures.[31]

Over three-quarters of the jobs in Hanoi are state-owned. 9% of jobs are provided by collectively owned organizations. 13.3% of jobs are in the private sector.[32] The structure of employment has been changing rapidly as state-owned institutions downsize and private enterprises grow.[32] Hanoi has in-migration controls which allow the city to accept only people who add skills Hanoi's economy.[32] A 2006 census found that 5,600 rural produce vendors exist in Hanoi, with 90% of them coming from surrounding rural areas. These numbers indicate the much greater earning potential in urban rather than in rural spaces.[31] The uneducated, rural, and mostly female street vendors are depicted as participants of "microbusiness" and local grassroots economic development by business reports.[31] In July 2008, Hanoi's city government devised a policy to partially ban street vendors and side-walk based commerce on 62 streets due to concerns about public health and "modernizing" the city's image to attract foreigners.[31] Many foreigners believe that the vendors add a traditional and nostalgic aura to the city, although street vending was much less common prior to the 1986 Đổi Mới policies.[31] The vendors have not able to form effective resistance tactics to the ban and remain embedded in the dominant capitalist framework of modern Hanoi.[33]

Development

Infrastructural development

A development master plan for Hanoi was designed by Ernest Hebrard in 1924, but was only partially implemented.[32] The close relationship between the Soviet Union and Vietnam led to the creation of the first comprehensive plan for Hanoi with the assistance of Soviet planners between 1981 and 1984.[34] It was never realized because it appeared to be incompatible with Hanoi's existing layout.[32]

In recent years, two master plans have been created to guide Hanoi's development.[32] The first was the Hanoi Master Plan 1990-2010, approved in April 1992. It was created out of collaboration between planners from Hanoi and the National Institute of Urban and Rural Planning in the Ministry of Construction.[32] The plan's three main objectives were to create housing and a new commercial center in an area known as Nghĩa Đô, expand residential and industrial areas in the Gia Lâm District, and develop the three southern corridors linking Hanoi to Hà Đông and the Thanh Trì District.[32] The end result of the land-use pattern was meant to resemble a five cornered star by 2010.[32] In 1998, a revised version of the Hanoi Master plan was approved to be completed in 2020.[32] It addressed the significant increase of population projections within Hanoi. Population densities and high rise buildings in the inner city were planned to be limited to protect the old parts of inner Hanoi.[32] A rail transport system is planned to be built to expand public transport and link the Hanoi to surrounding areas. Projects such as airport upgrading, a golf course, and cultural villages have been approved for development by the government.[32]

Hanoi is still faced with the problems associated with increasing urbanization. The disparity of wealth between the rich and the poor is a problem in both the capital and throughout the country.[32] Hanoi's public infrastructure is in poor condition. The city has frequent power cuts, air and water pollution, poor road conditions, traffic congestion, and a rudimentary public transit system. Traffic congestion and air pollution are worsening as the number of motor cycles increases. Squatter settlements are expanding on the outer rim of the city as homelessness rises.[32]

In the late 1980s, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Vietnamese government designed a project to develop rural infrastructure.[32] The project focused on improving roads, water supply and sanitation, and educational, health and social facilities because economic development in the communes and rural areas surrounding Hanoi is dependent on the infrastructural links between the rural and urban areas, especially for the sale of rural products.[32] The project aimed to use locally available resources and knowledge such as compressed earth construction techniques for building. It was jointly funded by the UNDP, the Vietnamese government, and resources raised by the local communities and governments. In four communes, the local communities contributed 37% of the total budget.[32] Local labor, community support, and joint funding were decided as necessary for the long-term sustainability of the project.[32]

Civil society development

Part of the goals of the dổi mới economic reforms was to decentralize governance for purpose of economic improvement. This led to the establishment of the first issue-oriented civic organizations in Hanoi. In the 1990s, Hanoi experienced significant poverty alleviation as a result of both the market reforms and civil society movements.[35] Most of the civic organizations in Hanoi were established after 1995, at a rate much slower than in Ho Chi Minh City.[36] Organizations in Hanoi are more "tradition-bound," focused on policy, education, research, professional interests, and appealing to governmental organizations to solve social problems.[37] This marked difference from Ho Chi Minh's civic organizations, which practice more direct intervention to tackle social issues, may be attributed to the different societal identities of North and South Vietnam.[38] Hanoi-based civic organizations use more systematic development and less of a direct intervention approach to deal with issues of rural development, poverty alleviation, and environmental protection. They rely more heavily on full-time staff than volunteers. In Hanoi, 16.7% of civic organizations accept anyone as a registered member and 73.9% claim to have their own budgets, as opposed to 90.9% in Ho Chi Minh City.[39] A majority of the civic organizations in Hanoi find it difficult to work with governmental organizations. Many of the strained relations between non-governmental and governmental organizations results from statism, a bias against non-state organizations on the part of government entities.[40]

Landmarks

Hanoi citadel 2
North gate of Hanoi Citadel from inside (19th century)

As the capital of Vietnam for almost a thousand years, Hanoi is considered one of the main cultural centres of Vietnam, where most Vietnamese dynasties have left their imprint. Even though some relics have not survived through wars and time, the city still has many interesting cultural and historic monuments for visitors and residents alike. Even when the nation's capital moved to Huế under the Nguyễn Dynasty in 1802, the city of Hanoi continued to flourish, especially after the French took control in 1888 and modeled the city's architecture to their tastes, lending an important aesthetic to the city's rich stylistic heritage. The city hosts more cultural sites than any other city in Vietnam,[41] and boasts more than 1,000 years of history; that of the past few hundred years has been well preserved.[42]

