Hank O'Day

Henry Martin Francis O'Day (July 8, 1859[2] – July 2, 1935), nicknamed "The Reverend", was an American right-handed pitcher and later an umpire and manager in Major League Baseball. After a seven-year major league playing career, he worked as a National League (NL) umpire for 30 seasons between 1895 and 1927.

O'Day umpired in ten World Series – second only to Bill Klem's total of 18 – including five of the first seven played, and was behind the plate for the first modern World Series game in 1903. Retiring at age 68 years, 2 months, he remains the oldest umpire in major league history – a fact which was not known until recently, as he routinely shaved five to seven years from his true age throughout his career. His 3,986 total games as an umpire ranked third in major league history when he retired, and his 2,710 games as the plate umpire still rank second in major league history to Klem's total of 3,544. He is largely known for his controversial decision in a pivotal 1908 game, a ruling that still causes debate today. O'Day interrupted his umpiring career twice for single seasons as a manager, leading the Cincinnati Reds in 1912 and the Chicago Cubs in 1914. He remains the only person ever to serve full seasons in the NL as a player, manager and umpire. O'Day was inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame in July 2013.

Hank O'Day
Hank ODay baseball card
Pitcher / Umpire / Manager
Born: July 8, 1859
Chicago, Illinois
Died: July 2, 1935 (aged 75)
Chicago, Illinois
Batted: Unknown Threw: Right
MLB debut
May 2, 1884, for the Toledo Blue Stockings
Last MLB appearance
October 3, 1890, for the New York Giants (PL)
MLB statistics
Win–loss record73–110
Earned run average3.74
Strikeouts663
Managerial record153–154
Winning percentage.498
Teams
As player

As manager

Member of the National
Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Baseball Hall of Fame Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg
Induction2013
Vote93.8%
Election MethodPre-Integration Era Committee[1]

Early life

O'Day was born in Chicago, the son of railroad engineer James O'Day[3] (c. 1824 – 1885[4]) and his wife Margaret[5] (c. 1822 – 1895[6]), who were immigrants from Ireland[3] and were both deaf.[7] The couple had at least seven children:[5] Daniel (c. 1846 – 1898[8][9]), James Jr. (c. 1854 – before 1895[10][11]), Catherine (c. 1856 – 1901[10][12]), Henry, Margaret (c. 1864 – before 1895[3][11]), Mary McNamara (c. 1866 – 1924[3][13]), and Joseph (1870–1885[14]). The O'Days originally settled in Buffalo, New York;[15] by the mid-1850s, they had moved to Cincinnati,[16] and they relocated to Chicago around 1858. Henry was born in the vicinity of Ewing Street (later renamed Cabrini Street[17]) and Jefferson Street,[18] which was just one block north of the starting point of the Chicago Fire in 1871; however, by 1870, the family had moved about two miles west to 1022 W. Jackson Street[19] (renumbered in 1909 as 2433 W. Jackson Boulevard[20]), which remained the family residence until the early 20th century. O'Day worked as a steam fitter[21] in Chicago before entering organized baseball.

Playing career

O'Day played minor league baseball with the Bay City club and the Toledo Blue Stockings of the Northwestern League in 1883, and he reached the major leagues when Toledo joined the American Association (AA) the following year.[22] With Toledo, he played alongside Fleet Walker, the first African American to play in the major leagues. O'Day made his major league debut on May 2, 1884, and served as the team's second pitcher behind Tony Mullane. In 41 games pitched for the Blue Stockings, he had 9 wins, 28 losses, a 3.75 earned run average (ERA), and 163 strikeouts; he is also one of three pitchers who have been retroactively credited with a save in the AA that season. In addition to pitching, O'Day appeared in 23 games as a position player that season, primarily in left field; he also made appearances at the other outfield positions, as well as at first base and third base.[23] However, he made only 13 other non-pitching appearances in the field in later years, including eight games at shortstop in 1887-88. In 1885, he split playing time with the Pittsburgh Alleghenys of the AA and the Washington Nationals of the Eastern League. O'Day had a record of 5–7 for the Alleghenys; his playing time was limited because he was caring for his sick father.[23][24] He made only five starts after May 11, and left the team for the last time after his July 6 start;[25] his father died on July 9 at age 61.[4] In the meantime, the Chicago White Stockings had opened West Side Park on June 6, less than a mile and a half from the O'Day residence. In 15 games with Washington in the Eastern League, he had a record of 13–2 and a 0.74 ERA.[26] On September 5 of that year, his younger brother Joseph died at age 15 from injuries he had suffered two days earlier after falling from the front car of a roller coaster.[14][27] At the end of the season, the Nationals folded, and O'Day joined a Louisville ball club; no record exists of him having played any games for them.[28]

