Han system

The han ( han) or domain is the Japanese historical term for the estate of a warrior after the 12th century or of a daimyō in the Edo period (1603–1868) and early Meiji period (1868–1912).[1]

History

In the Sengoku period (1467 – 1603), Toyotomi Hideyoshi caused a transformation of the han system. The feudal system based on land became an abstraction based on periodic cadastral surveys and projected agricultural yields.[2]

In Japan, a feudal domain was defined in terms of projected annual income. This was different from the feudalism of the West. For example, early Japanologists such as Appert and Papinot made a point of highlighting the annual koku yields which were allocated for the Shimazu clan at Satsuma Domain since the 12th century.[3]

In 1690, the richest han was the Kaga Domain with slightly over 1 million koku.[4] It was in Kaga, Etchū and Noto provinces.

Edo period

In the Edo period, the domains of daimyōs were defined in terms of kokudaka, not land area.[5] Imperial provincial subdivisions and shogunal domain subdivisions were complementary systems. For example, when the shōgun ordered daimyōs to make a census of its people or to make maps, the work was organized along the borders of the provincial kuni.[6]

Meiji period

In the Meiji period from 1869 to 1871, the title of daimyō in the han system was han-chiji (藩知事) or chihanji (知藩事).[7]

In 1871, almost all of the domains were disbanded; and the prefectures of Japan replaced the han system.[1] At the same time, the Meiji government created the Ryūkyū Domain which existed from 1872 through 1879.[8]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Han" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 283.
  2. ^ Mass, Jeffrey P. and William B. Hauser. (1987). The Bakufu in Japanese History, p. 150.
  3. ^ Appert, Georges. (1888). "Shimazu" in Ancien Japon, pp. 77; compare Papinot, Jacques Edmond Joseph. (1906). Dictionnaire d’histoire et de géographie du Japon; Papinot, (2003). Nobiliare du Japon, p. 55; retrieved 2013-3-23.
  4. ^ Totman, Conrad. (1993). Early Modern Japan, p. 119.
  5. ^ Elison, George and Bardwell L. Smith (1987). Warlords, Artists, & Commoners: Japan in the Sixteenth Century, p. 17.
  6. ^ Roberts, Luke S. (2002). Mercantilism in a Japanese Domain: the merchant origins of economic nationalism in 18th-century Tosa, p. 6
  7. ^ Lebra, Takie S. (1995). Above the Clouds: Status Culture of the Modern Japanese Nobility, p. 29
  8. ^ Matsumura, Wendy. (2007). Becoming Okinawan: Japanese Capitalism and Changing Representations of Okinawa, p. 38.

References

  • Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 58053128
  • Totman, Conrad. (1993). Early Modern Japan. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 9780520080263; OCLC 246872663
Abolition of the han system

The abolition of the han system (廃藩置県, haihan-chiken) in the Empire of Japan and its replacement by a system of prefectures in 1871 was the culmination of the Meiji Restoration begun in 1868, starting year of Meiji period (currently, there are 47 prefectures from Hokkaido to Okinawa in Japan). Under the reform, all daimyōs (feudal lords) were required to return their authority to the Emperor Meiji and his house. The process was accomplished in several stages, resulting in a new centralized government of Meiji Japan and the replacement of the old feudal system with a new oligarchy.

Awaji Province

Awaji Province (淡路国, Awaji-no kuni, formerly 淡道) was an old province of Japan covering Awaji Island, between Honshū and Shikoku. Today it is part of Hyōgo Prefecture. It is sometimes called Tanshu (淡州). Awaji is divided into three municipal sections: Awaji is the northernmost section, Sumoto is the most urban and central section, and four southern towns make up the city of Minamiawaji.

It was founded in the 7th century as a part of Nankaidō. In Nankaidō, Awaji Province was between Kii Province and Awa Province. Awaji means literally "Road to Awa", that is, the road to Awa Province from the central part of Japan. Awaji Province was divided into two districts: Tsuna no Kōri in the northern part and Mihara no Kōri in the southern part.

The provincial government was presumably in modern Minamiawaji, Hyōgo but its relics have not been found yet.

Awaji Province was a common destination for political exiles. Emperor Junnin was exiled in Awaji after his abdication until his death.