Old Quarter

The Old Quarter, near Hoàn Kiếm Lake, maintains most of the original street layout and some of the architecture of old Hanoi. At the beginning of the 20th century Hanoi consisted of the "36 streets", the citadel, and some of the newer French buildings south of Hoàn Kiếm lake, most of which are now part of Hoàn Kiếm district.[43] Each street had merchants and households specializing in a particular trade, such as silk, jewelry or even bamboo. The street names still reflect these specializations, although few of them remain exclusively in their original commerce.[44] The area is famous for its specializations in trades such as traditional medicine and local handicrafts, including silk shops, bamboo carpenters, and tin smiths. Local cuisine specialties as well as several clubs and bars can be found here also. A night market (near Đồng Xuân Market) in the heart of the district opens for business every Friday, Saturday, and Sunday evening with a variety of clothing, souvenirs and food.

Some other prominent places include the Temple of Literature (Văn Miếu), site of the oldest university in Vietnam which was started in 1010, the One Pillar Pagoda (Chùa Một Cột) which was built based on the dream of king Lý Thái Tông (1028-1054) in 1049, and the Flag Tower of Hanoi (Cột cờ Hà Nội). In 2004, a massive part of the 900-year-old Hanoi Citadel was discovered in central Hanoi, near the site of Ba Đình Square.[45]

Lakes

A city between rivers built on lowlands, Hanoi has many scenic lakes and is sometimes called the "city of lakes." Among its lakes, the most famous are Hoàn Kiếm Lake, West Lake/Hồ Tây, and Bảy Mẫu Lake (inside Thống Nhất Park). Hoàn Kiếm Lake, also known as Sword Lake, is the historical and cultural center of Hanoi, and is linked to the legend of the magic sword. West Lake (Hồ Tây) is a popular place for people to spend time. It is the largest lake in Hanoi, with many temples in the area. The lakeside road in the Nghi Tam – Quang Ba area is perfect for bicycling, jogging and viewing the cityscape or enjoying the lotus ponds in the summer. The best way to see the majestic beauty of a West Lake sunset is to view it from one of the many bars around the lake, especially from The Summit at Pan Pacific Hanoi (formally known as Summit Lounge at Sofitel Plaza Hanoi).

Colonial Hanoi

Hanoi opera house. Made as a copy of the Opera Garnier in Paris (22334215449)
Hanoi Opera House modeled on the Palais Garnier in Paris

Under French rule, as an administrative centre for the French colony of Indochina, the French colonial architecture style became dominant, and many examples remain today: the tree-lined boulevards (e.g. Phan Dinh Phung street) and its many villas, mansions, and government buildings. Many of the colonial structures are an eclectic mixture of French and traditional Vietnamese architectural styles, such as the National Museum of Vietnamese History, the Vietnam National Museum of Fine Arts and the old Indochina Medical College. Gouveneur-Général Paul Doumer (1898-1902) played a crucial role in colonial Hanoi's urban planning. Under his tenure there was a major construction boom.[46]

Notable French Colonial landmarks in Hanoi include:

Museums

Hanoi is home to a number of museums:

Tourism

Old and French quarters hanoi
Approximation of Hanoi's Old Quarter and French Quarters

Hanoi is sometimes dubbed the "Paris of the East" for its French influences.[47] With its tree-fringed boulevards, more than two dozen lakes and thousands of French colonial-era buildings, Hanoi is a popular tourist destination.

The tourist destinations in Hanoi are generally grouped into two main areas: the Old Quarter and the French Quarter(s). The "Old Quarter" is in the northern half of Hoàn Kiếm District with small street blocks and alleys, and a traditional Vietnamese atmosphere. Many streets in the Old Quarter have names signifying the goods ("hàng") the local merchants were or are specialized in. For example, "Hàng Bạc" (silver stores) still have many stores specializing in trading silver and jewelries.

Two areas are generally called the "French Quarters": the governmental area in Ba Đình District and the south of Hoàn Kiếm District. Both areas have distinctive French Colonial style villas and broad tree-lined avenues. The political center of Vietnam, Ba Đình has a high concentration of Vietnamese government headquarters, including the Presidential Palace, the National Assembly and several ministries and embassies, most of which used administrative buildings of colonial French Indochina. The One Pillar Pagoda, the Lycée du Protectorat and the Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum are also in Ba Dinh. South of Hoàn Kiếm's "French Quarter" has several French-Colonial landmarks, including the Hanoi Opera House, the Sofitel Legend Metropole Hanoi hotel, the National Museum of Vietnamese History (formerly the École française d'Extrême-Orient), and the St. Joseph's Cathedral. Most of the French-Colonial buildings in Hoan Kiem are now used as foreign embassies.

Since 2014, Hanoi has consistently been voted in the world's top ten destinations by TripAdvisor. It ranked 8th in 2014,[48] 4th in 2015[49] and 8th in 2016.[50] Hanoi is the most affordable international destination in TripAdvisor's annual TripIndex report. In 2017, Hanoi will welcome more than 5 million international tourists.

Entertainment

Thang Long Water Puppet Theatre 2
Performance of the water puppet theatre Thăng Long

A variety of options for entertainment in Hanoi can be found throughout the city. Modern and traditional theaters, cinemas, karaoke bars, dance clubs, bowling alleys, and an abundance of opportunities for shopping provide leisure activity for both locals and tourists. Hanoi has been named one of the top 10 cities for shopping in Asia by Water Puppet Tours.[51] The number of art galleries exhibiting Vietnamese art has dramatically increased in recent years, now including galleries such as "Nhat Huy" of Huynh Thong Nhat.

