Hanafi

The Hanafi (Arabic: حنفيḤanafī) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).[1] It is named after the scholar Abū Ḥanīfa an-Nu‘man ibn Thābit (d. 767), a tabi‘i whose legal views were preserved primarily by his two most important disciples, Abu Yusuf and Muhammad al-Shaybani. The other major schools of Sharia in Sunni Islam are Maliki, Shafi`i and Hanbali.[2][3]

Hanafi is the fiqh with the largest number of followers among Sunni Muslims.[4] It is predominant in the countries that were once part of the historic Ottoman Empire, Mughal Empire and Sultanates of Turkic rulers in the Indian subcontinent, northwest China and Central Asia. In the modern era, Hanafi is prevalent in the following regions: Turkey, the Balkans, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine, Egypt, parts of Iraq, parts of Iran, parts of Russia, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, parts of India and China, and Bangladesh.[4][5][6]

Sources and methodology

Madhhab Map3
Map of the Muslim world. Hanafi (light green) is the Sunni school predominant in Turkey, the Western Middle East, Western and Nile river region of Egypt, Central Asia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and parts of Southeast Europe, India, China and Russia.[4][5] An estimated one-third of all Muslims worldwide follow Hanafi law.[4]

The sources from which the Hanafi madhhab derives Islamic law are, in order of importance and preference: the Quran, and the hadiths containing the words, actions and customs of the Islamic prophet Muhammad (narrated in six hadith collections, of which Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim are the most relied upon); if these sources were ambiguous on an issue, then the consensus of the Sahabah community (Ijma of the companions of Muhammad), then individual's opinion from the Sahabah, Qiyas (analogy), Istihsan (juristic preference), and finally local Urf (local custom of people).[7]

Abu Hanifa is regarded by modern scholarship as the first to formally adopt and institute analogy (Qiyas) as a method to derive Islamic law when the Quran and hadiths are silent or ambiguous in their guidance.[8]

The foundational texts of Hanafi madhhab, credited to Abū Ḥanīfa and his students Abu Yusuf and Muhammad al-Shaybani, include Al-fiqh al-akbar (theological book on jurisprudence), Al-fiqh al-absat (general book on jurisprudence), Kitab al-athar (thousands of hadiths with commentary), Kitab al-kharaj and Kitab al-siyar (doctrine of war against unbelievers, distribution of spoils of war among Muslims, apostasy and taxation of dhimmi).[9][10][11]

History

As the fourth Caliph, Ali had transferred the Islamic capital to Kufa, and many of the first generation of Muslims had settled there, the Hanafi school of law based many of its rulings on the earliest Islamic traditions as transmitted by Sahaba residing in Iraq. Thus, the Hanafi school came to be known as the Kufan or Iraqi school in earlier times. Ali and Abdullah, son of Masud formed much of the base of the school, as well as other personalities such as Muhammad al-Baqir, Ja'far al-Sadiq, and Zayd ibn Ali. Many jurists and historians had lived in Kufa including one of Abu Hanifa's main teachers, Hammad ibn Sulayman.

In the early history of Islam, Hanafi doctrine was not fully compiled. The fiqh was fully compiled and documented in the 11th century.[12]

The Turkish rulers were some of the earliest adopters of the relatively more flexible Hanafi fiqh, and preferred it over the traditionalist Medina-based fiqhs which favored correlating all laws to Quran and Hadiths and disfavored Islamic law based on discretion of jurists.[13] The Abbasids patronized the Hanafi school from the 10th century onwards. The Seljuk Turkish dynasties of 11th and 12th centuries, followed by Ottomans adopted Hanafi fiqh. The Turkic expansion spread Hanafi fiqh through Central Asia and into South Asia, with the establishment of Seljuk Empire, Timurid dynasty, Khanates and Delhi Sultanate.[12][13]

