Hangzhou (Mandarin: [xǎŋ.ʈʂóu] (listen); local dialect: /ɦɑŋ tseɪ/) formerly romanized as Hangchow, is the capital and most populous city of Zhejiang Province in East China. It sits at the head of Hangzhou Bay, which separates Shanghai and Ningbo. Hangzhou grew to prominence as the southern terminus of the Grand Canal and has been one of the most renowned and prosperous cities in China for much of the last millennium. The city's West Lake, a UNESCO World Heritage site immediately west of the city, is among its best-known attractions. A study conducted by PwC and China Development Research Foundation saw Hangzhou ranked first among "Chinese Cities of Opportunity". Hangzhou is also considered a World City with a "Beta+" classification according to GaWC.
Hangzhou is classified as a sub-provincial city and forms the core of the Hangzhou metropolitan area, the fourth-largest in China. During the 2010 Chinese census, the metropolitan area held 21.102 million people over an area of 34,585 km2 (13,353 sq mi). Hangzhou prefecture had a registered population of 9,018,000 in 2015.
In September 2015, Hangzhou was awarded the 2022 Asian Games. It will be the third city in China to host the Asian Games after Beijing 1990 and Guangzhou 2010. Hangzhou, an emerging technology hub and home to the e-commerce giant Alibaba, also hosted the eleventh G20 summit in 2016.
The celebrated neolithic culture of Hemudu is known to have inhabited Yuyao, 100 km (62 mi) north-east of Hangzhou, as far back as seven thousand years ago. It was during this time that rice was first cultivated in southeast China. Excavations have established that the jade-carving Liangzhu culture (named for its type site just northwest of Hangzhou) inhabited the area immediately around the present city around five thousand years ago. The first of Hangzhou's present neighborhoods to appear in written records was Yuhang, which probably preserves an old Baiyue name.
Hangzhou was made the seat of the prefecture of Hang in AD 589, entitling it to a city wall which was constructed two years later. By a longstanding convention also seen in other cities like Guangzhou and Fuzhou, the city took on the name of the area it administered and became known as Hangzhou. Hangzhou was at the southern end of China's Grand Canal which extends to Beijing. The canal evolved over centuries but reached its full length by 609.
In the Tang dynasty, Bai Juyi was appointed governor of Hangzhou. Already an accomplished poet, his deeds at Hangzhou have led to his being praised as a great governor. He noticed that the farmland nearby depended on the water of West Lake, but due to the negligence of previous governors, the old dyke had collapsed, and the lake so dried out that the local farmers were suffering from severe drought. He ordered the construction of a stronger and taller dyke, with a dam to control the flow of water, thus providing water for irrigation and mitigating the drought problem. The livelihood of local people of Hangzhou improved over the following years. Bai Juyi used his leisure time to enjoy the West Lake, visiting it almost daily. He also ordered the construction of a causeway connecting Broken Bridge with Solitary Hill to allow walking, instead of requiring a boat. He then had willows and other trees planted along the dyke, making it a beautiful landmark. This causeway was later named "Bai Causeway", in his honor.
It is listed as one of the Seven Ancient Capitals of China. It was first the capital of the Wuyue Kingdom from 907 to 978 during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Named Xifu (西府) at the time, it was one of the three great bastions of culture in southern China during the tenth century, along with Nanjing and Chengdu. Leaders of Wuyue were noted patrons of the arts, particularly of Buddhist temple architecture and artwork. The dyke built to protect the city by King Qian Liu gave the Qiantang its modern name. Hangzhou also became a cosmopolitan center, drawing scholars from throughout China and conducting diplomacy with neighboring Chinese states, and also with Japan, Goryeo, and the Khitan Liao dynasty.
In 1089, while another renowned poet Su Shi (Su Dongpo) was the city's governor, he used 200,000 workers to construct a 2.8 km (1.7 mi) long causeway across West Lake. The lake was once a lagoon tens of thousands of years ago. Silt then blocked the way to the sea and the lake was formed. A drill in the lake-bed in 1975 found the sediment of the sea, which confirmed its origin. Artificial preservation prevented the lake from evolving into a marshland. The Su Causeway built by Su Shi, and the Bai Causeway built by Bai Juyi, a Tang dynasty poet who was once the governor of Hangzhou, were both built out of mud dredged from the lake bottom. The lake is surrounded by hills on the northern and western sides. The Baochu Pagoda sits on the Baoshi Hill to the north of the lake.
Arab merchants lived in Hangzhou during the Song dynasty, due to the fact that the oceangoing trade passages took precedence over land trade during this time. There were also Arabic inscriptions from the 13th century and 14th century. During the later period of the Yuan dynasty, Muslims were persecuted through the banning of their traditions, and they participated in revolts against the Mongols. The Fenghuangshi mosque was constructed by an Egyptian trader who moved to Hangzhou. Ibn Battuta is known to have visited the city of Hangzhou in 1345; he noted its charm and described how the city sat on a beautiful lake and was surrounded by gentle green hills. During his stay at Hangzhou, he was particularly impressed by the large number of well-crafted and well-painted Chinese wooden ships with colored sails and silk awnings in the canals. He attended a banquet held by Qurtai, the Yuan Mongol administrator of the city, who according to Ibn Battuta, was fond of the skills of local Chinese conjurers.