In the Edo period, Awaji Province was governed by the Hachisuka clan in Tokushima, Awa Province. When the han system were abolished and prefectures were organized, the inhabitants of Awaji Province preferred to belong to Hyōgo Prefecture, not to Tokushima Prefecture, because of political conflict between Tokushima and Awaji.

Gokishichidō

Gokishichidō (五畿七道, "five provinces and seven circuits") was the name for ancient administrative units organized in Japan during the Asuka period (AD 538–710), as part of a legal and governmental system borrowed from the Chinese. Though these units did not survive as administrative structures beyond the Muromachi period (1336–1573), they did remain important geographical entities until the 19th century.

The Gokishichidō consisted of five provinces in the Kinai (畿内) or capital region, plus seven dō (道) or circuits, each of which contained provinces of its own.

When Hokkaido was included as a circuit after the defeat of the Republic of Ezo in 1869, the system was briefly called Gokihachidō (五畿八道, "five provinces and eight circuits") until the abolition of the han system in 1871.

Kokura Domain

Kokura Domain (小倉藩, Kokura-han)', also known as "Kawara-han" (香春藩) or then "Toyotsu-han" (豊津藩), was a Japanese domain of the Edo period. It was associated with Buzen Province in modern-day Fukuoka Prefecture on the island of Kyushu.

In the han system, Kokura was a political and economic abstraction based on periodic cadastral surveys and projected agricultural yields. In other words, the domain was defined in terms of kokudaka, not land area. This was different from the feudalism of the West.

Kumamoto Domain

The Kumamoto Domain (熊本藩, Kumamoto-han), also known as Higo Domain (肥後藩, Higo-han), was a Japanese domain of the Edo period. It was associated with Higo Province in modern-day Kumamoto Prefecture.In the han system, Kumamoto was a political and economic abstraction based on periodic cadastral surveys and projected agricultural yields. In other words, the domain was defined in terms of kokudaka, not land area. This was different from the feudalism of the West.

Kurume Domain

Kurume Domain (久留米藩, Kurume-han) was a Japanese domain of the Edo period. It was associated with Chikugo Province in modern-day Fukuoka Prefecture on the island of Kyushu.

In the han system, Kurume was a political and economic abstraction based on periodic cadastral surveys and projected agricultural yields. In other words, the domain was defined in terms of kokudaka, not land area. This was different from the feudalism of the West.

Matsudaira clan

The Matsudaira clan (松平氏, Matsudaira-shi) was a Japanese samurai clan that claimed descent from the Minamoto clan. It originated in and took its name from Matsudaira village, in Mikawa Province (modern-day Aichi Prefecture). Over the course of its history, the clan produced many branches, most of which are also in Mikawa Province. In the 16th century, the main Matsudaira line experienced a meteoric rise to success during the direction of Matsudaira Motoyasu, who changed his name to Tokugawa Ieyasu and became the first Tokugawa shōgun. Ieyasu's line formed what became the Tokugawa clan; however, the branches retained the Matsudaira surname. Other branches were formed in the decades after Ieyasu, which bore the Matsudaira surname. Some of those branches were also of daimyō status.

After the Meiji Restoration and the abolition of the han system, the Tokugawa and Matsudaira clans became part of the new nobility.

Matsue Domain

Matsue Domain (松江藩, Matsue-han) was a Japanese domain of the Edo period. It was associated with Izumo Province in modern-day Shimane Prefecture.In the han system, Matsue was a political and economic abstraction based on periodic cadastral surveys and projected agricultural yields. In other words, the domain was defined in terms of kokudaka, not land area. This was different from the feudalism of the West.

Mineyama Domain

Mineyama Domain (峯山藩, Mineyama han) was a Japanese domain of the Edo period. It was associated with Tango Province in modern-day Kyoto Prefecture.In the han system, Mineyama was a political and economic abstraction based on periodic cadastral surveys and projected agricultural yields. In other words, the domain was defined in terms of kokudaka, not land area. This was different from the feudalism of the West.

Mito Domain

Mito (水戸藩, Mito-han) was a Japanese domain of the Edo period. It was associated with Hitachi Province in modern-day Ibaraki Prefecture.In the han system, Mito was a political and economic abstraction based on periodic cadastral surveys and projected agricultural yields. In other words, the domain was defined in terms of kokudaka, not land area. This was different from the feudalism of the West.