See also

References

  1. ^ Hisham M. Ramadan (2006), Understanding Islamic Law: From Classical to Contemporary, Rowman Altamira, ISBN 978-0759109919, pp. 24–29
  2. ^ Gregory Mack, Jurisprudence, in Gerhard Böwering et al (2012), The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0691134840, p. 289
  3. ^ Sunnite Encyclopædia Britannica (2014)
  4. ^ a b c d Jurisprudence and Law – Islam Reorienting the Veil, University of North Carolina (2009)
  5. ^ a b Siegbert Uhlig (2005), "Hanafism" in Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: D-Ha, Vol 2, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447052382, pp. 997–99
  6. ^ Abu Umar Faruq Ahmad (2010), Theory and Practice of Modern Islamic Finance, ISBN 978-1599425177, pp. 77–78
  7. ^ Hisham M. Ramadan (2006), Understanding Islamic Law: From Classical to Contemporary, Rowman Altamira, ISBN 978-0759109919, p. 26
  8. ^ See:
    *Reuben Levy, Introduction to the Sociology of Islam, pp. 236–37. London: Williams and Norgate, 1931–1933.
    *Chiragh Ali, The Proposed Political, Legal and Social Reforms. Taken from Modernist Islam 1840–1940: A Sourcebook, p. 280. Edited by Charles Kurzman. New York City: Oxford University Press, 2002.
    *Mansoor Moaddel, Islamic Modernism, Nationalism, and Fundamentalism: Episode and Discourse, p. 32. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.
    *Keith Hodkinson, Muslim Family Law: A Sourcebook, p. 39. Beckenham: Croom Helm Ltd., Provident House, 1984.
    *Understanding Islamic Law: From Classical to Contemporary, edited by Hisham Ramadan, p. 18. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 2006.
    *Christopher Roederrer and Darrel Moellendorf, Jurisprudence, p. 471. Lansdowne: Juta and Company Ltd., 2007.
    *Nicolas Aghnides, Islamic Theories of Finance, p. 69. New Jersey: Gorgias Press LLC, 2005.
    *Kojiro Nakamura, "Ibn Mada's Criticism of Arab Grammarians." Orient, v. 10, pp. 89–113. 1974
  9. ^ Oliver Leaman (2005), The Qur'an: An Encyclopedia, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 978-0415326391, pp. 7–8
  10. ^ Kitab Al-Athar of Imam Abu Hanifah, Translator: Abdussamad, Editors: Mufti 'Abdur Rahman Ibn Yusuf, Shaykh Muhammad Akram (Oxford Centre of Islamic Studies), ISBN 978-0954738013
  11. ^ Majid Khadduri (1966), The Islamic Law of Nations: Shaybani's, Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 978-0801869754
  12. ^ a b Nazeer Ahmed, Islam in Global History, ISBN 978-0738859620, pp. 112–14
  13. ^ a b John L. Esposito (1999), The Oxford History of Islam, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195107999, pp. 112–14

Further reading

  • Branon Wheeler, Applying the Canon in Islam: The Authorization and Maintenance of Interpretive Reasoning in Ḥanafī Scholarship (Albany, SUNY Press, 1996).
  • Nurit Tsafrir, The History of an Islamic School of Law: The Early Spread of Hanafism (Harvard, Harvard Law School, 2004) (Harvard Series in Islamic Law, 3).
  • Behnam Sadeghi (2013), The Logic of Law Making in Islam: Women and Prayer in the Legal Tradition, Cambridge University Press, Chapter 6, "The Historical Development of Hanafi Reasoning", ISBN 978-1107009097
  • Theory of Hanafi law: Kitab Al-Athar of Imam Abu Hanifah, Translator: Abdussamad, Editors: Mufti 'Abdur Rahman Ibn Yusuf, Shaykh Muhammad Akram (Oxford Centre of Islamic Studies), ISBN 978-0954738013
  • Hanafi theory of war and taxation: Majid Khadduri (1966), The Islamic Law of Nations: Shaybani's, Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 978-0801869754
  • Burak, Guy (2015). The Second Formation of Islamic Law: The Ḥanafī School in the Early Modern Ottoman Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-09027-9.