Hangzhou was chosen as the new capital of the Southern Song dynasty in 1132, when most of northern China had been conquered by the Jurchens in the Jin–Song wars. The surviving imperial family had retreated south from its original capital in Kaifeng after it was captured by the Jurchens in the Jingkang Incident of 1127. Emperor Gaozong moved to Nanjing, then to modern Shangqiu, then to Yangzhou in 1128, and finally to Hangzhou in 1129. The Song government intended it to be a temporary capital, but over the decades Hangzhou grew into a major commercial and cultural center of the Song dynasty, rising from being a middling city of no special importance to being one of the world's largest and most prosperous. Once the prospect of retaking northern China had diminished, government buildings in Hangzhou were extended and renovated to better befit its status as a permanent imperial capital. The imperial palace in Hangzhou, modest in size, was expanded in 1133 with new roofed alleyways, and in 1148 with an extension of the palace walls.
From 1138 until the Mongol invasion of 1276, Hangzhou remained the capital of the Southern Song dynasty and was known as Lin'an (臨安). It served as the seat of the imperial government, a center of trade and entertainment, and the nexus of the main branches of the civil service. During that time the city was a gravitational center of Chinese civilization: what used to be considered "central China" in the north was taken by the Jin, an ethnic minority dynasty ruled by Jurchens.
Numerous philosophers, politicians, and men of literature, including some of the most celebrated poets in Chinese history such as Su Shi, Lu You, and Xin Qiji came here to live and die. Hangzhou is also the birthplace and final resting place of the scientist Shen Kuo (1031–1095 AD), his tomb being located in the Yuhang district.
During the Southern Song dynasty, commercial expansion, an influx of refugees from the conquered north, and the growth of the official and military establishments, led to a corresponding population increase and the city developed well outside its 9th-century ramparts. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, Hangzhou had a population of over 2 million at that time, while historian Jacques Gernet has estimated that the population of Hangzhou numbered well over one million by 1276. (Official Chinese census figures from the year 1270 listed some 186,330 families in residence and probably failed to count non-residents and soldiers.) It is believed that Hangzhou was the largest city in the world from 1180 to 1315 and from 1348 to 1358.
Because of the large population and densely crowded (often multi-story) wooden buildings, Hangzhou was particularly vulnerable to fires. Major conflagrations destroyed large sections of the city in 1132, 1137, 1208, 1229, 1237, and 1275 while smaller fires occurred nearly every year. The 1237 fire alone was recorded to have destroyed 30,000 dwellings. To combat this threat, the government established an elaborate system for fighting fires, erected watchtowers, devised a system of lantern and flag signals to identify the source of the flames and direct the response, and charged more than 3,000 soldiers with the task of putting out fire.
Hangzhou was besieged and captured by the advancing Mongol armies of Kublai Khan in 1276, three years before the final collapse of the Southern Song. The capital of the new Yuan dynasty was established in the city of Dadu (Beijing), but Hangzhou remained an important commercial and administrative center for their southern lands.
Yuan China was very open to foreign visitors, and several returned west describing Hangzhou—under the names Khinzai, Quinsai,[a] Campsay, &c.[b]—as one of the foremost cities in the world. The Venetian merchant Marco Polo supposedly visited Hangzhou in the late 13th century. In his book, he records that the city was "greater than any in the world" and that "the number and wealth of the merchants, and the amount of goods that passed through their hands, was so enormous that no man could form a just estimate thereof." The manuscripts of Polo's account greatly exaggerate the city's size, although it has been argued that the "hundred miles" of walls would be plausible if Chinese miles were intended instead of Italian ones and that the "12,000 stone bridges" might have been a copyist error born from the city's 12 gates. In the 14th century, the Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta arrived; his later account concurred that al-Khansā was "the biggest city I have ever seen on the face of the earth."
In 1856 and 1860, the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom occupied Hangzhou. The city was heavily damaged during its conquest, occupation, and eventual reconquest by the Qing army.
Hangzhou was ruled by the Republic of China government under the Kuomintang from 1927 to 1937 and 1945 to 1949. On May 3, 1949, the People's Liberation Army entered Hangzhou and the city came under Communist control. After Deng Xiaoping's reformist policies began in the end of 1978, Hangzhou took advantage of being situated in the Yangtze River Delta to bolster its development. It is now one of China's most prosperous major cities.
Hangzhou is located in northwestern Zhejiang province, at the southern end of the Grand Canal of China, which runs to Beijing, in the south-central portion of the Yangtze River Delta. Its administrative area (sub-provincial city) extends west to the mountainous parts of Anhui province, and east to the coastal plain near Hangzhou Bay. The city center is built around the eastern and northern sides of the West Lake, just north of the Qiantang River.