O'Day spent most of 1886 with the Savannah team in the Southern Association, and during his time there he was considered a favorite among other players.[29] In 39 games with Savannah, O'Day won 26 games, lost 11, and had an ERA of 1.03.[26] Late in the year, he joined the Washington Nationals, where he posted a 2-2 record in six games.[23] O'Day became a full-time starter for the Nationals in 1887, and pitched the second-most games behind Jim Whitney. In 30 games, he won 8 games, lost 20, and had a 4.17 ERA and 109 walks; his walks were fifth-highest in the league.[23] In 1888, O'Day became the workhorse of the team, starting 46 games for the Nationals that year. His ERA and win totals improved to 3.10 and 16, but he led the NL in losses with 29 and was second in walks with 117 in 403 innings pitched. He also played eight games at shortstop in 1887 and 1888.[23] O'Day's high loss total was noted by Sporting Life as due to ineffective hitting by the Nationals rather than as a result of his pitching.[30]

In 13 games for Washington in 1889, O'Day had a 2-10 record and a 4.33 ERA.[23] On July 26, he was purchased by the New York Giants; his first game with the Giants was against his former team, a game which he lost.[31] O'Day then went on to win his next nine starts to finish the year with a 9-1 record for the Giants.[23] He earned two strong wins in the 1889 World Series, including a 2-1 11-inning victory on October 25, to give the Giants the National League title; the Giants' midseason purchase of O'Day was considered to be the reason they won.[32] In 1890, O'Day jumped ship to the New York Giants of the newly established Players' League. With them, he enjoyed his best season by going 22–13 with a 4.21 ERA for the Giants, pitching 329 innings in 43 games, and he has since been credited with tying for the league lead with 3 saves.[23] However, he developed arm trouble as a result of so many innings pitched, and he spent three more years in the minor leagues with the Lincoln Rustlers of the Western Association (1891), the Columbus Reds of the Western League (1892) and the Erie Blackbirds of the Eastern League (1893) before retiring as a player.[26]

In 201 career games and 1,651 1/3 innings pitched, O'Day posted a record of 73–110 with an ERA of 3.74 and 663 strikeouts. At various points throughout his career, O'Day played all nine positions.[33]

Umpiring career

Conference on the field at the Columbia Avenue Grounds, 1905 World Series
During the 1905 World Series, O'Day (back left) confers with plate umpire Jack Sheridan, New York manager John McGraw (right) and two Philadelphia players.

After O'Day finished his playing career, he worked as a clerk for the Chicago city recorder's office. While attending a Chicago baseball game as a spectator one Sunday in 1894, O'Day was recruited from the stands to substitute for umpire Thomas Lynch, who was unable to make it to the game due to a train service cancellation. O'Day performed so well that he was recruited into full-time service as a National League umpire the following year.[34] On July 8, 1901, O'Day made a ruling in a game at St. Louis which proved pivotal in a 7–5 Brooklyn victory; the fans were so infuriated that they rushed the field after the game, and O'Day suffered a split lip before being rescued by players and police.[35]

Hank O'Day 1907
O'Day in 1907, during his umpiring career

In July 1906, O'Day was fined $50 (USD) by NL president Harry Pulliam in connection with a fight that broke out between Giants pitcher Joe McGinnity and Pirates catcher Heinie Peitz during a game. O'Day was cited as being negligent for failing to prevent the fight; he appealed the fine, but Pulliam would not relent. When Pulliam did not withdraw the fine, O'Day submitted his resignation on July 31. Pulliam refused to accept the resignation, but O'Day pledged not to work until the fine was withdrawn. O'Day did not report for his scheduled game at the Polo Grounds that day.[36] He was rumored to be seeking an umpiring position in the Tri-State League, but he returned to the field for National League games by August 10.[36][37]

Merkle's Boner

On September 23, 1908, O'Day was involved in one of the most controversial field decisions in major league history.He was working as the plate umpire in the game between the Cubs and the Giants, which ended when Al Bridwell's apparent single drove in the apparent winning run. However, baserunner Fred Merkle never advanced from first base to second, in keeping with the common practice of the era. When the Cubs produced a ball – not necessarily the game ball, which had been thrown into the stands – and claimed a force play at second base, which would negate the run, the debate erupted.

Bob Emslie, who as base umpire had been watching the play at first base to verify that the batter had reached base, had not seen the play at second. O'Day ruled that the force play had been valid and that the run did not count, causing the game to end in a tie. It is noteworthy that at that time, Emslie and O'Day ranked as the two longest-serving umpires in major league history.

O'Day's letter to Pulliam follows (spelling and punctuation as in the original):

New York, Sept 23/08

Harry C. Pulliam, Esq.
Pres. Nat. League

Dear sir,

In the game to-day at New York between New York and the Chicago Club. In the last half of the 9th inning, the score was a tie 1–1. New York was at the Bat, with two Men out, McCormick of N. York on 3rd Base and Merkle of N. York on 1st Base; Bridwell was at the Bat and hit a clean single Base-Hit to Center Field. Merkle did not run the Ball out; he started toward 2nd Base, but on getting half way there he turned and ran down the field toward the Club House. The Ball was fielded in to 2nd Base for a Chgo. Man to make the play, when McGinnity ran from the Coacher's Box out in the Field to 2nd Base and interfered with the Play being made. Emslie, who said he did not watch Merkle, asked me if Merkle touched 2nd Base. I said he did not. Then Emslie called Merkle out, and I would not allow McCormick's Run to score. The Game at the end of the 9th inning was 1–1. The People ran out on the Field. I did not ask to have the Field cleared, as it was too dark to continue play.