Nhà Triển Lãm at 29 Hang Bai street hosts regular photo, sculpture, and paint exhibitions in conjuncture with local artists and travelling international expositions.

A popular traditional form of entertainment is Water puppetry, which is shown, for example, at the Thăng Long Water Puppet Theatre.

Shopping

To adapt to Hanoi's rapid economic growth and high population density, many modern shopping centers and megamalls have been opened in Hanoi.

Major malls are:

  • Trang Tien Plaza, High-end Mall on Trang Tien street (right next to Hoàn Kiếm Lake), Hoàn Kiếm District
  • Vincom Center, a modern mall with hi-end CGV cineplex, Ba Trieu Street (just 2 km from Hoan Kiem lake), Hai Bà Trưng District
  • Parkson Department Store, Tây Sơn Street, Đống Đa District;
  • The Garden Shopping Center, Me Tri – Mỹ Đình, Nam Từ Liêm District
  • Indochina Plaza, Xuan Thuy street, Cầu Giấy District
  • Vincom Royal City Megamall, the largest underground mall in Asia with 230,000 square metres of shops, restaurants, cineplex, waterpark, ice skating rink; Nguyen Trai street (approx 6 km from Hoan Kiem Lake), Thanh Xuân District
  • Vincom Times City Megamall, another megamall of 230,000 square metres including shops, restaurants, cineplex, huge musical fountain on central square and a giant aquarium; Minh Khai street (approx 5 km from Hoan Kiem Lake), Hai Ba Trung district
  • Lotte Department Store, opened September 2014, Liễu Giai Street, Ba Đình District
  • Aeon Mall Long Bien opened last October 2015, Long Bien District

Cuisine

Hanoi has rich culinary traditions. Many of Vietnam's most famous dishes, such as phở, chả cá, bánh cuốn and cốm are believed to have originated in Hanoi. Perhaps most widely known is Phở—a simple rice noodle soup often eaten as breakfast at home or at street-side cafes, but also served in restaurants as a meal. Two varieties dominate the Hanoi scene: Phở Bò, containing beef and Phở Gà, containing chicken. Bún chả, a dish consisting of charcoal roasted pork served in a sweet/salty soup with rice noodle vermicelli and lettuce, is by far the most popular food item among locals. President Obama famously tried this dish at a Le Van Huu eatery with Anthony Bourdain in 2016, prompting the opening of a Bún chả restaurant bearing his name in the Old Quarter.

Vietnam's national dish phở has been named as one of the Top 5 street foods in the world by globalpost.[52]

Hanoi has a number of restaurants whose menus specifically offer dishes containing snake[53][54] and various species of insects. Insect-inspired menus can be found at a number of restaurants in Khuong Thuong village, Hanoi.[55] The signature dishes at these restaurant are those containing processed ant-eggs, often in the culinary styles of Thai people or Vietnam's Muong and Tay ethnic people.[56] Dog eating used to be popular in Hanoi in 1990s and early 2000s but is now dying out quickly due to strong objections.

Education

DHYDuoc
Indochina Medical College in the early 20th century, today the Hanoi Medical University

Hanoi, as the capital of French Indochina, was home to the first Western-style universities in Indochina, including: Indochina Medical College (1902) – now Hanoi Medical University, Indochina University (1904) – now Hanoi National University (the largest), and École Supérieure des Beaux-Arts de l'Indochine (1925) – now Hanoi University of Fine Art.

After the Communist Party of Vietnam took control of Hanoi in 1954, many new universities were built, among them, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, still the largest technical university in Vietnam. Recently ULIS (University of Languages and International Studies) was rated as one of the top universities in south-east Asia for languages and language studies at the undergraduate level.[57] Other universities that are not part of Vietnam National University or Hanoi University include Hanoi School for Public Health and Hanoi School of Agriculture and University of Transport and Communications.

Hanoi is the largest center of education in Vietnam. It is estimated that 62% of the scientists in the whole country are living and working in Hanoi.[58] Admissions to undergraduate study are through entrance examinations, which are conducted annually and open to everyone (who has successfully completed his/her secondary education) in the country. The majority of universities in Hanoi are public, although in recent years a number of private universities have begun operation. Thăng Long University, founded in 1988, by Vietnamese mathematics professors in Hanoi and France[59] was the first private university in Vietnam. Because many of Vietnam's major universities are located in Hanoi, students from other provinces (especially in the northern part of the country) wishing to enter university often travel to Hanoi for the annual entrance examination. Such events usually take place in June and July, during which a large number of students and their families converge on the city for several weeks around the intense examination period. In recent years, these entrance exams have been centrally coordinated by the Ministry of Education, but entrance requirements are decided independently by each university.

Although there are state owned kindergartens, there are also many private ventures that serve both local and international needs. Pre-tertiary (elementary and secondary) schools in Hanoi are generally state run, but there are also some independent schools. Education is equivalent to the K–12 system in the U.S., with elementary school between grades 1 and 5, middle school (or junior high) between grades 6 and 9, and high school from grades 10 to 12.

