In American football, a hand-off is the act of handing the ball directly from one player to another, i. e. without it leaving the first player's hands.[1] Most rushing plays on offense begin with a handoff from the quarterback to another running back. The biggest risk with any hand-off is the chance of fumble on the exchange.[2] A hand-off can occur in any direction. Sometimes called a "switch" in touch football. Alternately spelled without the hyphen; i.e., "handoff".

2007 Hawaii Bowl - Boise State University vs East Carolina University - Chris Johnson handoff
Running back Chris Johnson of the East Carolina Pirates (#5) receiving the handoff and rushing the ball during the 2007 Hawaii Bowl


  1. ^ "The Quarterback's Stance, Drop Back, and Hand Off". dummies.com.
  2. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=0YXOFLZHpKIC&pg=PA41
2016 IAAF World Indoor Championships – Men's 4 × 400 metres relay

The men's 4 × 400 metres relay at the 2016 IAAF World Indoor Championships took place on March 19 and 20, 2016.In the first leg of the final, Bahamas' Michael Mathieu was the first to break, keeping Kyle Clemons behind him through the entire leg. Dylan Borlée from the Borlée Brothers Team, Belgium, held off Jamaica's Ricardo Chambers until just before the handoff. The USA executed an ideal first handoff, with Clemons just edging ahead of Mathieu on the final straightaway, reaching across the zone to hand off to Calvin Smith Jr. who gained a two-metre lead over Alonzo Russell in the exchange. From there, USA went unchallenged to the gold medal, continually expanding the lead. After a short battle with Jamaica's Dane Hyatt, Jonathan Borlée ducked in behind Russell. Lalonde Gordon also ran a strong leg for Trinidad and Tobago to put them near Borlée at the handoff. Robin Vanderbemden was the only non-Borlée brother on the Belgian team. Almost immediately after getting the baton in his right hand, he tangled elbows with Ade Alleyne-Forte, suddenly the Belgian baton was on the ground with Vanderbemden running back into the infield to retrieve it, their race was over and the medal positions established. With the US 25 metres ahead, Deon Lendore made an attempt to pass Chris Brown on the anchor leg but the veteran, Masters world record holder Brown held him off.

Athletics at the 2012 Summer Olympics – Men's 4 × 400 metres relay

The men's 4 × 400 metres relay competition at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, United Kingdom. The event was held at the Olympic Stadium on 9–10 August. It was won by the Bahamas.

The qualifying round experienced more drama than is normal in these affairs. In the first heat, on the second leg, Kenya's Vincent Mumo Kiilu was boxed in near the back of the pack, with South Africa's Ofentse Mogawane on his shoulder. Coming into the home straight, Kiilu tried to step to the outside, tripping Mogawane, leaving him injured on the track. The much awaited return of Oscar Pistorius waiting to run the third leg never materialized. South Africa filed a protest in which Kenya was disqualified and South Africa was allowed to run in the final. Conveniently, the London Olympic Stadium track has 9 lanes to accommodate such a circumstance, while normally only 8 lanes are used in Championship meets.

At the finish of the first heat, Trinidad and Tobago won the heat, setting their National Record, but host Great Britain was given exactly the same time.

In the second heat the United States led off with Manteo Mitchell. Halfway around the track, Mitchell heard a crack and felt pain.

“It felt like somebody literally just snapped my leg in half. I felt it break.’’

Mitchell continued to the hand off, running a sub-par 46.1 split. It was later revealed that Mitchell did break his left fibula. His American teammates continued on, running three sub 45 splits. Bahamas won the heat, but the Americans qualified, credited with exactly the same time as Bahamas, the fastest time in 2012. Both heats ending with the first and second place teams running the same times.

Also during the second heat, the Dominican Republic failed to make the second exchange between Felix Sánchez and Joel Mejía within the zone and were disqualified. Then halfway through the third leg, Jamaica's Jermaine Gonzales pulled a muscle and was unable to continue.