Yours respt.
(signed)
Henry O'Day[38]

President Pulliam upheld O'Day's decision, the game was ruled a tie, and a makeup game was scheduled. The Cubs defeated New York in that makeup game to win the pennant by a single game. The Milwaukee Journal later reported that O'Day and the Chicago team had been attuned to the play because of their involvement in a similar situation a few weeks earlier on September 4. During a mid-season game between Chicago and Pittsburgh, Cubs second baseman Johnny Evers tried to call O'Day's attention to the fact that a Pittsburgh player had not made it to second base on the game-winning play. Not seeing the runner miss the base, O'Day told Evers, "Go home and take a bath, Johnny. The game's over." The newspaper noted that "Chicago got the pennant by being given the derisive hoot a few weeks before."[39]

Managerial career

Hank O'Day
O'Day as Cubs manager (1914)

O'Day's name was mentioned in connection with a major league managing vacancy as early as 1905. At that time, he said that he liked umpiring and that he was unsure whether he would accept a managing position even if an offer came to him. "I am not the least bit sure that I could better myself by giving up umpiring for a managerial job", O'Day said.[40]

Several years later, O'Day interrupted his umpiring career to manage major league clubs during two separate seasons. In 1912, he agreed to become the manager of the Cincinnati Reds. This move surprised the baseball world, as O'Day had not been mentioned as a possibility to take the job.[41] The team started off the year winning 20 of its first 25 games,[42] creating the possibility that the Reds would win the World Series under their new manager.[43] The Reds did not hold on to their early hot streak, however, and finished the season with a 75–78 record under O'Day. He resigned after the 1912 season, as the team was negotiating a trade for Joe Tinker and rumors surfaced that Tinker might become manager.[44] In late 1912, O'Day was reported as saying that he would not return to umpiring, but he changed his mind by April and signed with the National League again.[45][46]

After umpiring in 1913, he managed for another year, taking over the Chicago Cubs ballclub after player-manager Johnny Evers was traded despite a third-place finish by the Cubs the previous year.[47] He led the Cubs to a 78–76 record and a fourth-place finish; O'Day earned fourth-place finishes in both of his seasons as a manager. In December, the Cubs signed Roger Bresnahan to be their manager, effectively firing O'Day, who returned to being an umpire.[48]

Return to umpiring

O'Day umpired in 10 World Series: 1903, 1905, 1907, 1908, 1910, 1916, 1918, 1920, 1923 and 1926. Only Bill Klem, whose hiring was recommended by O'Day, worked more. O'Day's World Series appearances include four of the first five played. In his first three World Series, a two-umpire system was used, with the two alternating between working home plate and the bases. In his next three Series, four umpires were assigned, but they worked in two-man crews that officiated alternating games; not until the 1918 Series did all four work every game. During the 1920 World Series, O'Day was the base umpire when Bill Wambsganss executed the only unassisted triple play in Series history. Although it was not known at the time, O'Day became the oldest umpire in history at age 65 years, 9 months when he began the 1925 season; it was long believed that Emslie still held the mark, having retired at the end of the 1924 season at age 65 years, 8 months. At the end of his career, O'Day's total of 3,986 games as an umpire placed him behind only Tommy Connolly (4,337) and Emslie (4,228) in major league history.

O'Day called balls and strikes for no-hitters in four decades, a distinction that has been matched only by Harry Wendelstedt; he was behind the plate when Ted Breitenstein (April 22, 1898), Johnny Lush (May 1, 1906), Hod Eller (May 11, 1919) and Jesse Haines (July 17, 1924) each accomplished the feat.

O'Day served for many years on the major league rules committee, and became known for its many heated debates over rule changes and applications. In 1920, the committee was considering the issue of game-winning hits in the bottom of the last inning; O'Day argued that batters should only be credited with as many bases as were necessary to score the winning run, even if the ball was hit over the fence for an apparent home run, saying, "you can't score runs after a game is over", while sportswriter Fred Lieb counter-argued that a fair ball hit over the fence must be counted as a home run regardless of the situation. Lieb's position was adopted by the committee, with O'Day complaining that Lieb was simply trying to accumulate more home runs for his friend Babe Ruth; O'Day did, however, succeed in preventing the rule from being applied retroactively.[49]

O'Day began his career in an era during which only one umpire worked in most games, and he spent the remainder in a time when only two were used. In 1908, O'Day was quoted as saying that he preferred the single-man system and that he had run into more trouble in games with two umpires.[50]

In The National League Story (1961), Lee Allen described O'Day as "a crusty old pitcher who had umpired in the league as early as 1888 and had the scars to prove it." O'Day maintained an intensely private life. He did, however, develop a lasting friendship with fellow umpire Emslie, one of his pitching opponents in the 1880s, after both had been in the league for a number of years. He also enjoyed long friendships with John Heydler, who had been a fellow umpire in the 1890s and later became O'Day's supervisor as NL president, and with Connie Mack, who was O'Day's catcher for three years in Washington.