External links

1977 Washington, D.C. attack and hostage taking

The 1977 Hanafi Siege occurred on March 9–11, 1977 when three buildings in Washington, D.C. were seized by 12 Hanafi Muslim gunmen. The gunmen were led by Hamaas Abdul Khaalis, who wanted to bring attention to the murder of his family in 1973. They took 149 hostages and killed radio journalist Maurice Williams. After a 39-hour standoff, the gunmen surrendered and all remaining hostages were released from the District Building (the city hall; now called the John A. Wilson Building), B'nai B'rith headquarters, and the Islamic Center of Washington.

The gunmen killed 24-year-old Maurice Williams, a radio reporter from WHUR-FM, who stepped off a fifth-floor elevator into the crisis (the fifth floor is where the mayor and Council Chairmen have their offices). The gunmen also shot D.C. Protective Service Division police officer Mack Cantrell, who died in the hospital a few days later of a heart attack. Then-Councilman and future 4-term Washington, D.C. Mayor Marion Barry walked into the hallway after hearing a commotion and was hit by a ricocheted shotgun pellet, which lodged just above his heart. He was taken out through a window and rushed to a hospital.

The gunmen had several demands. They wanted the government to hand over a group of men who had been convicted of killing seven relatives – mostly children – of takeover leader Hamaas Khaalis. They wanted those that were convicted of killing Malcolm X. They also demanded the cancellation of a premiere of the movie Mohammad, Messenger of God because they considered it sacrilegious.Time magazine noted:

That the toll was not higher was in part a tribute to the primary tactic U.S. law enforcement officials are now using to thwart terrorists—patience. But most of all, perhaps, it was due to the courageous intervention of three Muslim ambassadors, Egypt's Ashraf Ghorbal, Pakistan's Sahabzada Yaqub-Khan and Iran's Ardeshir Zahedi.

Abu Hanifa

Abū Ḥanīfa al-Nuʿmān b. Thābit b. Zūṭā b. Marzubān (Arabic: أبو حنيفة نعمان بن ثابت بن زوطا بن مرزبان‎; c. 699 – 767 CE), known as Abū Ḥanīfa for short, or reverently as Imam Abū Ḥanīfa by Sunni Muslims, was an 8th-century Sunni Muslim theologian and jurist of Persian origin, who became the eponymous founder of the Hanafi school of orthodox Sunni jurisprudence, which has remained the most widely practiced law school in the Sunni tradition. He is often alluded to by the reverential epithets al-Imām al-aʿẓam ("The Great Imam") and Sirāj al-aʾimma ("The Lamp of the Imams") in Sunni Islam.Born to a Muslim family in Kufa, Abu Hanifa is known to have travelled to the Hejaz region of Arabia in his youth, where he studied under the most renowned teachers in Mecca and Medina at the time. As his career as a theologian and jurist progressed, Abu Hanifa became known for favoring the use of reason in his legal rulings (faqīh dhū raʾy) and even in his theology. Abu Hanifa's theological school is what would later develop into the Maturidi school of orthodox Sunni theology.

He is also considered a renowned Islamic scholar and personality by Zaydi Shia Muslims.

Abu Mansur al-Maturidi

Abū Manṣūr Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Maḥmūd al-Samarḳandī (853–944 CE; Arabic: أبو منصور محمد بن محمد بن محمود الماتریدي السمرقندي الحنفي‎), often referred to as Abū Manṣūr al-Māturīdī for short, or reverently as Imam Māturīdī by Sunni Muslims, was a Sunni Hanafi jurist, theologian, and scriptural exegete from ninth-century Samarkand who became the eponymous codifier of one of the principal orthodox schools of Sunni theology, the Maturidi school, which became the dominant theological school for Sunni Muslims in Central Asia and later enjoyed a preeminent status as the school of choice for both the Ottoman Empire and the Mughal Empire.In contrast to Ashʿarī (d. 936), the founder of one of the other major orthodox Sunni theological schools, Maturidi adhered to the doctrine of Abū Ḥanīfa (d. 772) as transmitted and elaborated by the Hanafi theologians of Balkh and Transoxania. It was this theology which Maturidi systematized and used to refute not only the opinions of the Mutazilites, the Karrāmites, and other heterodox groups, but also non-Muslim theologies such as those of Chalcedonian Christianity, Miaphysitism, Manichaeanism, Marcionism, and Bardaisanism.