In the final, Bahamas started off with their best 400 runners, 4th place Chris Brown and 7th place Demetrius Pinder. Brown had a clear lead through the first 350 metres before fading to hand off just slightly ahead of Bryshon Nellum. Over the next leg, Josh Mance brought the American team into contention, with the two teams separating from the rest of the field. On the final straightaway, Pinder extended the lead slightly, his relay split of 43.3 credited as the 7th (now 9th) fastest relay splits in history. On the third leg, Tony McQuay passed Michael Mathieu early on the back stretch and extended the lead by a few metres. McQuay's split was reported to be 43.4. Last minute fill in Angelo Taylor took the baton in the lead, but Ramon Miller ran up to maintain contact. Coming off the final turn, he moved past Taylor with 50 meters to go and won. Trinidad and Tobago again improved their national record in winning the bronze. It was only the third time an American team had been beaten in the Olympic 4 × 400 metres relay.

Oscar Pistorius ran the anchor leg for the South African team, but they were already well beaten before he received the baton.

The fifth place Russian team was later disqualified when two of its members received post dated doping bans.

Bacchus (Leonardo)

Bacchus, formerly Saint John the Baptist, is a painting in the Musée du Louvre, Paris, France, based on a drawing by the Italian Renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci. It is presumed to have been executed by an unknown follower, perhaps in Leonardo's workshop. Sydney J. Freedberg assigns the drawing to Leonardo's second Milan period. Among the Lombard painters who have been suggested as possible authors are Cesare da Sesto, Marco d'Oggiono, Francesco Melzi, and Cesare Bernazzano. The painting shows a male figure with garlanded head and leopard skin, seated in an idyllic landscape. He points with his right hand off to his left, and with his left hand grasps his thyrsus and also points down to earth.

The painting originally depicted John the Baptist. In the late 17th century, between the years 1683 and 1693, it was overpainted and altered to serve as Bacchus.Cassiano dal Pozzo remarked of the painting in its former state, which he saw at Fontainebleau in 1625, that it had neither devotion, decorum nor similitude, the suavely beautiful, youthful and slightly androgynous Giovannino was so at variance with artistic conventions in portraying the Baptist – neither the older ascetic prophet nor the Florentine baby Giovannino, but a type of Leonardo's invention, of a disconcerting, somewhat ambiguous sensuality, familiar in Leonardo's half-length and upward-pointing Saint John the Baptist, also in the Louvre.The overpainting transformed the image of St. John into one of a pagan deity, by converting the long-handled cross-like staff of the Baptist to a Bacchic thyrsus and adding a vine wreath. The fur robe is the legacy of John the Baptist, but has been overpainted with leopard-spots relating, like the wreath, to Bacchus, the Roman god of wine and intoxication.

Buck-lateral series

Buck-lateral is an American football play or a series of plays used in the Single-wing formation. Since the Single-Wing formation lost prominence by 1950, the football play referred to as the Buck-lateral is almost gone from football's vocabulary. However, prior to this time, the buck-lateral play gave fullbacks the option to run, lateral, or hand-off the ball to another player. Running the buck-lateral required an offensive scheme that needed the fullback to possess many specialized skills, as opposed to today's fullback who mainly blocks and carries the ball infrequently.

Charles Goldenberg

Charles R. "Buckets" Goldenberg (April 15, 1911, in Odessa, Ukraine, Russian Empire – April 16, 1986, in Glendale, Wisconsin) was an All-Pro National Football League (NFL) American football player. He is often credited as the originator of the draw play by forcing Sid Luckman to hand off with his blitzing.

Code-division multiple access

Code-division multiple access (CDMA) is a channel access method used by various radio communication technologies.CDMA is an example of multiple access, where several transmitters can send information simultaneously over a single communication channel. This allows several users to share a band of frequencies (see bandwidth). To permit this without undue interference between the users, CDMA employs spread spectrum technology and a special coding scheme (where each transmitter is assigned a code).CDMA is used as the access method in many mobile phone standards. IS-95, also called "cdmaOne", and its 3G evolution CDMA2000, are often simply referred to as "CDMA", but UMTS, the 3G standard used by GSM carriers, also uses "wideband CDMA", or W-CDMA, as well as TD-CDMA and TD-SCDMA, as its radio technologies.

Gaël Fickou

Gaël Fickou (born 26 March 1994) is a French rugby union player who plays for French club Stade Français. His usual position is in the Centre.