Later life

O'Day became an umpiring scout after he retired from active umpiring in 1927. In March 1935, he was said to be seriously ill with a stomach condition and it had become "doubtful if he will ever get up again".[51] He died of bronchial pneumonia and cancer at the Presbyterian hospital in Chicago on July 2, 1935.[18] He had outlived all his siblings, only two of whom had lived to the age of 45, and was survived by his nephew Henry McNamara (1899–1971),[52] who had been born on O'Day's 40th birthday and was named for him; McNamara's family had lived with O'Day for some time after he was born.[53] His funeral high mass at St. Jariath's Church was attended by baseball notables including Commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis, former NL president John Heydler, and former umpires Bob Emslie, Tom Connolly, Bill Klem and Lord Byron.[54] O'Day was buried in Calvary Cemetery in Evanston, Illinois.[55]

O'Day was elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame on December 3, 2012 by the Hall's new Pre-Integration Era Committee, which considers candidates from the era prior to 1947 once every three years, and was inducted the following July.[33] His induction speech was given by his grandnephew Dennis McNamara, a former Chicago police officer with his own connection to baseball history, having introduced Hall of Famer Ron Santo to his wife Vicki.[56]

See also

References

  1. ^ National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum: "Hank O'Day, Jacob Ruppert, Deacon White Elected to National Baseball Hall of Fame by Pre-Integration Committee", December 3, 2012 [1] Retrieved June 24, 2013
  2. ^ Many sources have traditionally given O'Day's birth year as 1862; O'Day himself regularly reported his birth year as 1864 or later, and his actual public birth record was lost in the Chicago Fire. However, he is listed in the 1860 Census as a 1-year-old. (The family name was entered in both the 1860 and 1870 censuses as "Day".) Eighth Census of the United States, United States Census, 1860; 10th Ward, Chicago, Cook, Illinois; roll M653 168, page 266, line 14. Retrieved on 2013-05-03.
  3. ^ a b c d Ninth Census of the United States, United States Census, 1870; 13th Ward, Chicago, Cook, Illinois; roll M593 207, page 38, line 32–40. Retrieved on 2013-04-12.
  4. ^ a b "Deaths". Chicago Tribune. July 10, 1885. p. 8.
  5. ^ a b The name of O'Day's mother has been reported in many biographies as Mary, with the number of children in the family given as six; these inaccuracies likely originated from reports in O'Day's obituaries, based on information given by survivors who had limited knowledge of the family prior to 1900.
  6. ^ "Deaths". Chicago Tribune. March 14, 1895. p. 8.
  7. ^ Doxsie, Don (2009). Iron Man McGinnity: A Baseball Biography. McFarland & Company. p. 75. ISBN 9780786442034.
  8. ^ "Deaths". Chicago Tribune. May 15, 1898. p. 5.
  9. ^ "Notes of the Game". Chicago Tribune. May 15, 1898. p. 7.
  10. ^ a b Eighth Census of the United States, United States Census, 1860; 10th Ward, Chicago, Cook, Illinois; roll M653 168, page 266, line 9–14. Retrieved on 2013-05-03.
  11. ^ a b James Jr. and Margaret were not listed as survivors in their mother's death notice.
  12. ^ "Deaths". Chicago Tribune. February 18, 1901. p. 5.
  13. ^ "Death Notices". Chicago Tribune. February 18, 1924. p. 10.
  14. ^ a b "Deaths". Chicago Tribune. September 6, 1885. p. 16.
  15. ^ Daniel was born in Buffalo. "Daniel O'Day, 'Illinois, Cook County Deaths, 1878–1922'". FamilySearch. Retrieved May 4, 2013.
  16. ^ "Williams' Cincinnati Directory, City Guide, and Business Mirror" (PDF). The Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County. C.S. Williams. 1856. p. 205. Retrieved May 4, 2013.
  17. ^ "Chicago Streets" (PDF). Chicago History Museum. Retrieved May 4, 2013.
  18. ^ a b "Baseball World to Attend O'Day Rites on Friday". Chicago Tribune. July 3, 1935. p. 17.
  19. ^ The 1870 Census placed the family in the 13th Ward, which extended west from Ashland Avenue.
  20. ^ "Plan of Re-numbering City of Chicago" (PDF). Chicago History Museum. 1909. p. 80. Retrieved May 4, 2013.
  21. ^ Tenth United States Census, United States Census, 1880; Chicago, Cook, Illinois; roll T9 194, page 34, line 32–38, enumeration district 119. Retrieved on 2013-04-12.
  22. ^ "Hank O'Day, Picturesque Figure in the National League History, Retires". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. December 14, 1927. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h "Hank O'Day Statistics and History". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved January 31, 2013.
  24. ^ "Notes and Comments" (PDF). Sporting Life. July 7, 1885. p. 7.
  25. ^ "The 1885 Pittsburgh Alleghenys Regular Season Game Log". Retrosheet. Retrieved May 4, 2013.
  26. ^ a b c "Hank O'Day Minor League Statistics & History". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved January 31, 2013.
  27. ^ "City Items: Fell Off a Coaster". Chicago Tribune. September 4, 1885. p. 3.
  28. ^ "Scooping In the National Players-What Will the Club do, Etc" (PDF). Sporting Life. November 11, 1885. p. 1.
  29. ^ "Some Newsy Personal Motes About Morion's Aggregation of Masoottes" (PDF). The Sporting Life. May 5, 1886. p. 2.
  30. ^ "Washington Whispers" (PDF). Sporting Life. June 6, 1888. p. 9.
  31. ^ "Notes and Comments" (PDF). Sporting Life. August 7, 1889. p. 4.
  32. ^ "Championship vs. Exhibition Games" (PDF). Sporting Life. November 6, 1889. p. 4.
  33. ^ a b Bloom, Barry. "Jacob Ruppert, Hank O'Day, Deacon White elected to Baseball Hall of Fame". MLB.com: News. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
  34. ^ Joss, Addie (January 7, 1910). ""Hank" O'Day Got Job By Accident". The Pittsburgh Press. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
  35. ^ Charlton, James, ed. (1991). The Baseball Chronology. New York: Macmillan. p. 131. ISBN 0-02-523971-6.
  36. ^ a b "Umpire Hank O'Day Resigns in a Huff". Paterson Daily Press. August 1, 1906. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
  37. ^ "The 1906 NL Regular Season Umpiring Log for Hank O'Day". Retrosheet. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
  38. ^ original letter from National Baseball Hall of Fame Library, Cooperstown, New York
  39. ^ "No! 'Twas Hank O'Day". The Milwaukee Journal. June 6, 1910. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
  40. ^ "Balls and Bingles". The Pittsburgh Press. August 5, 1905.
  41. ^ "Umpire Hank O'Day Chosen to Lead Reds". The Pittsburgh Press. December 12, 1911. p. 1.
  42. ^ "1912 Cincinnati Reds Batting, Pitching, & Fielding Statistics". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
  43. ^ "How a Famous Umpire Wins Glory as a Manager". The Pittsburgh Press. May 11, 1912. p. 8.
  44. ^ "Hank O'Day Resigns" (PDF). The New York Times. November 7, 1912. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
  45. ^ "Gossip Among Sports". The Canaseraga Times. November 22, 1912.
  46. ^ ""Hank" O'Day to Umpire Again" (PDF). The New York Times. April 27, 1913. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
  47. ^ "Cub Owner's Folly Is Proving Hurtful". The Pittsburgh Press. February 15, 1914. p. 3.
  48. ^ "$18,000 a Year for Bresnahan". The Saskatoon StarPhoenix. November 20, 1914. p. 7.
  49. ^ Dewey, Donald; Acocella, Nicholas (1995). The Biographical History of Baseball. New York: Carroll & Graf. p. 341. ISBN 0-7867-0138-2.
  50. ^ "Hank O'Day is Unalterably Opposed to Proposed Double Umpire System". The Pittsburgh Press. October 16, 1908. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
  51. ^ "Hank O'Day, Veteran Umpire, Seriously Ill". The Milwaukee Journal. March 1, 1935. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
  52. ^ "Henry Martin 'Bones' McNamara". Find a Grave. Retrieved May 4, 2013.
  53. ^ Twelfth Census of the United States, United States Census, 1900; Chicago, Cook, Illinois; roll T623 259, page 7A, line 22–26, enumeration district 356. Retrieved on 2013-04-12.
  54. ^ "Many Baseball Notables Attend O'Day Funeral". Chicago Tribune. July 6, 1935. p. 17.
  55. ^ Muskat, Carrie. "Former Cubs manager O'Day elected to Hall". mlb.com. MLB Advanced Media, L.P. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
  56. ^ "Dennis McNamara Speech Transcript" (pdf). BaseballHall.org. Retrieved July 30, 2013.

