Hanno the Elder

Hanno (Punic: 𐤇‬𐤍‬𐤀‬‬, ḤNʾ)[1] was the name of several Carthaginian generals. The one who served under Hannibal during the Second Punic War performed poorly according to the historian Livy: in 215 BC he was defeated by Tiberius Sempronius Longus at Grumentum, in 214 BC he was defeated by Gracchus at Beneventum, two years later he was again defeated at Beneventum, this time by Quintus Fulvius Flaccus, then in 207 BC he and Mago Barca were defeated in Celtiberia by Marcus Silanus, and he was finally killed by Scipio Africanus in 204 BC.

Identity

There is a Hanno, son of Bomilcar, who led mobile Carthaginian forces that had crossed the Rhone River higher up and then attacked the Gauls from the rear as they gathered to oppose the crossing of Hannibal Barca in 218 BC. Hannibal, while he prepared to cross the river on boats and rafts, had sent Hanno upstream with a mobile force of light infantry and horse. Hanno found a suitable crossing place and crossed the river with the help of inflated water skins. He took position behind the Gauls and signaled Hannibal using smoke. Hannibal then launched his boats, prompting the Gauls to form up on the riverbank to oppose the crossing. Hanno launched his attack on the rear of the Gauls just as Hannibal's men reached the opposite bank, and completely routed the enemy[2] after taking the Gauls by complete surprise. This Hanno is of noble birth, as Bomilcar had been one of the Suffets of Carthage. Hanno was a veteran officer who had served in the Punic armies in Spain.

Hanno is the name of the commander who commanded the Numidian cavalry on the Carthaginian right wing at the Battle of Cannae in 216 BC. His troops held off the Italian allied cavalry successfully until Hasdrubal and his heavy cavalry fell on the Italians from the rear. Hanno led the pursuit of the scattered Roman horse. This Hanno is identified as the same as above,[3] or speculated as being the same person.[4]

Independent command

With the defection of several cities to Carthage in Lucania, Bruttium, Apulia and Samnium after Cannae, Hannibal sent Mago Barca into Lucania with a detachment of troops in 216 BC to recruit troops and subjugate towns. Mago completed his mission, and when he sailed to Carthage to report to the Carthaginian senate and ask for reinforcements, Hanno was left in command of his army. Hanno continued to subdue pro-Roman towns in Bruttium. While marching back to Campania Tiberius Sempronius Longus defeated Hanno near Grumentum, causing 2,000 casualties, and forcing Hanno to retreat back to Bruttium in early 215 BC. Hanno received the reinforcements landed by Bomilcar, the leading Carthaginian admiral, consisting of 4,000 cavalry and 40 elephants, near Locri and joined Hannibal near Nola later that year. He was present at the Third Battle of Nola[5] in the summer of 215 BC. After the battle, Hannibal sent Hanno back to Bruttium with an army.

Hanno led a mostly Bruttian army that captured Crotona in 215 BC, and with the defection of Locri, all of Bruttium except Rhegium was allied with Carthage.[6] He had marched to join Hannibal in Campania in early 214 BC, but, near the River Calor, at Beneventum, his army was intercepted by the praetor Tiberius Gracchus and his legions of mostly freed slaves. In the ensuing combat, Hanno’s army of 17,000 foot (mostly Bruttians and Lucanians) and 1,200 horse was utterly routed, forcing Hanno to escape with only 2,000 soldiers, chiefly cavalry[7] back to Bruttium. His situation improved when he destroyed a force of pro-Roman Lucanians in early 213 BC in Bruttium.

The Capuan adventure

In 212 BC, Hannibal ordered Hanno to arrange provisions for Capua, which was being threatened by the Romans. The Romans had fielded six legions, along with allied units and cavalry units, to besiege Capua, which they were circumventing with double palisades. Hanno, starting from Bruttium, slipped past the army of Gracchus in Lucania, then evaded the respective armies of the two consuls in Samnium, and finally reached Beneventum. He set up camp on a hill and collected provisions from his Samnite allies, then requested some wagons from the Capuans so as to carry the provisions to Capua from his camp. The tardiness of the Capuans, who were slow to send sufficient wagons, gave time for Quintus Fulvius Flaccus to get wind of the enterprise from loyal Italians, and he attacked the Carthaginian camp when most of Hanno’s men were out foraging. Although the Carthaginians succeeded in repulsing the first assault, the Romans were galvanized by the actions of an Italian allied cohort and eventually captured all the supplies and wagons along with the camp.[8]

Hanno, unable to do anything further for Capua, then retired to Bruttium, again evading the Roman armies that could have intercepted him in on the way.[9]