Fickou made his Heineken Cup debut on 14 October 2012, scoring the only try of the game in a win against Leicester Tigers. His lithe movement, balance and pace for his size has seen him compared to English rugby legend Jeremy Guscott. He made his French international debut at the age of 18 against Scotland on 16 March 2013 in the RBS 6 Nations.Gaël Fickou scored his first try for France against the Auckland Blues on the summer 2013 tour to New Zealand

According to Toulouse and France teammate, Maxime Médard, Fickou "is one of the 10 best centres in the world and soon he will be number one. He reminds me of Sonny Bill Williams: tall, athletic, technical, with a good hand-off and a feel for the game. He has everything."After spending six seasons with Toulouse, he signed with Stade Français for the start of the 2018-19 season.

Keep Your Hands off My Girl

"Keep Your Hands Off My Girl" is a song by American pop punk band Good Charlotte. It was released in late 2006 on their official website and MySpace page and is the fifth track on their fourth full-length studio album, Good Morning Revival (2007). The song is the first and debut single off the album Good Morning Revival in the United Kingdom, Australia (where it was certified Gold) and Latin America. However, it was not released in North America as a single.

Out, Out—

Under the sunset far into Vermont.

And the saw snarled and rattled, snarled and rattled,

As it ran light, or had to bear a load.

His sister stood beside them in her apron

To tell them “Supper.” At the word, the saw,

As if to prove saws knew what supper meant,

Leaped out at the boy’s hand, or seemed to leap—

He must have given the hand. However it was,

Neither refused the meeting. But the hand!

The boy's first outcry was a rueful laugh,

As he swung toward them holding up the hand

Half in appeal, but half as if to keep

The life from spilling. Then the boy saw all—

Since he was old enough to know, big boy

Doing a man’s work, though a child at heart—

He saw all spoiled. “Don’t let him cut my hand off—

The doctor, when he comes. Don’t let him, sister!”

So. But the hand was gone already.

The doctor put him in the dark of ether.

He lay and puffed his lips out with his breath.

And then—the watcher at his pulse took fright.

No one believed. They listened at his heart.

Little—less—nothing!—and that ended it.

No more to build on there. And they, since they

Were not the one dead, turned to their affairs.

"Out, Out—" is a poem by American poet Robert Frost, published in 1916.

Pistol offense

The pistol offense is an American football formation and strategy developed by Michael Taylor and popularized by Chris Ault in 2005, while the latter was head coach at the University of Nevada, Reno. It is a hybrid of the traditional shotgun and single back offenses. In the pistol offense, also commonly referred to as the "pistol formation", the quarterback lines up four yards behind the center, which is much closer than the seven-yard setback in a traditional shotgun formation. The running back then lines up three yards directly behind the quarterback, which is in contrast to the shotgun, where they are beside each other. It is argued that the position of the quarterback in the pistol formation strikes an advantageous compromise: the quarterback is close enough to the line of scrimmage to be able to read the defense, as with run situation sets such as the I formation, but far enough back to give him extra time and a better vision of the field for passing plays, as in the shotgun. The pistol formation is thus very versatile, particularly if the quarterback himself is a threat to run the ball, which makes it difficult for the defense to correctly anticipate the play. This flexibility is enhanced by the Read Option, where the quarterback reacts to the response of the defensive players to the snap, and makes a rapid decision whether to hand off the ball to the running back, keep it and complete a pass to a downfield receiver, or keep it and run himself.

Play-action pass

A play-action pass (also known as a play fake or simply "play-action") is an American football play. The play action starts with what appears to be a running play, but turns out to be a pass play; in this way, it can be considered the opposite of a draw play. Play-action passes are often used against defenses that are focused on stopping the run. By initially simulating a running play, the offense attempts to deceive the defense into acting on the fake run and being out of position in their pass coverage, giving receivers more time and room to be free to receive passes behind the linebackers.

Quarterback keeper

A quarterback keeper or keeper in American football is a designed play in which the quarterback does not pass or hand off the ball to another player and instead rushes forward with it in an effort to gain yardage. The play typically is run in instances where only a few yards are needed to gain a first down or touchdown, due to the threat of injury to the quarterback and most quarterbacks' ineffectiveness at running the ball when compared with a running back or fullback. This play differs from a quarterback scramble in that a scramble is an improvised play, while the keeper is a designed running play.