External links

1884 Toledo Blue Stockings season

The 1884 Toledo Blue Stockings finished with a 45–58 record, eighth place in the American Association. This was the only season the team was in a major league.

The team was noteworthy for catcher Fleet Walker and outfielder Weldy Walker, two brothers who are credited as being the first and second African Americans to play Major League Baseball before the color barrier prevented blacks from playing in the majors again until 1947.

1885 Pittsburgh Alleghenys season

The 1885 Pittsburgh Alleghenys season was the 4th season of the Pittsburgh Alleghenys franchise. The Alleghenys finished third in the American Association with a record of 56–55.

1887 Washington Nationals season

The 1887 Washington Nationals finished with a 46–76 record in the National League, finishing in seventh place.

1888 Washington Nationals season

The 1888 Washington Nationals finished with a 48–86 record in the National League, finishing in last place.

1889 New York Giants season

The 1889 New York Giants season was the franchise's 7th season. The team finished first in the National League with a record of 83–43. They beat the Boston Beneaters by just one game. The Beaneaters won the same number of games as the Giants, but lost two more games, giving the pennant to the Giants. The Giants went on to face the American Association champion Brooklyn Bridegrooms in the 1889 World Series, winning six games to three. The series marked the very first meeting between the Giants and the team that would become the Dodgers, a rivalry that continues to this day.

1910 World Series

The 1910 World Series featured the Philadelphia Athletics and the Chicago Cubs, with the Athletics winning in five games to earn their first championship.