Abu Yusuf

Yaqub ibn Ibrahim al-Ansari, better known as Abu Yusuf (Arabic: أبو يوسف‎) (d.798) was a student of jurist Abu Hanifah (d.767) who helped spread the influence of the Hanafi school of Islamic law through his writings and the government positions he held.

He served as the chief judge (qadi al-qudat) during reign of Harun al-Rashid. His most famous work was Kitab al-Kharaj, a treatise on taxation and fiscal problems of the state.

Ahmad Sirhindi

Ahmad al-Fārūqī al-Sirhindī (1564–1624) was an Indian Islamic scholar, a Hanafi jurist, and a prominent member of the Naqshbandī Sufi order. He has been described as a Mujaddid, meaning "the reviver", for his work in rejuvenating Islam and opposing the dissident opinions prevalent in the time of Mughal emperor Akbar. While early South Asian scholarship credited him for contributing to conservative trends in Indian Islam, more recent works, notably by ter Haar, Friedman, and Buehler, have pointed to Sirhindi's significant contributions to Sufi epistemology and practices.Most of the Naqshbandī suborders today, such as the Mujaddidī, Khālidī, Saifī, Tāhirī, Qasimiya and Haqqānī sub-orders, trace their spiritual lineage through Sirhindi.

Sirhindi's shrine, known as Rauza Sharif, is located in Sirhind, Punjab, India.

Al-Tahawi

Imam Abū Ja'far Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad al-Ṭaḥāwī or simply al-Ṭaḥāwī (الطحاوي) was (843–5 November 933) a Sunni Islamic Scholar who was from the Hanafi madhhab.

Alam al-Din al-Hanafi

Alam al-Din Ibn-Abidin al-Hanafi (Arabic: علم الدين تعاسيف‎; 1178 - 1251 ) was an Egyptian mathematician, astronomer and engineer during the Ayyubid period.

Alam al-Din was born in Egypt, son of a well-known Egyptian scholar Abidin Ibn al-Hanafi. He later moved to Mosul and then to Syria where he settled and accomplished most of his engineering works.

He died in Damascus in 1251.

Al-Hanafi wrote a treatise on the postulates of Euclid, designed water mills and fortifications on the Orontes river, and built the second oldest Arab celestial globe in the world, that is the representation of stars and constellations given their apparent positions in the sky. The celestial globe was used by Al-Hanafi above all for some astronomical calculations, astrological purposes and as an ornament.

Some of his water mills and fortifications on the Orontes are considered one of the best hydraulic engineering works in the Arab world and many still exist to this day.

Asad Muhammad Saeed as-Sagharji

Asad Muhammad Saeed as-Sagharji (أسعد محمد سعيد الصاغرجي) was a Syrian Islamic scholar specializing in the field of Hanafi Fiqh, who lived in Damascus, Syria. He was the head Imam of Jamia al-Umawi in Damascus, and was the leading Faqih (jurist) in Syria. As-Sagharji belonged to the Shadhili Sufi order. He is the author of several books. One of the Shaykh’s most prominent teachers was the distinguished Syrian scholar, Al-Shaykh al-Sayyid Ibrahīm al-Ya’qūbī.

Burhan al-Din al-Marghinani

Burhān al-Dīn Abu’l-Ḥasan ‘Alī bin Abī Bakr bin ‘Abd al-Jalīl al-Farghānī al-Marghīnānī (Arabic: برهان الدين المرغيناني‎) was an Islamic scholar of the Hanafi school of jurisprudence. He was born in Marghinan near Farghana in 530/1135 (in present day Uzbekistan) He died in 593/1197. He is best known as the author of al-Hidayah, which is considered to be one of the most influential compendia of Hanafi jurisprudence (fiqh).