Identity confusion

Several Hannos appear in the record after 212 BC, and it is unclear which are different individuals. There was a certain Hanno who was a cavalry commander at Capua, one was in command at Metapontum in 207 BC, and was sent to Bruttium to raise fresh troops by Hannibal, another Hanno was sent to Spain in 206 BC by the Carthaginian senate, where he was defeated and captured by the Romans under Marcus Silanus in 207 BC, another Hanno was defeated and killed by Marcus Silanus in 206 BC near Gades and one, called the son of Bomilcar, was in command in Africa in 203 BC before the arrival of Hannibal.[10]

See also

  • Other Hannos in Carthaginian history

References

Citations

  1. ^ Huss (1985), p. 565.
  2. ^ Polybius, III, p. 42, Livy, XXI, p. 27
  3. ^ Polybius, III, p. 114, Appian, p. 20
  4. ^ Lazenby, J.F, Hannibal's War, p. 95-96
  5. ^ Cottrel, Leonard, Hannibal: Enemy of Rome, p. 102
  6. ^ Bagnell, Nigel, The Punic Wars, p. 240
  7. ^ Livy's History of Rome Bk 24.14 in Everyman's Library edn, vol.4, ed. Ernest Rhys, transl. Rev. Canon Roberts. Dent, London 1905
  8. ^ Lazenby, J.F., Hannibal's War p. 113-114
  9. ^ Livy, XXV, p. 13-15
  10. ^ Livy, XXV, p. 42

Bibliography

  • Huss, Werner (1985), Geschichte der Karthager, Munich: C.H. Beck. (in German)

External links

204 BC

Year 204 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Cethegus and Tuditanus (or, less frequently, year 550 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 204 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

210s BC

This article concerns the period 219 BC – 210 BC.

212 BC

Year 212 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Flaccus and Pulcher (or, less frequently, year 542 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 212 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Aristomachus of Croton

Aristomachus (or Aristomachos) was an ancient Greek leader of the popular party at Croton, in the Hannibalian war, about 215 BC.

At that time nearly all the towns of southern Italy were divided into two parties, the people being in favour of the Carthaginians, and the nobles or senators in favour of the Romans. The Bruttians, who were in alliance with the Carthaginians, had hoped to gain possession of Croton with their assistance. As this had not been done, they determined to make the conquest by themselves. A deserter from Croton informed them of the state of political parties there, and that Aristomachus was ready to surrender the town to them. The Bruttians marched with an army against Croton, and as the lower parts, which were inhabited by the people, were open and easy of access, they soon gained possession of them. Aristomachus, however, as if he had nothing to do with the Bruttians, withdrew to the arx, where the nobles were assembled and defended themselves. The Bruttians in conjunction with the people of Croton besieged the nobles in the arx, and when they found that they made no impression, they applied to Hanno the Elder for Carthaginian assistance. He proposed to the Crotoniats to receive the Bruttians as colonists within the extensive but deserted walls of their city. But all the Crotoniats, with the exception of Aristomachus, declared that they would rather die than submit to this. As Aristomachus, who had betrayed the town, was unable to betray the arx also, he saw no way but to take to flight, and he accordingly went over to Hanno. The Crotoniats soon after quitted their town altogether and migrated to Locri.

Battle of Beneventum (212 BC)

The Battle of Beneventum was fought between Carthage and Roman republic in 212 BC. During this conflict Hanno the Elder was defeated by Quintus Fulvius Flaccus. Livy gives a short account of this battle at 25.13-14.

Battle of Capua

The First Battle of Capua was fought in 212 BC between Hannibal and two Roman consular armies. The Roman force was led by two consuls, Quintus Fulvius Flaccus and Appius Claudius Pulcher. The Roman force was defeated, but managed to escape. Hannibal temporarily managed to raise the siege of Capua. A tactical Carthaginian victory, but ultimately it did not help the Capuans.

Battle of Decimomannu

The Battle of Decimomannu or Caralis took place in Sardinia when a Carthaginian army sailed to the island to support a local revolt against Roman rule. The army, led by Hasdrubal the Bald, fought a similar size Roman army under the Praetor Titus Manlius Torquatus in the Fall of 215 BC somewhere between Sestu and Decimomannu, just north of Caralis. The Romans destroyed the Carthaginian army and then scattered their fleet in a sea battle south of Sardinia.

Battle of Dertosa

The Battle of Dertosa, also known as the Battle of Ibera, was fought in the spring of 215 BC on the south bank of the Ebro River across from the town of Dertosa. A Roman army, under the command of Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus and Publius Cornelius Scipio, defeated a similarly sized Carthaginian army under Hasdrubal Barca. The Romans, under Gnaeus Scipio, had established themselves in Hispania after winning the Battle of Cissa in 218 BC. Hasdrubal Barca's expedition to evict them had ended in the defeat of the Iberian contingent of the Carthaginian navy at the Battle of Ebro River in 217 BC. Hasdrubal launched another expedition in 215 BC, but the defeat at Dertosa cost the Carthaginians a chance to reinforce Hannibal at a critical juncture, and the Romans gained the initiative in Hispania. The Scipio brothers continued with their policy of subjugating the Iberian tribes and raiding Carthaginian possessions. After losing of most of his field army, Hasdrubal had to be reinforced with the army that was to sail to Italy and reinforce Hannibal. Thus, by winning this battle, the Scipios had indirectly prevented the situation in Italy from getting worse in addition to improving their own situation in Iberia. This battle also demonstrates the danger of implementing the double envelopment tactic.