Hangzhou's climate is humid subtropical (Köppen Cfa) with four distinctive seasons, characterised by long, very hot, humid summers and chilly, cloudy and drier winters (with occasional snow). The mean annual temperature is 17.0 °C (62.6 °F), with monthly daily averages ranging from 4.6 °C (40.3 °F) in January to 28.9 °C (84.0 °F) in July. The city receives an average annual rainfall of 1,438.0 mm (56.6 in) and is affected by the plum rains of the Asian monsoon in June. In late summer (August to September), Hangzhou suffers typhoon storms, but typhoons seldom strike it directly. Generally they make landfall along the southern coast of Zhejiang, and affect the area with strong winds and stormy rains. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −9.6 °C (15 °F) on 6 February 1969 up to 41.6 °C (107 °F) on 9 August 2013; unofficial readings have reached −10.5 °C (13 °F), set on 29 December 1912 and 24 January 1916, up to 42.1 °C (108 °F), set on 10 August 1930. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 30% in March to 51% in August, the city receives 1,709.4 hours of sunshine annually.
The sub-provincial city of Hangzhou comprises 10 districts, 1 county-level city, and 2 counties. The ten urban districts occupy 8,292.31 km2 (3,201.68 sq mi) and have a population of 8,241,000, in which there are six central urban districts and four suburban distrcits. The central urban districts occupy 706.27 km2 (272.69 sq mi) and have a population of 3,780,000 and the suburban distrcits occupy 7,586.04 km2 (2,928.99 sq mi) and have a population of 4,461,000.
In the early 90s, the urban districts of Hangzhou only comprises Shangcheng, Xiacheng, Gongshu, Jianggan.
On December 12, 1996, Bingjiang District was established.
On March 12, the City of Xiaoshan and the City of Yuhang was included into the City of Hangzhou as two districts.
On December 13, 2014, and in July 2017, the City of Fuyang and Lin'an were included into the City of Hanghzou as two districts.
|Subdivision||Chinese||Pinyin||Population (2018)||Area (km2)||Density|
|Central Urban Districts|
|Shangcheng District||上城区||Shàngchéng Qū||345,000||26.06||13,238.68|
|Xiacheng District||下城区||Xiàchéng Qū||526,000||29.33||17,933.86|
|Jianggan District||江干区||Jiānggàn Qū||1,186,000||200.00||5,930.00|
|Gongshu District||拱墅区||Gǒngshù Qū||574,000||69.25||8,288.81|
|Xihu District||西湖区||Xīhú Qū||890,000||309.41||2,876.44|
|Binjiang District||滨江区||Bīnjiāng Qū||392,000||72.22||5,427.86|
|Xiaoshan District||萧山区||Xiāoshān Qū||1,719,000||1,417.83||1,212.42|
|Yuhang District||余杭区||Yúháng Qū||1,603,000||1,228.41||1,304.94|
|Fuyang District||富阳区||Fùyáng Qū||742,000||1,821.03||407.46|
|Lin'an District||临安区||Lín'ān Qū||593,000||3,118.77||190.14|
|Tonglu County||桐庐县||Tónglú Xiàn||432,000||1,829.59||236.12|
|Chun'an County||淳安县||Chún'ān Xiàn||358,000||4,417.48||81.04|
Hangzhou city had a population of 5,162,039 (including Xiaoshan and Yuhang) at the 2010 census, an increase of 4.8% per year since the 2000 census. The most recent estimates of the city's urban area population are between 6,658,000 and 6,820,000.
The encompassing metropolitan area was estimated by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) to have, as of 2010, a population of 13.4 million, although other sources put the figure at over 21 million. The Hangzhou metropolitan area includes the major cities of Shaoxing, Jiaxing and Huzhou.
Hangzhou's economy has rapidly developed since its opening up in 1992. It is an industrial city with many diverse sectors such as light industry, agriculture, and textiles. It is considered an important manufacturing base and logistics hub for coastal China. In recent years, Hangzhou has seen substantial development in its financial sector, featuring for the first time in the Global Financial Centres Index in 2018 at rank 89.
The 2001 GDP of Hangzhou was RMB 156.8 billion, which ranked second among all of the provincial capitals after Guangzhou. The city has more than tripled its GDP since then, increasing from RMB 156.8 billion in 2001 to RMB 1.3509 trillion in 2018 and GDP per capita increasing from US$3,020 to $21,184.
The city has developed many new industries, including medicine, information technology, heavy equipment, automotive components, household electrical appliances, electronics, telecommunication, fine chemicals, chemical fibre and food processing.
Hangzhou is known for its historic relics and natural environment. Although Hangzhou has been through many recent urban developments, it still retains its historical and cultural heritage. Today, tourism remains an important factor for Hangzhou's economy. One of Hangzhou's most popular sights is West Lake, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The West Lake Cultural Landscape covers an area of 3,323 ha (8,210 acres) and includes some of Hangzhou's most notable historic and scenic places. Adjacent to the lake is an area which includes historical pagodas, cultural sites, as well as the natural environment of the lake and hills, including Phoenix Mountain. There are two causeways across the lake.