Ska stroke

The ska stroke or ska upstroke, skank or bang, is a guitar strumming technique that is used mostly in the performance of ska, rocksteady, and reggae music. "Reggae is most easily recognized by...the skank." Ska strokes serve as a rhythmic base to a song, and may be doubled by the drums. This style of playing has a dance associated with it, the skank. In reggae, the guitar usually plays a short, percussive, "scratchy chop sound [chord]," on beats 2 and 4 (1 2 3 4), often supported by staccato piano (late 1960s to the early 1980s) or synthesizer. Play

Ska strokes create a bouncing rhythm, going up then down in pitch. Played in 44 time (𝄆1 & 2 & 3 & 4 & 𝄇), the chosen guitar chord is played on the downbeat (indicated by numbers), and then a ghost note is played on the upbeat (indicated by ampersands) by lifting the left hand off the fret a few millimeters. However, most traditional ska is focused on the upbeat; playing on the downbeat is more closely associated with reggae, where the ska strokes are played much more slowly as opposed to ska.

Double-time: ||:1 & 2 & 3 & 4 & :||

Common-time: ||:1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 :||

Half-time : ||:1234123412341234:||


The first use of the ska stroke has been attributed to guitarists including Ernest Ranglin.

Spinner play

A spinner play is a rushing trick play in American football, involving a spin move and a fake hand-off. Dike Beede and Pop Warner used it, as well as Hugo Bezdek. It is best run from the single wing formation.


In computing, spooling is a specialized form of multi-programming for the purpose of copying data between different devices. In contemporary systems it is usually used for mediating between a computer application and a slow peripheral, such as a printer. Spooling allows programs to "hand off" work to be done by the peripheral and then proceed to other tasks, or do not begin until input has been transcribed. A dedicated program, the spooler, maintains an orderly sequence of jobs for the peripheral and feeds it data at its own rate. Conversely, for slow input peripherals, such as a card reader, a spooler can maintain a sequence of computational jobs waiting for data, starting each job when all of the relevant input is available; see batch processing. The spool itself refers to the sequence of jobs, or the storage area where they are held. In many cases the spooler is able to drive devices at their full rated speed with minimal impact on other processing.

Spooling is a combination of buffering and queueing.

Stiff-arm fend

The stiff-arm fend (also known as a hand off or fend off in rugby league and rugby union, sometimes as a don't argue in Australia, or a stiff arm or straight arm in American football) is a tactic employed by the ball-carrier in many forms of contact football.

The Dave Clark Five

The Dave Clark Five were an English rock and roll band formed in Tottenham in 1957. In January 1964 they had their first UK top ten single, "Glad All Over", which knocked the Beatles' "I Want to Hold Your Hand" off the top of the UK Singles Chart. It peaked at number 6 in the United States in April 1964. Although this was their only UK #1, they topped the US chart in December 1965, with their cover of Bobby Day's "Over And Over". Their version of Chet Powers' "Get Together" reached number 8 on the UK Singles Chart retitled as "Everybody Get Together".They were the second group of the British Invasion to appear on The Ed Sullivan Show in the United States (for two weeks in March 1964 following the Beatles' three weeks the previous month). They would ultimately have 18 appearances on the show. The group disbanded in late 1970. On 10 March 2008, the band was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.


Zhongding International Construction Group Co., Ltd. (abbreviated as ZICG) is a Chinese construction and engineering company formed from the Zhongding International Engineering Co., Ltd. The company is listed among the 250 largest international construction contractors in 2013, having recorded international contracting revenue of 275.4 million USD.One of the company's long time overseas operations is its subsidiary in Nepal, where it has been active since 1996. One of its Nepalese projects is the Sunkoshi Hydropower station located in Sindhulpalchok District.Another important overseas market is Algeria. Since the early 1990s, an affiliated company, the Pingxiang Coal Group has worked in Algeria on dozens of medium and large projects. The construction by Zhongding of a sewage system in Oran in 2008 was used as an example in a Financial Times article titled "Algeria turns to Chinese knowhow". Also in Algeria it along with Jiangling Motors sought to build a special economic zone for 30-50 Chinese enterprises to establish manufacturing of automobiles, construction materials, and other products. However, a change in the Algerian foreign investment law required a local co-investor hold a majority stake in such kinds of investments, which stymied the project, putting it on hold.In a contracting project in Botswana, it was brought on by the Chinese government to build the Gaborone Multi-Purpose Youth Center, a sports center for the youth, given as a gift by China to be used for the 2014 African youth games. Construction started in 2009 and was completed in time for a hand off ceremony in December 2012.


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