Battle of the Silarus

The Battle of the Silarus was fought in 212 BC between Hannibal's army and a Roman force led by centurion Marcus Centenius Penula. The Carthaginians were victorious, destroying the entire Roman army and killing 15,000 Roman soldiers.

Benevento

Benevento (Italian: [beneˈvɛnto] (listen); Campanian: Beneviento [bənəˈvjendə]; Latin: Beneventum) is a city and comune of Campania, Italy, capital of the province of Benevento, 50 kilometres (31 mi) northeast of Naples. It is situated on a hill 130 metres (427 feet) above sea level at the confluence of the Calore Irpino (or Beneventano) and the Sabato. It is also the seat of a Roman Catholic archbishop. Around Benevento there is an urban area with 110,000 inhabitants.Benevento occupies the site of the ancient Beneventum, originally Maleventum or even earlier Maloenton. The meaning of the name of the town is evidenced by its former Latin name, translating as good or fair wind. In the imperial period it was supposed to have been founded by Diomedes after the Trojan War.Due to its artistic and cultural significance, the Santa Sofia Church in Benevento was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2011, as part of a group of seven historic buildings inscribed as Longobards in Italy, Places of Power (568–774 A.D.).

A patron saint of Benevento is Saint Bartholomew, the Apostle, whose relics are kept there at the Cattedrale di Santa Maria Assunta.

Hannibal's crossing of the Alps

Hannibal's crossing of the Alps in 218 BC was one of the major events of the Second Punic War, and one of the most celebrated achievements of any military force in ancient warfare. Bypassing Roman and allied land garrisons and Roman naval dominance, Hannibal managed to lead his Carthaginian army over the Alps and into Italy to take the war directly to the Roman Republic.

Hanno

Hanno may refer to:

Hannō, Saitama, Honshū, Japan

Hanno (crater), a lunar crater

Hanno (elephant), the pet white elephant of Pope Leo X

List of Carthaginians

This an alphabetical List of ancient Carthaginians. These include all citizens of ancient Carthage remembered in history, before the final Roman destruction of the state.

Note that some persons may be listed multiple times, once for each part of the name.

Mago Barca

Mago Barca (Punic: 𐤌𐤂‬𐤍 𐤁𐤓𐤒‬, MGN BRQ; 243–203 BC), was a Barcid Carthaginian who played an important role in the Second Punic War, leading forces of Carthage against the Roman Republic in Iberia and northern and central Italy. Mago was the third son of Hamilcar Barca, was the brother of Hannibal and Hasdrubal, and was the brother-in-law of Hasdrubal the Fair.

Little is known about his early years, except that, unlike his brothers, he is not mentioned during the ambush in which his father was killed in 228 BC.

Quintus Fulvius Flaccus (consul 237 BC)

Quintus Fulvius Flaccus, son of Marcus Fulvius Flaccus (consul 264 BC), was consul in 237 BC, fighting the Gauls in northern Italy. He was censor in 231 BC, and again consul in 224 BC, when he subdued the Boii. He was a praetor in 215 BC and in 213 BC Master of Horse in the dictatorship of Gaius Claudius Centho.

He was again consul in 212 BC, during the Second Punic War, winning a victory over Hanno the Elder and capturing his camp at Beneventum. He was defeated by Hannibal at the first Battle of Capua, then captured Capua in 211 BC while serving as a proconsul. In his fourth term as consul (209 BC), he retook Lucania and Bruttium. He opposed the African expedition of Scipio Africanus Major in 205 BC, and died sometime not long thereafter.

Quintus Fulvius Flaccus was one of the three candidates for the position of Pontifex Maximus c. 212 BC, when he and another senior candidate Titus Manlius Torquatus, both former censors, were pipped at the post by a younger man, Publius Licinius Crassus who was not yet a curule aedile and thus probably aged in his middle thirties. Nevertheless, Flaccus made the new Pontifex his own Master of the Horse some years later.

Flaccus was known for his severity towards the disloyal citizens of Capua, of whom he had the senior men executed and the rest of the citizenry condemned to slavery for their disloyalty to Rome. According to Livy, the Capuans complained of his behavior to the Roman Senate, which, however, ruled that Flaccus was within his rights.