Education levels are much higher within the city of Hanoi in comparison to the suburban areas outside the city. About 33.8% of the labor force in the city has completed secondary school in contrast to 19.4% in the suburbs.[32] 21% of the labor force in the city has completed tertiary education in contrast to 4.1% in the suburbs.[32]

Reform

Country-wide educational change is difficult in Vietnam, due to the restrictive control of the government on social and economic development strategies.[60] According to Hanoi government publications, the national system of education was reformed in 1950, 1956 and 1970.[60] It was not until 1975 when the two separate education systems of the former North and South Vietnam territories became unified under a single national system.[60] In Hanoi in December 1996, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam stated that: "To carry out industrialization and modernization successfully, it is necessary to develop education and training strongly [and to] maximize human resources, the key factor of fast and sustained development."[60]

Transport

Hanoi, Noi Bai International Airport
Inside International Terminal
Bach Mai Communist propaganda in 2015 05
Traffic in Hanoi

Hanoi is served by Noi Bai International Airport, located in the Soc Son District, approximately 15 km (9 mi) north of Hanoi. The new international terminal (T2), designed and built by Japanese contractors, opened in January 2015 and is a big facelift for Noibai International Airport. In addition, a new highway and the new Nhat Tan cable-stay bridge connecting the airport and the city center opened at the same time, offering much more convenience than the old road (via Thanglong bridge). Taxis are plentiful and usually have meters, although it is also common to agree on the trip price before taking a taxi from the airport to the city centre.

Hanoi is also the origin or departure point for many Vietnam Railways train routes in the country. The Reunification Express (tàu Thống Nhất) runs from Hanoi to Ho Chi Minh City from Hanoi station (formerly Hang Co station), with stops at cities and provinces along the line. Trains also depart Hanoi frequently for Hai Phong and other northern cities. The Reunification Express line was established during French colonial rule and was completed over a period of nearly forty years, from 1899 to 1936.[61] The Reunification Express between Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City covers a distance of 1,726 km (1,072 mi) and takes approximately 33 hours.[62] As of 2005, there were 278 stations on the Vietnamese railway network, of which 191 were located along the North-South line.

The main means of transport within Hanoi city are motorbikes, buses, taxis, and a rising number of cars. In recent decades, motorbikes have overtaken bicycles as the main form of transportation. Cars however are probably the most notable change in the past five years as many Vietnamese people purchase the vehicles for the first time. The increased number of cars are the main cause gridlock as roads and infrastructure in the older parts of Hanoi were not designed to accommodate them.[63] On 4 July 2017, the Hanoi government voted to ban motorbikes entirely by 2030, in order to reduce pollution, congestion, and encourage the expansion and use of public transport.[64]

There are two metro lines under construction in Hanoi now, as part of the master plan for the future Hanoi Metro system.[65] The first line is expected to be operational in 2018, and the second in 2021.

Persons on their own or traveling in a pair who wish to make a fast trip around Hanoi to avoid traffic jams or to travel at an irregular time or by way of an irregular route often use "xe ôm" (literally, "hug bike"). Motorbikes can also be rented from agents within the Old Quarter of Hanoi, although this falls inside a rather grey legal area.[66]

Sports

My dinh stadium
Mỹ Đình National Stadium

There are several gymnasiums and stadiums throughout the city of Hanoi. The biggest ones are Mỹ Đình National Stadium (Lê Đức Thọ Boulevard), Quan Ngua Sporting Palace (Văn Cao Avenue), Hanoi Aquatics Sports Complex and Hanoi Indoor Games Gymnasium. The others include Hàng Đẫy Stadium. The third Asian Indoor Games were held in Hanoi in 2009. The others are Hai Bà Trưng Gymnasium, Trịnh Hoài Đức Gymnasium, Vạn Bảo Sports Complex.

On November 6, 2018, it was announced that in 2020, Hanoi would become the host of the first FIA Formula 1 Vietnamese Grand Prix on a street circuit on the outskirts of the city.[67]

Health care and other facilities

Some medical facilities in Hanoi:

City for Peace

On July 16, 1999, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) presented the title “City for Peace” to Hanoi because the city met the following criteria: Exemplary action against exclusion and in support of the dialogue between communities; Exemplary urban action; Exemplary environmental action; Exemplary action to promote culture; Exemplary action in the field of education and especially civic education.[68]

Hanoi is the only city in Asia-Pacific that was granted this title.

2019 North Korea–United States Hanoi Summit in Hanoi, Vietnam once again proved the desert of this title.

International relations

Hanoi is a member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21 and the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group.

Twin towns and sister cities

Hanoi is twinned with:

Image gallery

Pen Tower in Hanoi

Tháp Bút (Pen Tower) with a phrase "Tả thanh thiên" (meaning "Write on the sky") next to Hoàn Kiếm Lake (2007)

Cau The Huc (Pont du soleil levant)

Thê Húc Bridge on Hoàn Kiếm Lake

Presidential Palace Hanoi 388606781 40a24f0ceb

Presidential Palace, Hanoi (formerly Place of The Governor-General of French Indochina)

Hanoi opera house. Made as a copy of the Opera Garnier in Paris (22334215449)

Hanoi Opera House modeled on the Palais Garnier in Paris

St. Joseph's Cathedral - Hanoi, Vietnam

The St-Joseph Cathedral

Bao tang my thuat

National Museum of Fine Art

See also

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Bibliography

  • Boudarel, Georges (2002). Hanoi: City Of The Rising Dragon. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7425-1655-7.
  • Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David: Vietnam Past and Present: The North (History and culture of Hanoi and Tonkin). Chiang Mai. Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ASIN: B006DCCM9Q.
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External links

2019 North Korea–United States Hanoi Summit

The 2019 North Korea–United States Hanoi Summit, commonly known as the Hanoi Summit, was a two-day summit meeting between North Korean Chairman Kim Jong-un and U.S. President Donald Trump, held at the Metropole Hotel in Hanoi, Vietnam, on February 27–28, 2019. This was the second meeting between the leaders of the DPRK and the United States, following the first meeting in June 2018 in Singapore.