Hanbali

The Hanbali school (Arabic: المذهب الحنبلي‎) is one of the four traditional Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh). It is named after the Iraqi scholar Ahmad ibn Hanbal (d. 855), and was institutionalized by his students. The Hanbali madhhab is the smallest of four major Sunni schools, the others being the Hanafi, Maliki and Shafi`i.Hanbali school derives Sharia predominantly from the Quran, the Hadiths (sayings and customs of Muhammad), and the views of Sahabah (Muhammad's companions). In cases where there is no clear answer in sacred texts of Islam, the Hanbali school does not accept jurist discretion or customs of a community as a sound basis to derive Islamic law, a method that Hanafi and Maliki Sunni fiqhs accept. Hanbali school is the strict traditionalist school of jurisprudence in Sunni Islam. It is found primarily in Saudi Arabia and Qatar, where it is the official fiqh. Hanbali followers are the demographic majority in four emirates of UAE (Sharjah, Umm al-Quwain, Ras al-Khaimah and Ajman). Large minorities of Hanbali followers are also found in Bahrain, Oman and Yemen and among Iraqi and Jordanian bedouins.The Hanbali school experienced a reformation in the Wahhabi-Salafist movement. Historically the school was small; during the 18th to early-20th century Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab and Al Saud greatly aided its propagation around the world by way of their interpretation of the school's teachings. As a result of this, the school's name has become a controversial one in certain quarters of the Islamic world due to the influence he is believed by some to have had upon these teachings, which cites Ibn Hanbal as a principal influence along with the thirteenth-century Hanbali reformer Ibn Taymiyyah. However, it has been argued by certain scholars that Ibn Hanbal's own beliefs actually played "no real part in the establishment of the central doctrines of Wahhabism," as there is evidence, according to the same authors, that "the older Hanbalite authorities had doctrinal concerns very different from those of the Wahhabis," as medieval Hanbali literature is rich in references to saints, grave visitation, miracles, and relics. Historically, the Hanbali school was treated as simply another valid interpretation of Islamic law, and many prominent medieval Sufis, such as Abdul Qadir Gilani, were Hanbali jurists and mystics at the same time.

List of Hanafis

The following is the list of notable religious personalities who followed the Hanafi Islamic madhab, in chronological order:

Abu Hanifah

Abu Yusuf

Muhammad al-Shaybani

Abdullah ibn Mubarak

Zufar Ibn Hudhayl

Abu Ja'far al-Ṭaḥāwī

Yahya ibn Ma'in

Said al qattan

Waki ibn jarrah

Abu Hafs Umar an-Nasafi

al-Marghinani

al-Maydani

Abu Mansur Al Maturidi

Ali al-Qari

Ali Hujwiri

Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Rumi

Farid al-Din Attar

Ibn Abidin

Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari

Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulsi

Ibrāhīm al-Ḥalabī

Moinuddin Chishti

Faridudin Ganjshakar

Nizamuddin Auliya

Sheikh Abdul Haq Muhaddith Dehlawi

Badr al-Din al-Ayni

Ahmed Sirhindi

Shah Waliullah Dehlawi

Shah Abdul Aziz Dehlawi

as-Sadr ash-Shaheed

Imam Khassaf

Abul Hasan al-Karkhi

Shashuddin al-Hulwani

Shamsul A'immah al-Sarakhsi

Fakhrul Islam al-Bazdawi

Fakhruddin Qazi Kahan

Abu Bakr al-Zassas ar-Razi

Imam Hakim Shaheed

Shaikh ibn al-Humam

Allamah Tahtaawi

Abu Hussain al-Quduri

Khayr al-Din al-Ramli

Ibn Kamal Pasha

Shaikh Abdul Wahhab ibn Wahban

Imam Hasan ibn Zyad al-Kufi

Imam Muhammad ibn Sama'ah

Mu'alla ibn Mansur ar-Razi

Abu Sulaiman al-Jozjani

Shaikhul Islam Khwahar Zadah

Abu Z'afar Hinduwani

Ibn Nujaim

Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Kardari

Qasim ibn Qutlubugha

'Alauddin Haskafi

Allamah Tumurtashi

Allamah Kasani

Mufti Abu-Sau'd Afandi

Faqih abullayth Samarqandi

Allamah Abdul Hayye Laknawi

Taj al-Shar'ah

Madhhab

A madhhab (Arabic: مذهب‎ maḏhab, IPA: [ˈmaðhab], "way to act"; pl. مذاهب maḏāhib, [maˈðaːhɪb]) is a school of thought within fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence).

The major Sunni madhhabs are Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i and Hanbali. They emerged in the ninth and tenth centuries CE and by the twelfth century almost all jurists aligned themselves with a particular madhhab. These four schools recognize each other's validity and they have interacted in legal debate over the centuries. Rulings of these schools are followed across the Muslim world without exclusive regional restrictions, but they each came to dominate in different parts of the world. For example, the Maliki school is predominant in North and West Africa; the Hanafi school in South and Central Asia; the Shafi'i school in East Africa and Southeast Asia; and the Hanbali school in North and Central Arabia. The first centuries of Islam also witnessed a number of short-lived Sunni madhhabs. The Zahiri school, which is commonly identified as extinct, continues to exert influence over legal thought. The development of Shia legal schools occurred along the lines of theological differences and resulted in formation of the Twelver, Zaidi and Ismaili madhhabs, whose differences from Sunni legal schools are roughly of the same order as the differences among Sunni schools. The Ibadi legal school, distinct from Sunni and Shia madhhabs, is predominant in Oman.The transformations of Islamic legal institutions in the modern era have had profound implications for the madhhab system. With the spread of codified state laws in the Muslim world, the influence of the madhhabs beyond personal ritual practice depends on the status accorded to them within the national legal system. State law codification commonly drew on rulings from multiple madhhabs, and legal professionals trained in modern law schools have largely replaced traditional ulema as interpreters of the resulting laws. In the 20th century many Islamic jurists began to assert their intellectual independence from traditional madhhabs.The Amman Message, which was endorsed in 2005 by prominent Islamic scholars around the world, recognized four Sunni schools (Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanbali), two Shia schools (Ja'fari, Zaidi), the Ibadi school and the Zahiri school.

Maliki

The Mālikī (Arabic: مالكي‎) school is one of the four major madhhab of Islamic jurisprudence within Sunni Islam. It was founded by Malik ibn Anas in the 8th century. The Maliki school of jurisprudence relies on the Quran and hadiths as primary sources. Unlike other Islamic fiqhs, Maliki fiqh also considers the consensus of the people of Medina to be a valid source of Islamic law.The Maliki madhhab is one of the largest group of Sunni Muslims, comparable to the Shafi`i madhhab in adherents, but smaller than the Hanafi madhhab. Sharia based on Maliki doctrine is predominantly found in North Africa (excluding northern and eastern Egypt), West Africa, Chad, Sudan, Kuwait, Bahrain, the Emirate of Dubai (UAE), and in northeastern parts of Saudi Arabia.In the medieval era, the Maliki school was also found in parts of Europe under Islamic rule, particularly Islamic Spain and the Emirate of Sicily. A major historical center of Maliki teaching, from the 9th to 11th centuries, was in the Mosque of Uqba of Tunisia.

Muhammad Zahid Al-Kawthari

Muhammad Zahid b. Hasan al-Kawthari (1296 AH – 1371 AH/1879–1952) was the adjunct to the last Shaykh al-Islam of the Ottoman Empire, a Hanafi Ash'ari scholar and a polymath.