Flaccus was the grandfather of Marcus Fulvius Flaccus, consul in 125 BC, who was an ardent supporter of the Brothers Gracchi. He attempted to warn Tiberius Gracchus of the plots against his life on the day that he was killed; in 121 BC, having supported Gaius Gracchus in his reform program and tried to lead an armed resistance against the Senate, he and his elder son were tracked down and executed (beheaded) without trial on the orders of the consul Lucius Opimius; the youngest son, too young to have participated in any plotting or armed revolt, died in prison, again without trial (another son was apparently the father of Fulvia, third wife of Mark Antony). The grandfather, a stern conservative, could probably never have imagined the fates of his descendants.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Lleida

The Diocese of Lleida, known as the Diocese of Lerida in English, (Latin, Ilerdensis) is located in north-eastern Spain, in the province of Lleida, part of the autonomous community of Catalonia. The diocese forms part of the ecclesiastical province of Tarragona, and is thus suffragan to the Archdiocese of Tarragona.The diocese of Lleida was created in the 3rd century. After the Moorish conquest of Lleida in 716 the episcopal see was moved to Roda (until 1101) and then to Barbastro (1101–1149). The city of Lleida was conquered from the Moors by the Count Ramon Berenguer IV of Barcelona in 1149, and the see was again transferred to its original seat. The Bishop's Palace is located in Rambla d'Aragó.

Lleida is one of the most populous cities in Catalonia, built on the right bank of the River Segre, about 100 miles from Barcelona. The town is oriental in appearance, and its streets are narrow and crooked. The population in 1900 was 23,683. The old Byzantine-Gothic Cathedral, of which the ruins are to be seen on the citadel, dates from 1203. During the Middle Ages the University of Lleida was famous; in 1717 it was suppressed, and united with Cervera.

At present, Lleida is sede vacante, since its last bishop, Mgr. Francesc-Xavier Ciuraneta Aymí resigned on March 8, 2007. The diocese is under the temporary administration of Mgr. Xavier Salinas Viñals, Bishop of Tortosa.

Second Punic War

The Second Punic War (Spring 218 to 201 BC), also referred to as The Hannibalic War and by the Romans the War Against Hannibal, was the second of three wars between Carthage and the Roman Republic, with the participation of Greek polities and Numidian and Iberian forces on both sides. It was one of the deadliest human conflicts of ancient times. Fought across the entire Western Mediterranean region for 17 years and regarded by ancient historians as the greatest war in history, it was waged with unparalleled resources, skill, and hatred. It saw hundreds of thousands killed, some of the most lethal battles in military history, the destruction of cities, and massacres and enslavements of civilian populations and prisoners of war by both sides.

The war began with the Carthaginian general Hannibal's conquest of the pro-Roman Iberian city of Saguntum in 219 BC, prompting a Roman declaration of war on Carthage in the spring of 218. Hannibal surprised the Romans by marching his army overland from Iberia to cross the Alps and invade Roman Italy, followed by his reinforcement by Gallic allies and crushing victories over Roman armies at Trebia in 218 and on the shores of Lake Trasimene in 217. Moving to southern Italy in 216, Hannibal at Cannae annihilated the largest army the Romans had ever assembled. After the death or imprisonment of 130,000 Roman troops in two years, 40% of Rome's Italian allies defected to Carthage, giving her control over most of southern Italy. Macedon and Syracuse joined the Carthaginian side after Cannae and the conflict spread to Greece and Sicily. From 215–210 the Carthaginian army and navy launched repeated amphibious assaults to capture Roman Sicily and Sardinia but were ultimately repulsed.

Against Hannibal's skill on the battlefield, the Romans adopted the Fabian strategy – the avoidance of battle against Hannibal and defeating his allies and the other Carthaginian generals instead. Roman armies recaptured all of the great cities that had joined Carthage and defeated a Carthaginian attempt to reinforce Hannibal at Metaurus in 207. Southern Italy was devastated by the combatants, with hundreds of thousands of civilians killed or enslaved. In Iberia, which served as a major source of silver and manpower for the Carthaginian army, a Roman expeditionary force under Publius Cornelius Scipio captured Carthago Nova, Carthage's capital city in Iberia, in 209. Scipio's destruction of a Carthaginian army at Ilipa in 206 permanently ended Carthaginian rule in Iberia. He invaded Carthaginian Africa in 204, inflicting two severe defeats on Carthage and her allies at Utica and the Great Plains that compelled the Carthaginian senate to recall Hannibal's army from Italy. The final engagement between Scipio and Hannibal took place at Zama in Africa in 202 and resulted in Hannibal's defeat and the imposition of harsh peace conditions on Carthage (Carthaginian peace), which ceased to be a great power and became a Roman client state until its final destruction by the Romans in 146 BC during the Third Punic War. The Second Punic War overthrew the established balance of power of the ancient world and Rome rose to become the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin for the next 600 years.

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