On February 28, 2019, the White House announced that the summit was cut short and that no agreement was reached. Trump later elaborated that it was because North Korea wanted an end to all sanctions. North Korean Foreign Minister Ri Yong-ho asserted that the country only sought a partial lifting of five United Nations sanctions placed on North Korea during 2016–17.

Bun cha

Bún chả (Vietnamese: [ɓǔn ca᷉ː]) is a Vietnamese dish of grilled pork and noodle, which is thought to have originated from Hanoi, Vietnam. Bún chả is served with grilled fatty pork (chả) over a plate of white rice noodle (bún) and herbs with a side dish of dipping sauce. The dish was described in 1959 by Vietnamese food writer Vu Bang (1913–1984) who described Hanoi as a town "transfixed by bún chả." Hanoi's first bún chả restaurant was on Gia Ngư, Hoàn Kiếm District, in Hanoi's Old Quarter.Bún chả originated and remains very popular in Hanoi. Outside Hanoi, across all regions of Vietnam, a similar dish of rice vermicelli and grilled meat called bún thịt nướng is alternately served.

Hanoi FC

Hanoi Football Club (Vietnamese: Câu lạc bộ Bóng đá Hà Nội) or simply Hanoi FC (Vietnamese: Hà Nội FC) is a professional football club based in Hanoi, Vietnam. The club currently plays in the V.League 1. Hanoi FC was founded in 2006 as T&T Hanoi Football Club, renamed to Hanoi T&T Football Club in 2010 and finally to its current name in 2016. The club has participated in the V.league 1 since the 2009 season.

Hanoi Metro

The Hanoi Metro (Vietnamese: Dự án Đường sắt đô thị Hà Nội) is a rapid transit system, including elevated and underground sections, serves in and around Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam, operating by Hanoi Metro Company (HMC). It will be the first rapid transit system of Vietnam.

The first phase of the system, Line 2A Cat Linh - Ha Dong (Cát Linh Line) and Line 3: Nhon - Hanoi Station (Văn Miếu Line) is under-construction. Line 2A will commence operations in 2019, while Line 3 is projected to begin operations in 2023. The construction period has been beset with financial difficulties, slow construction progress and industrial accidents.The system will eventually consist of 8 lines with a total length of 318 km. Initially, the operator is expected to carry 200,000 passengers per day.

Hanoi Rocks

Hanoi Rocks was a Finnish rock band formed in 1979. They were the first Finnish band to chart in the UK and they were also popular in Japan. The band broke up in June 1985 after the drummer Nicholas "Razzle" Dingley died in a car accident during their first US tour in December 1984. Original vocalist Michael Monroe and guitarist Andy McCoy reunited in 2001 with a new lineup that lasted until 2009. Although musically closer to traditional rock n' roll and punk, the band have been cited as a major influence in the glam metal genre for bands such as Guns N' Roses, Skid Row and Poison.

According to Finnish radio and TV personality Jone Nikula, who was the band's tour manager in the 2000s, Hanoi Rocks's albums have sold between 780,000 and 1,000,000 copies around the world, but mostly in Scandinavia and Japan.

Hanoi Sign Language

Hanoi Sign Language is the deaf-community sign language of the city of Hanoi in Vietnam. It is about 50% cognate with the other sign languages of Vietnam, and its vocabulary has been extensively influenced by the French Sign Language once taught in Vietnamese schools for the deaf.

Hanoi Stock Exchange

Hanoi Stock Exchange (HNX), formerly the Hanoi Securities Trading Center (Hanoi STC) located in Hanoi, Vietnam, was launched in March 2005 and handles auctions and trading of stocks and bonds. The Hanoi STC was renamed in 2009 to the Hanoi Stock Exchange. It was the second securities trading center to open in Vietnam after to Ho Chi Minh City Securities Trading Center.

At the end of 2006, combined market capitalization of both Ho Chi Minh City Securities Trading Center and Hanoi Securities Trading Center is 14 billion USD, or 22.7% the GDP of Vietnam.

Foreign investors are also permitted to invest up to a limit of 49% ownership of companies except 30% in banks.

On 18 May 2015, the HNX joined the United Nations Sustainable Stock Exchanges (SSE) initiative as part the SSE's regional dialogue in Bangkok hosted by the Stock Exchange of Thailand.

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From 2020, HNX will serve as Vietnam’s bonds exchange while all stock tradings will be transferred to HOSE.

Hỏa Lò Prison

Hỏa Lò Prison (Vietnamese: [hwa᷉ː lɔ̂]) was a prison used by the French colonists in French Indochina for political prisoners, and later by North Vietnam for U.S. prisoners of war during the Vietnam War. During this later period it was known to American POWs as the Hanoi Hilton. The prison was demolished during the 1990s, although the gatehouse remains as a museum.