Najdah ibn 'Amir

Najdah ibn 'Amir al-Hanafi (Arabic: نجدة بن عامر الحنفي‎) (died 692) established a breakaway Kharijite state in central and eastern Arabia during the Umayyad era before he was killed by one of his own followers in 692.

Rowther

Rowther or Ravuthar is a Muslim community from the South Indian states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Together with the Kayalar, Lebbai and Maraikayar communities, they constitute the Tamil Muslims, an Islamic community spread across South India. Rowthers follow the Hanafi school of Fiqh. In Tamil Nadu, the non-muslims often refer to muslims as tulukkar - a term offensive to the muslims - probably derived from turukkiyar, meaning Turkish, owing to their Turkic ancestry and history. They are descendants of a group of Muslim soldiers, a mixture of Arabian and Turkic horse-traders and Rajputs of North India who came to South India in the 12th century as a part of the Turkic armies.

Shafi‘i

The Shafi‘i (Arabic: شافعي‎ Shāfiʿī, alternative spelling Shafei) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam. It was founded by the Arab scholar Al-Shafi‘i, a pupil of Malik, in the early 9th century. The other three schools of Sunni jurisprudence are Hanafi, Maliki and Hanbali.The Shafi school predominantly relies on the Quran and the Hadiths for Sharia. Where passages of Quran and Hadiths are ambiguous, the school first seeks religious law guidance from Ijma – the consensus of Sahabah (Muhammad's companions). If there was no consensus, the Shafi‘i school relies on individual opinion (Ijtihad) of the companions of Muhammad, followed by analogy.The Shafi‘i school was, in the early history of Islam, the most followed ideology for Sharia. However, with the Ottoman Empire's expansion and patronage, it was replaced with the Hanafi school in many parts of the Muslim world. One of the many differences between the Shafi‘i and Hanafi schools is that the Shafi‘i school does not consider Istihsan (judicial discretion by suitably qualified legal scholars) as an acceptable source of religious law because it amounts to "human legislation" of Islamic law.The Shafi‘i school is now predominantly found in Somalia, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, eastern Egypt, the Swahili coast, Hijaz, Yemen, Kurdish regions of the Middle East, Dagestan, Chechen and Ingush regions of the Caucasus, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Kerala and some other coastal regions in India, Singapore, Myanmar, Thailand, Brunei, and the Philippines.

Shah Waliullah Dehlawi

Quṭb ad-Dīn Aḥmad Walī Allāh ibn ʿAbd ar-Raḥīm al-ʿUmarī ad-Dihlawī (Arabic: قطب الدين أحمد ولي الله بن عبد الرحيم العمري الدهلوي‎‎; 1703–1762), commonly known as Shah Waliullah Dehlawi, was an Islamic scholar, muhaddith reformer, historiographer, bibliographer, theologian, and philosopher.

Siraj ud-Din Muhammad ibn Abd ur-Rashid Sajawandi

Sirāj ud-Dīn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn 'Abd ur-Rashīd Sajāwandī (Persian: محمد ابن محمد ابن عبدالرشید سجاوندی) also known as Abū Tāhir Muhammad al-Sajāwandī al-Hanafī (Arabic: ابی طاهر محمد السجاوندي الحنفي) and the honorific Sirāj ud-Dīn (سراج الدین, "lamp of the faith") (died c. 1203 CE or 600 AH) was a 12th-century Hanafi scholar of Islamic inheritance jurisprudence, mathematics astrology and geography. He is primarily known for his work Kitāb al-Farāʼiḍ al-Sirājīyah (Arabic:کتاب الفرائض السراجیه), commonly known simply as "the Sirājīyah", which is a principal work on Hanafi inheritance law. The work was translated into English by Sir William Jones in 1792 for subsequent use in the courts of British India. He was the grand-nephew of qari Muhammad ibn Tayfour Sajawandi. He lies buried in the Ziārat-e Hazrat-o 'Āshiqān wa Ārifān in Sajawand.

 
bi-smi llāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīm
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