In March 2013 the Hangzhou Tourism Commission started an online campaign via Facebook, the 'Modern Marco Polo' campaign. Over the next year nearly 26,000 participants applied from around the globe, in the hopes of becoming Hangzhou's first foreign tourism ambassador. In a press conference in Hangzhou on 20 May 2014, Liam Bates was announced as the successful winner and won a €40,000 contract, being the first foreigner ever to be appointed by China's government in such an official role.
In 1848, during the Qing dynasty, Hangzhou was described as the "stronghold" of Islam in China, the city containing several mosques with Arabic inscriptions. A Hui from Ningbo also told an Englishman that Hangzhou was the "stronghold" of Islam in Zhejiang province, containing multiple mosques, compared to his small congregation of around 30 families in Ningbo for his mosque. Within the city of Hangzhou are two notable mosques: the Great Mosque of Hangzhou and the Phoenix Mosque.
As late as the latter part of the 16th and early 17th centuries, the city was an important center of Chinese Jewry, and may have been the original home of the better-known Kaifeng Jewish community.
There was formerly a Jewish synagogue in Ningbo, as well as one in Hangzhou, but no traces of them are now discoverable, and the only Jews known to exist in China were in Kaifeng.
The native residents of Hangzhou, like those of Zhejiang and southern Jiangsu, speak Hangzhou dialect, which is a Wu dialect. However, Wu Chinese varies throughout the area where it is spoken, hence, Hangzhou's dialect differs from regions in southern Zhejiang and southern Jiangsu. As the official language defined by China's central government, Mandarin is the dominant spoken language.
There are several museums located in Hangzhou with regional and national importance. China National Silk Museum (中国丝绸博物馆), located near the West Lake, is one of the first state-level museums in China and the largest silk museum in the world. China National Tea Museum (中国茶叶博物馆) is a national museum with special subjects as tea and its culture. Zhejiang Provincial Museum (浙江博物馆) features collection of integrated human studies, exhibition and research with its over 100,000 collected cultural relics.
Hangzhou's local cuisine is often considered to be representative of Zhejiang provincial cuisine, which is claimed as one of China's eight fundamental cuisines. The locally accepted consensus among Hangzhou's natives defines dishes prepared in this style to be "fresh, tender, soft, and smooth, with a mellow fragrance."
Generally, Hangzhou's cuisines tend to be sweeter rather than savoury. Owing to the fact that Hangzhou is located near the Yangtze river, where the climate is mild, the local people enjoy a light diet incorporating river fishes. The rich history of the city provides the local people with stories revolving the origins of local dishes.
Dishes such as Pian Er Chuan Noodles (片儿川), West Lake Vinegar Fish (西湖醋鱼), Dongpo Pork (东坡肉), Longjing Shrimp (龙井虾仁), Beggar's Chicken (叫化鸡), Steamed Rice and Pork Wrapped by Lotus Leaves(荷叶粉蒸肉), Braised Bamboo Shoots (油焖笋), Lotus Root Pudding (藕粉) and Sister Song's Fish Soup (宋嫂鱼羹) are some of the better-known examples of Hangzhou's regional cuisine.
There are lots of theaters in Hangzhou showing performance of opera shows. Yue opera, originated from Shengzhou, Zhejiang Province, is the second-largest opera form in China. Also, there are several big shows themed with the history and culture of Hangzhou like Impression West Lake and the Romance of Song Dynasty.
Tea is an important part of Hangzhou's economy and culture. Hangzhou is best known for originating Longjing, a notable variety of green tea, the most notable type being Xi Hu Long Jing. Known as the best type of Long Jing tea, Xi Hu Long Jing is grown in Longjing village near Xi Hu in Hangzhou, hence its name.
The Port of Hangzhou is a small river port with a cargo throughput that exceeds 100 million tons annually.
Hangzhou is served by the Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport, which provides direct service to many international destinations such as Thailand, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Vietnam, Singapore, Taiwan, Netherlands, Qatar, Portugal and the United States. Regional routes reach Hong Kong and Macau. It has an extensive domestic route network within the PRC and is consistently ranked top 10 in passenger traffic among Chinese airports. Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport has two terminals, Terminal A and Terminal B. The smaller Terminal A serves all international and regional flights while the larger Terminal B solely handles domestic traffic. The airport is located just outside the city in the Xiaoshan District with direct bus service linking the airport with Downtown Hangzhou. The ambitious expansion project will see the addition of a second runway and a third terminal which will dramatically increase capacity of the fast-growing airport that serves as a secondary hub of Air China. A new elevated airport express highway is under construction on top of the existing highway between the airport and downtown Hangzhou. The second phase of Hangzhou Metro Line 1 has a planned extension to the airport.