Jane Fonda

Jane Seymour Fonda (born December 21, 1937) is an American actress, writer, producer, political activist, fitness guru, and former fashion model. She is the recipient of various accolades including two Academy Awards, two BAFTA Awards, four Golden Globe Awards, a Primetime Emmy Award, the AFI Life Achievement Award, and the Honorary Golden Lion.Born to actor Henry Fonda and socialite Frances Ford Seymour, Fonda made her acting debut with the 1960 Broadway play There Was a Little Girl, for which she received a nomination for the Tony Award for Best Featured Actress in a Play, and made her screen debut later the same year with the romantic comedy Tall Story. She rose to prominence in 1960s with such films as Period of Adjustment (1962), Sunday in New York (1963), Cat Ballou (1965), Barefoot in the Park (1967) and Barbarella (1968). Her first husband was Barbarella director Roger Vadim. A seven-time Academy Award nominee, she received her first nomination for They Shoot Horses, Don't They? (1969) and went on to win two Best Actress Oscars in the 1970s for Klute (1971) and Coming Home (1978). Her other nominations were for Julia (1977), The China Syndrome (1979), On Golden Pond (1981) and The Morning After (1986). Consecutive hits Fun with Dick and Jane (1977), California Suite (1978), The Electric Horseman (1979) and 9 to 5 (1980) sustained Fonda's box-office drawing power, and she won an Primetime Emmy Award for her performance in the 1984 TV film The Dollmaker.

In 1982, she released her first exercise video, Jane Fonda's Workout, which became the highest-selling VHS of all time. It would be the first of 22 workout videos released by her over the next 13 years which would collectively sell over 17 million copies. Divorced from second husband Tom Hayden, she married billionaire media mogul Ted Turner in 1991 and retired from acting, following a row of commercially unsuccessful films concluded by Stanley & Iris (1990). Fonda divorced Turner in 2001 and returned to the screen with the 2005 hit Monster-in-Law. Though Georgia Rule (2007) was the star's only other movie during the 2000s, in the early 2010s she fully re-launched her career. Subsequent films have included The Butler (2013), This Is Where I Leave You (2014), Youth (2015), Our Souls at Night (2017) and Book Club (2018). In 2009, she returned to Broadway after a 49-year absence from the stage, in the play 33 Variations which earned her a nomination for the Tony Award for Best Actress in a Play, while her major recurring role in the HBO drama series The Newsroom (2012–2014) earned her two Primetime Emmy Award nominations. She also released another five exercise videos between 2010 and 2012. Fonda currently stars in the Netflix original series Grace and Frankie, which premiered in 2015 and has brought her nominations for a Primetime Emmy Award and three Screen Actors Guild Awards.

Fonda was a visible political activist in the counterculture era during the Vietnam War and later became involved in advocacy for women. She was famously and controversially photographed sitting on a North Vietnamese anti-aircraft gun on a 1972 visit to Hanoi, during which she became widely known under the nickname "Hanoi Jane". During this time, she was effectively blacklisted in Hollywood. She has also protested the Iraq War and violence against women, and describes herself as a feminist. In 2005, along with Robin Morgan and Gloria Steinem, she co-founded the Women's Media Center, an organization that works to amplify the voices of women in the media through advocacy, media and leadership training, and the creation of original content. Fonda serves on the board of the organization.

Keangnam Hanoi Landmark Tower

AON Hanoi Landmark Tower (or AON Landmark 72) is a Mixed-use supertall skyscraper in Pham Hung Boulevard, Nam Từ Liêm district, Hanoi, Vietnam. The complex consists of one 72-story Mixed-use tower with the height of 350 m and two 48-storey hotel twin towers. Landmark 72 is located on an area of 46,054 m2 and the total floor area is 609,673 m2, ranked 5th as the largest floor area of a single building in the world. The investor as well as the executor and operator of this complex is the South Korea-based company named Keangnam Enterprises, Ltd. The investment capital for this complex is estimated $1.05 billion USD.On November 2010, the main tower reached approximately 300 metres, making it the tallest building and structure in Vietnam. On 24 January 2011, the main tower topped out at 350 metres; it became the tallest building in Vietnam while the other two towers had topped out months before with the height of 212 metres.

The complex features a 5-star InterContinental hotel, offices, entertainment areas, retail spaces, clinics and convention centres. The complex opened for business on 18 May 2012. Landmark 72 is the world’s 35th-highest building and the highest in Indochina Peninsula. Keangnam Enterprises indirectly owned a 70-percent stake in Landmark 72. The company invested over US$ 1 billion with US$ 510 million borrowed from banks.On 11 June 2008, an agreement was signed between the building owner and the InterContinental Hotels Group to operate the 359-room hotel under InterContinental Hanoi Landmark 72 with 9 Hotel Floors from 62nd Floor to 70th Floor (Hotel Club Lounge located on the 71st Floor).

Landmark 72 is the site of Vietnam’s highest stair climbing race, the Vietnam Landmark 72 Hanoi Vertical Run. On 30 September 2012, runners competed for the first time to be the fastest to ascend the tower's 1,914 steps.

It was reported in early 2016 that a Vietnamese court valued the complex at US$ 770 million in May 2015 and AON Holdings from South Korea would take over the bank loan by paying US$ 373.4 million to become the majority owner.In early 2017, it emerged that a bribery scheme related to a proposed sale of Landmark 72 building complex in 2014 led to the arrest and charge of former U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon's nephew and charge of Ban's brother, Ban Ki-sang, an executive of South Korean firm Keangnam Enterprises Co Ltd. In 2013, Keangnam was facing a liquidity crisis and intended to refinance or sale of the complex. When the 'deal' eventually fell through, Keangnam entered into court receivership in South Korea. A third element to the scheme was Malcolm Albert Harris, a self proclaimed New York City fashion designer who pled guilty to stealing five-hundred-thousand dollars as part of a phony negotiation to sell Landmark 72 to a Qatari royal.