Jack Coombs of Philadelphia won three games and Eddie Collins supplied timely hitting. The 2nd greatest Cubs team in history closed out its glory years, only ten years into the new century.

1912 Cincinnati Reds season

The 1912 Cincinnati Reds season was a season in American baseball. The team finished fourth in the National League with a record of 75–78, 29 games behind the New York Giants. This was the inaugural year of the Reds' new stadium, Redland Field, later known as Crosley Field.

1914 Chicago Cubs season

The 1914 Chicago Cubs season was the 43rd season of the Chicago Cubs franchise, the 39th in the National League and the 22nd at West Side Park. The Cubs finished fourth in the National League with a record of 78–76.

2013 Baseball Hall of Fame balloting

Elections to the Baseball Hall of Fame for 2013 took place according to rules most recently revised in July 2010. As in the past, the Baseball Writers' Association of America (BBWAA) voted by mail to select from a ballot of recently retired players, with results announced on January 9, 2013. The Pre-Integration Committee, the last of three new voting committees established during the July 2010 rules change to replace the more broadly defined Veterans Committee, convened early in December 2012 to select from a ballot of players and non-playing personnel who made their greatest contributions to the sport prior to 1947, called the "Pre-Integration Era" by the Hall of Fame.For the first time since 1996 (and just the third time since 1960), the BBWAA election resulted in no selections; as the ballot featured numerous strong candidates, the result was widely viewed as a reflection of the deep controversy over players who were primarily active during a period when the sport was riddled with rumored use of performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs), and candidates appeared to have suffered in the voting regardless of whether they had been closely tied to any such rumors. The controversy's first major impact on the Hall of Fame ballot was seen in 2007, and the arrival in future years of additional candidates with either alleged or actual links to PED use suggested that the issue would be significant in Hall voting for at least several more years.

For the first time since 1965, there were no living inductees. The induction class of 2013 consisted of the three deceased individuals elected by the new Pre-Integration Committee: player Deacon White, umpire Hank O'Day, and executive Jacob Ruppert, all of whom died in the 1930s. As was the case following the 1965 election–which also resulted only in the induction of a member deceased for over 60 years, and led to the resumption of annual BBWAA elections–the voting results led to calls for revision of the voting rules.The induction ceremonies were held on July 28, 2013 at the Hall of Fame in Cooperstown, New York. On July 27, the Hall of Fame presented two annual awards for media excellence—its own Ford C. Frick Award for broadcasters and the BBWAA's J. G. Taylor Spink Award for writers, and also honored sports medicine pioneer Dr. Frank Jobe and filmmaker Thomas Tull, producer of the 2013 film 42.

Alex Ferson

Alexander "Colonel" Ferson (July 14, 1866 – December 5, 1957) was a 5'9", 165 pound right-handed baseball pitcher who played from 1889 to 1890 and in 1892 for the Washington Nationals, Buffalo Bisons and Baltimore Orioles.

Ferson began his big league career on May 4, 1889. That year, he went 17-17 with a 3.90 ERA in 36 games (34 starts, 28 complete games). Despite finishing 10th in the league in hits allowed (319), ninth in the league in losses and eighth in the league in hit batsmen, he was still the best pitcher on the team overall. Although the team finished last in the league with a 41-83 record (.331 winning percentage), Ferson managed a winning percentage of exactly .500. Furthermore, he was the only pitcher on the team with at least one decision to finish with a winning percentage of .500 or better (in contrast, George Haddock went 11-19 for a .367 winning percentage, George Keefe went 8-18 for a .308 winning percentage, Hank O'Day went 2-10 for a .167 winning percentage and Egyptian Healy went 1-11 for a .083 winning percentage). Ferson also had the best ERA of any pitcher with at least two appearances, and he made the most appearances, games started, and he pitched the most innings.

The rest of Ferson's career didn't really pan out for him. In fact, for the Bisons in 1890, he went 1-7 with a 5.45 ERA in 10 starts. For the Orioles in 1892, he went 0-1 in 2 games (1 start), posting an ERA of 11.00. He played his final game on July 25, 1892.

Overall, Ferson went 18-25 in his three-year career, posting an ERA of 4.37. He made 48 appearances, starting 45 of them, completing 36 of his starts and shutting out one of his complete games. According to the Similarity Scores at Baseball-Reference.com, Ferson is most similar statistically to Rick Matula and Parke Swartzel.

A poor hitter, Ferson hit .133 in 150 career at-bats.

After his death, he was buried in Saint Joseph (old) cemetery in Manchester, New Hampshire.