Hangzhou sits on the intersecting point of some of the busiest rail corridors in China. The city's main station is Hangzhou East railway station (colloquially "East Station" 东站). It is one of the biggest rail traffic hubs in China, consisting of 15 platforms that house the High Speed CRH service to Shanghai, Nanjing, Changsha, Ningbo, and beyond. The subway station beneath the rail complex building is a stop along the Hangzhou Metro Line 1 and Line 4. There are frequent departures for Shanghai with approximately 20-minute headways from 6:00 to 21:00. Non-stop CRH high-speed service between Hangzhou and Shanghai takes 50 minutes and leaves every hour (excluding a few early morning/late night departures) from both directions. Other CRH high-speed trains that stop at one or more stations along the route complete the trip in 59 to 75 minutes. Most other major cities in China can also be reached by direct train service from Hangzhou. The Hangzhou railway station (colloquially the "City Station" Chinese: 城站) was closed for renovation in mid 2013 but has recently opened again.
Direct trains link Hangzhou with more than 50 main cities, including 12 daily services to Beijing and more than 100 daily services to Shanghai; they reach as far as Ürümqi. The China Railway High-Speed service inaugurated on October 26, 2010. The service is operated by the CRH 380A(L), CRH 380B(L) and CRH380CL train sets which travel at a maximum speed of 350 km/h (220 mph), shortening the duration of the 202 km (126 mi) trip to only 45 minutes.
Central (to the east of the city centre, taking the place of the former east station), north, south, and west long-distance bus stations offer frequent coach service to nearby cities/towns within Zhejiang province, as well as surrounding provinces.
The first metro system line entered into service in late 2012. with major expansion plans still ongoing. It is the 17th city in China to operate a rapid transit system. In 2018, the state council approved the planning for 15 metro lines, including extensions to the three existing lines, scheduled to open in time for the 2022 Asian Games. By then the Hangzhou Metro network is projected to be 617 km (383 mi) long. Hangzhou is known for its extensive Bus Rapid Transit network expanding from downtown to many suburban areas through dedicated bus lanes on some of the busiest streets in the city. Bicycles and electric scooters are very popular, and major streets have dedicated bike lanes throughout the city. Hangzhou has an extensive free public bike rental system, the Hangzhou Public Bicycle system.
The Hangzhou Metro began construction in March 2006, and the first line opened on November 24, 2012. Line 1 connects downtown Hangzhou with suburban areas of the city from Xianghu to Wenze Road and Linping. By June 2015, the southeast part of Line 2 (starts in Xiaoshan District, ends to the south of the city centre) and a short part of Line 4 (fewer than 10 stations, connecting Line 1 & Line 2) were completed. The system is expected to have 15 lines upon completion; most lines are still under construction. The extensions of Line 2 (Xihu District) and Line 4 (east of Bingjiang) have been finished in 2018.
Taxis are also popular in the city, with the newest line of Hyundai Sonatas and Volkswagen Passats, and tight regulations. In early 2011, 30 electric taxis were deployed in Hangzhou; 15 were Zotye Langyues and the other 15 were Haima Freemas. In April, however, one Zoyte Langyue caught fire, and all of the electric taxis were taken off the roads later that day. The city still intends to have a fleet of 200 electric taxis by the end of 2011. In 2014, a large number of new electric taxis produced by Xihu-BYD (Xihu (westlake) is a local company which produced televisions in the past) were deployed.
Hangzhou has a large student population with many higher education institutions based in the city. Public universities include Zhejiang University, Zhejiang University of Technology, and Hangzhou Normal University etc. Xiasha, located near the east end of the city, and Xiaoheshan, located near the west end of the city, are college towns with a cluster of several universities and colleges.
Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.
Public high schools in Hangzhou include:
Private high schools in Hangzhou include:
Hangzhou is twinned with:
|Leeds||West Yorkshire||United Kingdom||1988|
|Cape Town||Western Cape||South Africa||2005|
|El Calafate||Santa Cruz||Argentina||2013|
|Middlesbrough||North Yorkshire||United Kingdom||Unknown|
Fishers, Indiana, in the United States, is in the exploration process of becoming sister cities with Hangzhou.
A common Chinese saying about Hangzhou and Suzhou is:
This phrase has a similar meaning to the English phrases "Heaven on Earth". Marco Polo in his accounts described Suzhou as "the city of the earth" while Hangzhou is "the city of heaven". The city presented itself as "Paradise on Earth" during the G20 summit held in the city in 2016.
Another popular saying about Hangzhou is:
The meaning here lies in the fact that Suzhou was renowned for its beautiful and highly civilized and educated citizens, Hangzhou for its scenery, Guangzhou for its food, and Liuzhou (of Guangxi) for its wooden coffins which supposedly halted the decay of the body (likely made from the camphor tree).
| Capital of China (as Lin'an)
Dadu (present Beijing)
The Grand Canal, known to the Chinese as the Jing–Hang Grand Canal (Chinese: 京杭大运河; pinyin: Jīng-Háng Dà Yùnhé; literally: 'Beijing–Hangzhou Grand Canal'), a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the longest as well as the oldest canal or artificial river in the world. Starting at Beijing, it passes through Tianjin and the provinces of Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the city of Hangzhou, linking the Yellow River and Yangtze River. The oldest parts of the canal date back to the 5th century BC, but the various sections were first connected during the Sui dynasty (581–618 AD). Dynasties in 1271–1633 significantly rebuilt the canal and altered its route to supply their capital Beijing.