Mōri clan

The Mōri clan (毛利氏 Mōri-shi) was a Japanese samurai clan descended from Ōe no Hiromoto. The family's most illustrious member, Mōri Motonari, greatly expanded the clan's power in Aki Province. During the Edo period his descendants became daimyō of the Chōshū Domain under the Tokugawa shogunate. After the Meiji Restoration with the abolition of the han system and daimyō, the Mōri clan became part of the new nobility.

Okayama Domain

The Okayama Domain (岡山藩, Okayama han) was a Japanese domain of the Edo period. It was associated with Bizen Province in modern-day Okayama Prefecture.In the han system, Okayama was a political and economic abstraction based on periodic cadastral surveys and projected agricultural yields. In other words, the domain was defined in terms of kokudaka, not land area. This was different from the feudalism of the West.

Ryukyu Domain

The Ryukyu Domain (琉球藩, Ryūkyū han) was a short-lived domain of Japan, lasting from 1872 to 1879, before becoming the current Okinawa Prefecture and other islands at the Pacific edge of the East China Sea.

When the domain was created in 1872, Japan's feudal han system had developed in unique ways. The domain was a political and economic abstraction based on periodic cadastral surveys and projected agricultural yields. In other words, the domain was defined in terms of kokudaka, not land area. This was different from the feudalism of the West.

Saga Domain

Saga Domain (佐賀藩, Saga-han), also known as Hizen Domain, was a Japanese domain in the Edo period. It is associated with Hizen Province in modern-day Saga Prefecture on the island of Kyushu.In the han system, Saga was a political and economic abstraction based on periodic cadastral surveys and projected agricultural yields. In other words, the domain was defined in terms of expected value of tax revenue (kokudaka), not land area. This was different from the feudalism of the West.

Satsuma Domain

Satsuma Domain (薩摩藩, Satsuma-han), officially Kagoshima Domain, was a Japanese domain of the Edo period. It is associated with the provinces of Satsuma, Ōsumi and Hyūga in modern-day Kagoshima Prefecture and Miyazaki Prefecture on the island of Kyūshū.

In the han system, Satsuma was a political and economic abstraction based on periodic cadastral surveys and projected agricultural yields. In other words, the domain was defined in terms of kokudaka, not land area. This was different from the feudalism of the West.

The domain was ruled from Kagoshima Castle, the core of what later became the city of Kagoshima. Its kokudaka was assessed at 770,000 koku, the second highest kokudaka after that of Kaga Domain.

Tokugawa shogunate

The Tokugawa Shogunate, also known as the Tokugawa Bakufu (徳川幕府) and the Edo Bakufu (江戸幕府), was the last feudal Japanese military government, which existed between 1600 and 1868. The head of government was the shōgun, and each was a member of the Tokugawa clan. The Tokugawa shogunate ruled from Edo Castle and the years of the shogunate became known as the Edo period. This time is also called the Tokugawa period or pre-modern (Kinsei (近世)).

Tokushima Domain

The Tokushima Domain (徳島藩, Tokushima-han) was a Japanese domain of the Edo period. It was associated with Awa Province in modern-day Tokushima Prefecture on the island of Shikoku; and it was associated with Awaji Province in modern-day Hyōgo Prefecture.

In the han system, Tokushima was a political and economic abstraction based on periodic cadastral surveys and projected agricultural yields. In other words, the domain was defined in terms of kokudaka, not land area. This was different from the feudalism of the West.

Tottori Domain

Tottori Domain (鳥取藩, Tottori-han) was a Japanese domain of the Edo period. It was associated with Inaba Province and Hōki Province in modern-day Tottori Prefecture.In the han system, Tottori was a political and economic abstraction based on periodic cadastral surveys and projected agricultural yields. In other words, the domain was defined in terms of kokudaka, not land area. This was different from the feudalism of the West.

Tsushima-Fuchū Domain

Tsushima Fuchū domain (対馬府中藩, Tsushima Fuchū han), also called the Tsushima domain, was a Japanese domain of Japan in the Edo period. It is associated with Tsushima Province on Tsushima Island in modern-day Nagasaki Prefecture.In the han system, Tsushima was a political and economic abstraction based on periodic cadastral surveys and projected agricultural yields. In other words, the domain was defined in terms of kokudaka, not land area. This was different from the feudalism of the West.

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