List of Asian Indoor Games records in athletics

The Asian Indoor Games is a biennial event which began in 2005. The Olympic Council of Asia accepts only athletes who are representing one of the organisation's member states (most of which are within Asia) and recognises records set at editions of the Asian Indoor Games. The Games records in athletics are the best marks set in competitions at the Games.

List of tallest buildings in Vietnam

This list of tallest buildings in Vietnam ranks skyscrapers in Vietnam by height. The tallest building in Vietnam is the 81-storey Landmark 81 in Ho Chi Minh City, which was completed in 2018 at the height of 461.5 meters (1,514 ft). It is the fourteenth tallest building in the world.Skyscrapers of Ha Noi are scattered across the western and southern parts of the city, most notably in Nam Từ Liêm, Cầu Giấy, Thanh Xuân and Hoàng Mai districts. This is due to the fact that the city center around Hoàn Kiếm district has a height restriction to preserve the old traditional and French Colonial architecture. Skyscrapers of Ho Chi Minh City, on the other hand, mostly gather around the city center in District 1, District 7 and Bình Thạnh.

Michael Monroe

Matti Antero Kristian Fagerholm (born 17 June 1962 in Helsinki), best known by his stage name, Michael Monroe, is a Finnish rock musician and multi-instrumentalist who rose to fame as the vocalist for the glam punk band Hanoi Rocks, and has served as the frontman for all-star side projects, such as Demolition 23 and Jerusalem Slim (with Steve Stevens).

Noi Bai International Airport

Nội Bài International Airport (IATA: HAN, ICAO: VVNB) (Vietnamese: Sân Bay Quốc Tế Nội Bài) in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam, is the largest airport in Vietnam in terms of total capacity. It is also the second busiest airport in Vietnam after Tan Son Nhat International Airport. It is the main airport serving Hanoi, replacing the role of Gia Lam Airport. The airport consists of two passenger terminals. Terminal 1 serves domestic flights, and the newly-built Terminal 2 (inaugurated on 4 January 2015) serves all international flights to and from Hanoi. The airport is currently the main hub of the country's flag carrier Vietnam Airlines, as well as a major hub of low-cost carriers Vietjet Air and Jetstar Pacific.

The airport is located in Phu Minh Commune in Sóc Sơn District, about 35 kilometres (21 miles) northeast of downtown Hanoi, via the new Nhật Tân Bridge (also inaugurated on 4 January 2015). It can also be reached by National Road 3, which connects it with the eastern suburbs of Hanoi. The airport is also close to some satellite cities of Hanoi such as Vĩnh Yên, Bắc Ninh and Thái Nguyên.

The airport served a total of 13 million passengers in 2013, despite having a capacity of only 9 million at the time. The new international terminal, which had its first commercial flight on 25 December 2014 and went into full operation on 31 December 2014, has boosted the airport's total capacity to 20 million passengers per year.

Sơn Tây, Hanoi

Sơn Tây (listen) is a provincial town ("thị xã") in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam. It was the capital of Son Tay province before merging with Ha Dong province to form Hà Tây province in 1965. Son Tay lies 35 km west of the capital Hanoi. It had a city status in Hà Tây province. However, when Hà Tây was absorbed into Hanoi, Sơn Tây was demoted from a city to a town.

It is often referred to as “soldier town” due to the proliferation of army barracks and military institutions that surrounds the town, including the Vietnamese People's Army Infantry Academy.

Sơn Tây's future is seen as being very much that of a satellite city of Hanoi and as a result there are plans to relocate universities and other public facilities to Son Tay where land is cheaper and more plentiful. The government have commenced this ambitious program by duplicating the main Hanoi—Sơn Tây carriageway which was expected to be completed in 2009.

Terry Chimes

Terence "Terry" Chimes (born 5 July 1956, Stepney, London, England) is an English musician, best known as the original drummer of punk rock group The Clash. He originally played with them from July 1976 to November 1976, January 1977 to April 1977, and again from May 1982 to February 1983. He later drummed for Hanoi Rocks in 1985, before the band broke up that same year. He briefly toured with Black Sabbath from July 1987 through December 1987, and in a one-off gig in May 1988. He also appeared as their drummer in Black Sabbath's music video for their single "The Shining" from their 1987 album The Eternal Idol.

Tower of Hanoi

The Tower of Hanoi (also called the Tower of Brahma or Lucas' Tower and sometimes pluralized) is a mathematical game or puzzle. It consists of three rods and a number of disks of different sizes, which can slide onto any rod. The puzzle starts with the disks in a neat stack in ascending order of size on one rod, the smallest at the top, thus making a conical shape.

The objective of the puzzle is to move the entire stack to another rod, obeying the following simple rules:

Only one disk can be moved at a time.

Each move consists of taking the upper disk from one of the stacks and placing it on top of another stack or on an empty rod.

No larger disk may be placed on top of a smaller disk.With 3 disks, the puzzle can be solved in 7 moves. The minimal number of moves required to solve a Tower of Hanoi puzzle is 2n − 1, where n is the number of disks.

Vietnam National University, Hanoi

Vietnam National University, Hanoi (Vietnamese: Đại học Quốc gia Hà Nội) is a public university in Vietnam. The university has 10 colleges and faculties. This is a national university, and it is also one of the most prestigious universities in Vietnam, ranked 139 in Asia by the QS World Rankings.