The total length of the Grand Canal is 1,776 km (1,104 mi). Its greatest height is reached in the mountains of Shandong, at a summit of 42 m (138 ft). Ships in Chinese canals did not have trouble reaching higher elevations after the pound lock was invented in the 10th century, during the Song dynasty (960–1279), by the government official and engineer Qiao Weiyue. The canal has been admired by many throughout history including Japanese monk Ennin (794–864), Persian historian Rashid al-Din (1247–1318), Korean official Choe Bu (1454–1504), and Italian missionary Matteo Ricci (1552–1610).Historically, periodic flooding of the Yellow River threatened the safety and functioning of the canal. During wartime the high dikes of the Yellow River were sometimes deliberately broken in order to flood advancing enemy troops. This caused disaster and prolonged economic hardships. Despite temporary periods of desolation and disuse, the Grand Canal furthered an indigenous and growing economic market in China's urban centers since the Sui period. It has allowed faster trading and has improved China's economy. The southern portion remains in heavy use to the present day.Hangzhou Bay
Hangzhou Bay, or the Bay of Hangzhou (simplified Chinese: 杭州湾; traditional Chinese: 杭州灣; pinyin: Hángzhōu Wān; Hangzhou Wu: Han-tsei uae), is an inlet of the East China Sea, bordered by the province of Zhejiang and the municipality of Shanghai. The Qiantang River flows into the bay.
It lies south of Shanghai, and ends at the city of Hangzhou. Hangzhou Bay contains many small islands collectively called the Zhoushan Islands.
The bay is known for hosting the world's largest tidal bore, up to 9 metres (30 ft) high, and traveling up to 40 km (25 mi) per hour.
The bay is spanned by the Hangzhou Bay Bridge, which was linked up on June 14, 2007 and opened on 1 May, 2008. The then second-longest bridge in the world, it cuts the trip between eastern Zhejiang and Shanghai from 400 to 80 kilometres (250 to 50 miles).
The entire bay area is shallow at less than 15 meters depth.Hangzhou East railway station
Hangzhou East (Hangzhoudong) railway station (simplified Chinese: 杭州东站; traditional Chinese: 杭州東站; pinyin: Hángzhōudōng zhàn) is a railway station located in Zhejiang, People's Republic of China. Originally built as a small station serving the Shanghai-Kunming railway, it has been rebuilt as a high-speed rail hub, which became operational on 1 July 2013.Hangzhou Jianqiao Airport
Hangzhou Jianqiao Airport (Chinese: 杭州笕桥机场), formerly romanized as Chien Chiao, also known as Hangzhou Air Base, is a People's Liberation Army Air Force Base and a former civil airport serving Hangzhou, the capital city of Zhejiang Province, China. It is located in the town of Jianqiao (Chinese: 笕桥) in Jianggan District, about 7 miles northeast of the city center. Jianqiao Airport served as Hangzhou's main airport until December 29, 2000, when all flights were transferred to the newly built Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport.Hangzhou Metro
Hangzhou Metro (Chinese: 杭州地铁) is a metro system that serves the Chinese city of Hangzhou and surrounding suburbs. The system opened on November 24, 2012, with major expansion plans still ongoing, including a connection to neighboring Shaoxing which is building its own metro. It is the 17th city in China to operate a rapid transit system.
There are currently three lines in operation. Line 1 is an arc-shaped line, begins in Xiaoshan, stretches across downtown Hangzhou after crossing the Qiantang River and ends in Xiasha, with a branch line branching off the main line at Coach Center station and ending in Linping. Line 2 links the Xiaoshan Industrial Park in the southeast with the city center and Xihu District in the northwest. Line 4 complements Line 1 in downtown Hangzhou, stretching in a north-south direction from Pengbu to Puyan.
In January 2009, it was announced that MTR Corporation would invest in a 22 billion-yuan ($3.2 billion) / 25-year / 49% share joint venture with the Hangzhou government to operate Line 1 of the metro.In December 2016, the state council approved the planning for 10 lines, including extensions to the three existing lines, scheduled to open in time for the 2022 Asian Games. By then the Hangzhou Metro network is projected to be 446 km long. As of 2018 there are over 300km of subway lines under construction in Hangzhou.Hangzhou South railway station
Hangzhou South railway station (Chinese: 杭州南站; pinyin: Hángzhōunǎn zhàn) is a railway station located in the Xiaoshan District, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China.Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport
Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport (IATA: HGH, ICAO: ZSHC) is the principal airport serving Hangzhou, a major city in the Yangtze River Delta region and the capital of Zhejiang Province, China. The airport is located on the southern shore of Qiantang River in Xiaoshan District and is 27 km (17 mi) east of downtown Hangzhou. Architecture firm Aedas designed Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport.The airport has service to destinations throughout China. International destinations are mainly in the east and southeast Asia, and points of Africa, Europe, and South Asia. The airport also serves as a focus city for Air China, China Eastern Airlines, China Southern Airlines, Hainan Airlines and Xiamen Airlines.