Bruce Froemming

Bruce Neal Froemming (; born September 28, 1939) is Major League Baseball Special Assistant to the Vice President on Umpiring, after having served as an umpire in Major League Baseball. He is the longest-tenured umpire in major league history in terms of the number of full seasons umpired, finishing his 37th season in 2007. He first umpired in the National League in 1971, and from 2000 to 2007 worked throughout both major leagues. Early in the 2007 season, Froemming tied Bill Klem for the most seasons umpired (Klem's final season, 1941, included only 11 games as a substitute). Previously, on August 16, 2006, Froemming umpired his 5,000th game between the Detroit Tigers and Boston Red Sox at Fenway Park, making him the second umpire to reach that milestone; Klem retired after 5,374 games. On April 20, 2007, he umpired at first base in the Cleveland Indians-Tampa Bay Devil Rays game, passing Klem to become – at age 67 years 204 days – the man then believed to be the oldest umpire in major league history; Hank O'Day holds the record, retiring at 68 years, 2 months. He worked his final regular-season game at age 68 years 2 days on September 30, 2007, when Froemming received a standing ovation before umpiring his last regular-season game, manning the third base position as the Milwaukee Brewers hosted the San Diego Padres at Miller Park in his native Milwaukee, with much of his family in attendance. Because Froemming is over age 65, he became eligible for election to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 2010 instead of having to wait the customary five years.

Cy Rigler

Charles "Cy" Rigler (May 16, 1882 – December 21, 1935) was an American umpire in Major League Baseball who worked in the National League from 1906 to 1935. His total of 4,144 games ranked fourth in major league history when he retired, and his 2,468 games as a plate umpire still place him third behind his NL contemporaries Bill Klem (3,543) and Hank O'Day (2,710). Rigler is tied with O'Day for the second most World Series as an umpire (10), trailing only Klem's 18. Rigler has also been credited with instituting the practice of using arm signals when calling balls and strikes.

Born in Massillon, Ohio, Rigler never played baseball in his younger days, although he played pro football briefly in 1903 as a tackle for the Massillon Tigers. As a young man he worked as a machinist, and also as a police officer and fireman, and was encouraged toward work as an umpire because his thick build served well in quelling disputes on the field between the ironworkers who formed local teams. He advanced quickly in the field, working in the Central League in 1904 at age 22; in 1905 his excellent work was noted by scouts for NL president Harry Pulliam, and he was hired by the NL late in the 1906 season, becoming the youngest regular umpire in that league's history. His first major league game was on September 27, 1906, with the Brooklyn Dodgers visiting the Chicago Cubs; he became a member of the NL's regular staff in April 1907.

While working in the minor leagues in 1905, Rigler had initiated the practice of using arm signals to note balls and strikes, so that those in the outfield would more clearly follow the action; by the time he arrived in the majors, he discovered that the practice had become so widespread that it had preceded him there. Rigler joined the majors at a time when the use of one umpire in a game was still common; by the time his career ended, three umpires had become standard. His solid frame was a decided asset in an era in which players were decidedly more aggressive in their dealings with umpires; and umpires in the NL were not as clearly defended by league officials as those in the American League, although they were also given a free rein in resolving disputes and in allowing their own personalities to emerge.

He not only proved skilled in officiating, but also became an expert in the design and groundskeeping of ballparks, and he laid out many of the most important parks in Cuba and elsewhere in Latin America by the early 1910s. In 1912 he was laying out the ballfield at the University of Virginia, while also serving as an assistant coach at the school, when he discovered pitcher Eppa Rixey and signed him for the Philadelphia Phillies. The ensuing controversy over league umpires signing players for teams whose games they would be officiating led to the establishment of a rule barring umpires from also acting as scouts.

Rigler was highly regarded for his outgoing nature and for his ability to let criticism roll off his back without becoming visibly irritated. He allowed players and managers to make their arguments, and demonstrated a willingness to eject only the most egregious offenders.

Rigler officiated in 10 World Series, second only to Bill Klem's 18: 1910, 1912, 1913, 1915, 1917, 1919, 1921, 1925, 1928 and 1930. He was also one of the umpires in the first All-Star Game in 1933. One of his most memorable calls came in the 1925 Series, when Earl Smith's long fly ball to right field in Game 3 reached Washington outfielder Sam Rice's glove just as he fell over the wall into the outfield bleachers. When Rice emerged from the crowd with the ball in his glove, Rigler's call of a catch and an out stoked controversy for decades as to whether Rice had indeed made the catch. Washington won the game 4-3, although they went on to lose the Series to Pittsburgh.

He was the base umpire on May 2, 1917, when Fred Toney of the Cincinnati Reds and Jim "Hippo" Vaughn of the Chicago Cubs pitched opposing no-hitters for 9 innings, with Vaughn finally giving up 2 hits and a run in the 10th inning to take the loss. Rigler was again the base umpire on August 25, 1922, when the Cubs defeated the Phillies 26-23 in the highest-scoring 9-inning game in history.

Rigler was promoted to supervisor of the NL staff in December 1935 following the death of Hank O'Day, but he never got the opportunity to fulfill his duties. He died less than two weeks later, following surgery for a brain tumor, in Philadelphia at age 53.

Fred Merkle

Carl Frederick Rudolf Merkle (December 20, 1888 – March 2, 1956), also documented as "Frederick Charles Merkle," and nicknamed "Bonehead", was an American first baseman in Major League Baseball from 1907 to 1926. Although he had a lengthy career, he is best remembered for a controversial base-running mistake he made while still a teenager.

Hi Jasper

Henry W. "Hi" Jasper (May 24, 1886 – May 22, 1937) was a pitcher in Major League Baseball. He played for the Chicago White Sox, St. Louis Cardinals, and Cleveland Indians.