Vietnamese phonology

This article is a technical description of the sound system of the Vietnamese language, including phonetics and phonology. Two main varieties of Vietnamese, Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), are described below.

Climate data for Hanoi
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 32.0
(89.6)
34.7
(94.5)
37.2
(99.0)
39.0
(102.2)
42.8
(109.0)
42.5
(108.5)
40.1
(104.2)
38.2
(100.8)
39.0
(102.2)
36.6
(97.9)
34.7
(94.5)
31.5
(88.7)
42.8
(109.0)
Average high °C (°F) 19.7
(67.5)
20.1
(68.2)
22.9
(73.2)
27.2
(81.0)
31.4
(88.5)
32.9
(91.2)
33.1
(91.6)
32.3
(90.1)
31.2
(88.2)
28.8
(83.8)
25.3
(77.5)
22.0
(71.6)
27.2
(81.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) 16.4
(61.5)
17.2
(63.0)
20.0
(68.0)
23.9
(75.0)
27.4
(81.3)
28.9
(84.0)
29.2
(84.6)
28.6
(83.5)
27.5
(81.5)
24.9
(76.8)
21.5
(70.7)
18.2
(64.8)
23.6
(74.5)
Average low °C (°F) 14.3
(57.7)
15.3
(59.5)
18.1
(64.6)
21.7
(71.1)
24.6
(76.3)
26.1
(79.0)
26.3
(79.3)
26.0
(78.8)
24.9
(76.8)
22.3
(72.1)
18.9
(66.0)
15.6
(60.1)
21.2
(70.2)
Record low °C (°F) 2.7
(36.9)
6.0
(42.8)
6.0
(42.8)
11.8
(53.2)
17.2
(63.0)
20.0
(68.0)
21.0
(69.8)
22.2
(72.0)
16.1
(61.0)
14.0
(57.2)
10.0
(50.0)
5.0
(41.0)
2.7
(36.9)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 18
(0.7)
19
(0.7)
34
(1.3)
105
(4.1)
165
(6.5)
266
(10.5)
253
(10.0)
274
(10.8)
243
(9.6)
156
(6.1)
59
(2.3)
20
(0.8)
1,612
(63.4)
Average rainy days 10.3 12.4 16.0 14.4 14.5 14.6 15.6 16.9 13.6 10.9 7.9 5.0 152.1
Average relative humidity (%) 80.9 83.4 87.9 89.4 86.5 82.9 82.2 85.9 87.2 84.2 81.9 81.3 82.0
Mean monthly sunshine hours 74 47 47 90 183 172 195 174 176 167 137 124 1,585
Source #1: Vietnam Institute for Building Science and Technology[18]
Source #2: Pogoda.ru.net (records),[19] (May record high and January record low only),[17] Vietnamnet.vn (June record high only),[20] Tutiempo.net (March and April record low only),[21][22] Nchmf.gov.vn[23]
Climate data for Hà Đông district
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 31.3
(88.3)
34.9
(94.8)
38.9
(102.0)
39.9
(103.8)
37.9
(100.2)
39.5
(103.1)
38.3
(100.9)
37.7
(99.9)
36.2
(97.2)
34.6
(94.3)
34.6
(94.3)
30.7
(87.3)
39.9
(103.8)
Average high °C (°F) 19.9
(67.8)
20.2
(68.4)
23.1
(73.6)
27.2
(81.0)
31.1
(88.0)
33.0
(91.4)
33.2
(91.8)
32.2
(90.0)
30.9
(87.6)
28.7
(83.7)
25.3
(77.5)
22.2
(72.0)
27.2
(81.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) 16.5
(61.7)
17.4
(63.3)
20.1
(68.2)
23.7
(74.7)
26.8
(80.2)
28.8
(83.8)
29.1
(84.4)
28.4
(83.1)
27.0
(80.6)
24.5
(76.1)
21.2
(70.2)
18.0
(64.4)
23.5
(74.3)
Average low °C (°F) 14.4
(57.9)
15.5
(59.9)
18.2
(64.8)
21.6
(70.9)
24.0
(75.2)
25.8
(78.4)
26.2
(79.2)
25.8
(78.4)
24.4
(75.9)
21.7
(71.1)
18.4
(65.1)
15.2
(59.4)
20.9
(69.6)
Record low °C (°F) 5.4
(41.7)
6.1
(43.0)
7.3
(45.1)
13.3
(55.9)
16.5
(61.7)
20.8
(69.4)
22.5
(72.5)
21.9
(71.4)
19.0
(66.2)
12.0
(53.6)
8.4
(47.1)
3.6
(38.5)
3.6
(38.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 24
(0.9)
27
(1.1)
39
(1.5)
91
(3.6)
179
(7.0)
239
(9.4)
229
(9.0)
272
(10.7)
235
(9.3)
196
(7.7)
97
(3.8)
43
(1.7)
1,670
(65.7)
Average precipitation days 9.8 12.2 15.1 14.1 14.4 14.2 14.9 15.7 13.6 11.3 8.4 6.2 149.7
Average relative humidity (%) 84.6 86.0 87.9 89.4 86.5 82.9 82.2 85.9 87.2 84.2 81.9 81.3 85.0
Mean monthly sunshine hours 71 48 57 93 178 171 195 178 178 159 141 124 1,593
Source: Vietnam Institute for Building Science and Technology[18]
Places adjacent to Hanoi

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