In 2017, Hangzhou airport handled 35,570,411 passengers, which ranked 10th in terms of passenger traffic in China. Additionally, the airport ranked 6th busiest in terms of cargo with 589,461.6 tonnes and was the country's 9th busiest airport by traffic movements at 271,066.Hangzhou–Changsha high-speed railway
Hangzhou–Changsha high-speed railway is a China Railway High-speed line connecting Hangzhou, Nanchang, and Changsha, respectively the provincial capitals of Zhejiang, Jiangxi, and Hunan. This railway forms a section of the Shanghai–Kunming high-speed railway, part of the National Railway Grid Network, as one of the four major east-west lines.
It has a total length of 921.426 km (572.548 mi). Construction started in December 2009 and was opened to traffic on December 10, 2014. With trains from Hangzhou to Nanchang taking 2 hours 14 minutes, Hangzhou to Changsha in three hours and 36 minutes.Hangzhou–Ningbo high-speed railway
The Hangzhou–Ningbo high-speed railway, or Hangyong high-speed railway (Chinese: 杭甬客运专线; pinyin: Háng-Yǒng kèyùn zhuān xiàn) or Hang-Yong Passenger Dedicated Railway) is a China Railway High-speed line between the major cities of Hangzhou and Ningbo in Zhejiang province. It spans approximately 150 km (93 mi), with a design speed of 350 km/h (220 mph).
In the railway's short name, "Háng" stands for Hangzhou, and "Yǒng" (甬) is a traditional short name for Ningbo.
Early on, the railway was scheduled to open in June 2012; later, the end of 2012 became the target date. It was announced in October 2012 that the completion of the project had been postponed again. Test operations began at the start of 2013 and commercial operations began on 30 June 2013.Hikvision
Hangzhou Hikvision Digital Technology Co., Ltd. is a Chinese manufacturer and world's largest supplier of video surveillance products based in Hangzhou, China. Its controlling shares are owned by the Chinese government.Jack Ma
Jack Ma (born Ma Yun, Chinese: 马云; [mà y̌n]; born 10 September 1964) is a Chinese politician, business magnate, investor and philanthropist. He is the co-founder and executive chairman of the Alibaba Group, a multinational technology conglomerate. As of January 2019, he is one of China's richest men with a net worth of $39.1 billion, as well as one of the wealthiest people in the world. Ma is a strong proponent of an open and market-driven economy.A prominent business figure, Ma is seen as a global ambassador for Chinese business and as such is frequently listed as one of the world's most powerful people by Forbes. He also serves as a role model for startup businesses. In 2017, he was ranked second in the annual "World's 50 Greatest Leaders" list by Fortune. On 10 September 2018, he announced that he will retire from Alibaba and pursue educational work, effective in one year with Daniel Zhang succeeding him as executive chairman.Ma resigned from the position of the CEO of Alibaba Group and reportedly decided to eventually resign as chairman to concentrate on philanthropy.Loong Air
Loong Air is a Chinese airline with its headquarters in the Loong Air Office Building on the property of Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport in Xiaoshan District, Hangzhou, Zhejiang. Its main hub is in Hangzhou. Approved by the Civil Aviation Administration of China, it started domestic services in 2013. On 25 September 2013, the airline signed a memorandum of understanding with Airbus for the purchase of 20 Airbus A320 twin-engined aircraft.The company's full name is Zhejiang Loong Airlines Co. Ltd. It was originally a cargo airline named CDI Cargo Airlines (simplified Chinese: 长龙国际货运航空有限公司; traditional Chinese: 長龍國際貨運航空有限公司; pinyin: Chánglóng Guójì Huòyùn Hángkōng Yǒuxiàn Gōngsī), which started services in 2012 with one Boeing 737-300F freighter.Nanjing–Hangzhou high-speed railway
The Nanjing–Hangzhou passenger railway (Chinese: 宁杭高铁; pinyin: Níng-Háng gāotiě)
is a high-speed rail (maximum speed 350 km/h), passenger-dedicated line in eastern China between Nanjing (shorthand name Níng) and Hangzhou, the capitals of Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces, respectively. During the planning and early construction stage, the railway was originally referred to as the Nanjing–Hangzhou intercity railway or Ninghang intercity railway (simplified Chinese: 宁杭城际铁路; traditional Chinese: 寧杭城際鐵路; pinyin: níngháng chéngjì tiělù). Recent publications don't use the "intercity" designation anymore, perhaps in recognition of the fact that the railway will be used not only by regional trains but long-distance trains as well.