Jasper began his professional career in 1909 with the Jacksonville Braves of the Central Association. He had a .218 batting average in 114 games for the Braves. The following season, he played for the Dubuque Dubs of the Illinois–Indiana–Iowa League, and played in 61 games for them. In 1912, he spent the season with the Anadarko Indians of the Oklahoma State League. While with the Indians, Cincinnati Reds manager Hank O'Day brought him in for a trial to make the major league roster, which was unsuccessful. He returned to the Dubs as a pitcher in 1913, and had a win-loss record of 13-6 in 20 games.Jasper joined the Chicago White Sox and made his major league debut on April 19, 1914. In 16 games for the White Sox, Jasper had a 1-0 record and a 3.34 earned run average (ERA). The following season, he pitched in three games for the White Sox, losing one and finishing the year with a 4.60 ERA. Early in the 1915 season he was sent to the Los Angeles Angels, but refused to report for the team; club president Johnny Powers said in response to his refusal that he would find it impossible to join a major league team.In 1916, Jasper spent the season with the St. Louis Cardinals. In 21 games, he had a 5-6 record and a 3.28 ERA. Near the end of the season, he was sent to Los Angeles, but again refused to report; it was not until March the following year when he decided to join the team. After a stint with Los Angeles in 1917, he spent the next two seasons with the St. Paul Saints and the Milwaukee Brewers. Jasper's last stint in the major leagues was with the Cleveland Indians; in 12 games he had a 4-5 record and a 3.59 ERA.Jasper died in 1937 after he fell off a truck driven by his employer in St. Louis, Missouri.

Major League Baseball umpiring records

The following include various records set by umpires in Major League Baseball. Leagues are abbreviated as follows:

AA – American Association, 1882–1891

AL – American League, 1901–1999

FL – Federal League, 1914–1915

ML – Major League Baseball, 2000–present (AL and NL umpiring staffs were merged in 2000)

NL – National League, 1876–1999

PL – Players' League, 1890

New York Giants (PL)

In 1890, the short-lived Players' League included a team called the New York Giants. This baseball team was managed by Hall of Famer Buck Ewing, and they finished third with a record of 74-57. Besides Ewing, who was also a catcher on this team, the roster several former members of the National League New York Giants, such as Hall of Famers Roger Connor, Jim O'Rourke, Hank O'Day, and Tim Keefe. The team played its home games at the Polo Grounds.After the season, their owner, Edward Talcott, bought a minority stake in the National League Giants—in effect, merging the two clubs.

O'Day

O'Day is a surname of Irish origin. Notable people with the surname include:

Alan O'Day (1940–2013), American singer-songwriter

Anita O'Day (1919–2006), American jazz singer

Aubrey O'Day (born 1984), American singer, dancer, actress, songwriter, fashion designer, former member of the group Danity Kane

Caroline Love Goodwin O'Day (1875–1943), American politician

Constance O'Day-Flannery, an American author of romance novels

Daniel O'Day, one of northwestern Pennsylvania's earliest independent refiners to be brought into John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company

Darren O'Day (born 1982), Major League Baseball relief pitcher for the Baltimore Orioles. Real last name Odachowski, not Irish.

Devon O'Day (born 1962), American radio personality, former plus-sized model for the Ford Modeling Agency, songwriter, and an author

George O'Day (1923–1987), American sailor, Olympic champion and boat designer

Hank O'Day (1859–1935), American right-handed pitcher, umpire and manager in Major League Baseball

Jeremy O'Day (born 1974), offensive lineman for the Saskatchewan Roughriders of the Canadian Football League

John O'Day (1856-1933), American politician

Marcus O'Day (1897–1961), American physicist

Molly O'Day (1911–1998), American film actress

Molly O'Day (singer) (1923–1987), American country music vocalist in the late 1940s

Nell O'Day (1909–1989), accomplished equestrian and B-movie actress of the 1930s and 1940s

Pat O'Day (born 1934), Pacific Northwest broadcaster and promoter

Toledo Blue Stockings all-time roster

The Toledo Blue Stockings were a professional baseball team based in Toledo, Ohio, that played in the American Association for one season in 1884. The franchise used League Park and Tri-State Fair Grounds as their home fields. During their only season in existence, the team finished eighth in the AA with a record of 46-58.

Warren Gill

Warren Darst Gill (December 21, 1878 in Ladoga, Indiana – November 26, 1952 in Laguna Beach, California), nicknamed "Doc", was a professional baseball player who played first base for the Pittsburgh Pirates during the 1908 Major League season.

Gill is best known for failing to touch second base in a game against the Chicago Cubs on September 4, 1908. With the game tied at 0 in the bottom of the 10th, Chief Wilson stroked a two-out single that scored the winning run. However, Johnny Evers saw that Gill did not touch second base. Umpire Hank O'Day, the only umpire working the game that day, said he did not see it and called the game over with a Pirates victory.

Three weeks later on September 23, 1908, New York Giants player Fred Merkle repeated Gill's error during a game against the Cubs. The Cubs' capitalization of this error was followed by a losing streak which became known as the curse of Fred Merkle.

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