The line is 249 km (155 mi) long (including 147 km or 91 mi in Jiangsu and 102 km or 63 mi in Zhejiang) and has 11 stations: Nanjing South, Jiangning District, Lishui County, Liyang, Yixing in Jiangsu and Changxing County, Huzhou South, Deqing County, Yuhang District and Hangzhou East in Zhejiang. The line is the first direct high-speed railway line between Nanjing and Hangzhou and reduced travel time by rail from nearly two hours to 50 minutes as direct trains no longer need to travel through Shanghai. Construction began in 2008 and the line was opened on July 1, 2013.Shanghai–Hangzhou high-speed railway
The Shanghai–Hangzhou high-speed railway (Chinese: 沪杭客运专线 or 沪杭高速铁路), also known as the Huhang high-speed railway or Huhang passenger railway is a high-speed rail line in China between Shanghai and Hangzhou, Zhejiang. The line is 202 km (126 mi) in length and designed for commercial train service at 350 km/h (217 mph). It was built in 20 months and opened on October 26, 2010. The line shortened travel time between the two cities from 78 to 45 minutes. The line is also used by trains departing Shanghai's terminals for Kunming and Shenzhen making it part of the Shanghai–Kunming High-Speed Railway and The Southeast Coast High-Speed Rail Corridor. It has made the proposed Shanghai–Hangzhou Maglev Line unlikely.Shanghai–Kunming high-speed railway
The Shanghai–Kunming high-speed railway is a high-speed railway line. It was built in stages and completed on 28 December 2016. It is part of the CRH's system of passenger-dedicated lines, beginning in Shanghai and ending in Kunming, the capital of Yunnan Province. Following a fairly similar route to the older "conventional" Shanghai–Kunming Railway, the Shanghai–Kunming high-speed railway passes through four more provincial capitals, the cities of Hangzhou, Nanchang, Changsha, and Guiyang.West Lake
West Lake (Chinese: 西湖; pinyin: Xī Hú; Wu: Si-wu) is a freshwater lake in Hangzhou, China. It is divided into five sections by three causeways. There are numerous temples, pagodas, gardens, and artificial islands within the lake.
West Lake has influenced poets and painters throughout Chinese history for its natural beauty and historic relics, and it has also been among the most important sources of inspiration for Chinese garden designers. It was made a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2011, described as having "influenced garden design in the rest of China as well as Japan and Korea over the centuries" and reflecting "an idealized fusion between humans and nature".Zhejiang
Zhejiang (浙江; formerly romanized as Chekiang) is an eastern coastal province of China. Zhejiang is bordered by Jiangsu and Shanghai to the north, Anhui to the northwest, Jiangxi to the west, and Fujian to the south. To the east is the East China Sea, beyond which lie the Ryukyu Islands of Japan.Zhejiang Greentown F.C.
Zhejiang Greentown Football Club (simplified Chinese: 浙江绿城; traditional Chinese: 浙江綠城; pinyin: Zhèjiāng Lǜchéng) is a professional Chinese football club that currently participates in the China League One division (second division) under licence from the Chinese Football Association (CFA). The team is based in Hangzhou, Zhejiang and their home stadium is the Hangzhou Huanglong Stadium that has a seating capacity of 52,672. The club's main investor is the Zhejiang-based Greentown China Holdings Limited company, which is owned by real estate tycoon Song Weiping. Greentown became the first sports club from Hangzhou with 1 million followers on Weibo.
The club was founded on January 14, 1998 and they made their debut in the third tier of China's football league pyramid in the 1999 league season. On November 23, 2000 the club bought the first team of Jilin Aodong as well as their position in the second division for 25 million Yuan. They have subsequently won promotion to the top tier after finishing runners-up in the 2006 league season and the highest position they have ever finished is fourth in the 2010 Chinese Super League season.Zhejiang University
Zhejiang University (ZJU, also known as Che Kiang University; simplified Chinese: 浙江大学; traditional Chinese: 浙江大學; pinyin: Zhèjiāng Dàxué; Wade–Giles: Che-Chiang-ta-hsüeh), sometimes referred to as Zhèdà (浙大), is an elite C9 League university in Zhejiang province. It is also a Chinese Ministry of Education Class A Double First Class University.
Founded in 1897, Zhejiang University is one of China's oldest, most selective and most prestigious institutions of higher education. It is also a member of the Yangtze Delta Universities Alliance and the Association of Pacific Rim Universities.
The university campus is located in the city of Hangzhou. Zhejiang University Library's collection contains about 7 million volumes, making it one of China's largest academic libraries.
|Romanization||ɦaŋ-tsei (Hangzhou dialect)|
|Climate data for Hangzhou (1981–2010 normals, extremes 1951–present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||25.4
|Mean maximum °C (°F)||17.4
|Average high °C (°F)||8.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||4.6
|Average low °C (°F)||1.8
|Mean minimum °C (°F)||−3.9
|Record low °C (°F)||−8.6
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||79.8
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||12.4||12.1||15.3||14.5||13.8||14.6||12.4||13.8||11.7||9.0||9.3||8.5||147.4|
|Average relative humidity (%)||75||75||75||74||74||80||76||78||79||76||74||73||76|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||102.0||97.2||116.4||140.6||164.7||136.6||212.7||193.0||143.9||144.6||129.0||128.7||1,709.4|
|Source: China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System|
¹ — Taiwan is administered as a streamlined province by the Republic of China, but claimed by the PRC.
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