Hamza ibn Abdul-Muttalib

Ḥamzah ibn ‘Abdul-Muṭṭalib (Arabic: حمزة ابن عبد المطّلب‎) (c.570[1]–625)[2]:4 was a companion and paternal uncle of the Islamic Nabī (نَبي, Prophet) Muhammad.

His kunyas were "Abū Umārah"[2]:2 (أَبُو عُمَارَةَ) and "Abū Ya‘lā"[2]:3 (أَبُو يَعْلَى). He had the by-names Asad Allāh[2]:2 (أسد الله, "Lion of God") and Asad al-Jannah (أسد الجنّة, "Lion of the Paradise"), and Muhammad gave him the posthumous title Sayyid ash-Shuhadā’ (سَيِّدُ الشُّهَدَاء, "Chief of the Martyrs").[3]

Hamza
حمزة
Amir
Asadallah (Lion of Allah)
Sayyid ash-Shuhada'
Hamzahibnabdulmutalib
Arghan Div brings the chest of Armor to Hamza.
Defence Secretary of Medina
PredecessorNone (first officeholder)
SuccessorKhalid bin Walid
BornHamza ibn Abdul Muttalib
c.570
Makkah, Hejaz, Arabia
Died22 December 624 during Battle of Uhud
Mount Uhud
SpouseSalma
Daughter of Al-Milla
Khawla bint Qays
IssueUmama
Amir ibn Hamaza
Yaala ibn Hamza
Umara ibn Hamza
Possibly more
HouseBanu Hashim
FatherAbdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim
MotherHala
ReligionEarly Islam previously Arab Polytheism
OccupationSahaba of Prophet Muhammad
Military officer

Family

Parents

Hamzah's father was Abdul Muttalib ibn Hashim ibn Abd Manaf ibn Qusayy from the Qurayshi tribe of Mecca.[2]:2 His mother was Hala bint Uhayb from the Zuhra clan of Quraysh.[2]:2 His parents met when Abdul Muttalib went with his son Abdullah to the house of Wahb ibn 'Abd Manaf to seek the hand of Wahb's daughter Aminah. While they were there, Abdul-Muttalib noticed Wahb's niece, Hala bint Uhayb, and he asked for her hand as well. Wahb agreed, and Muhammad's father Abdullah and his grandfather Abdul-Muttalib were both married on the same day, in a double-marriage ceremony.[4] Hence, Hamzah was the younger brother of Muhammad's father.

Hamzah was reportedly four years older than Muhammad.[2]:4 This is disputed by Ibn Sayyid, who argues: "Zubayr narrated that Hamza was four years older than the Prophet. But this does not seem correct, because reliable hadith state that Thuwayba nursed both Hamza and the Prophet." Ibn Sayyid concludes that Hamza was only two years older than Muhammad, though he adds the traditional expression of doubt, "Only God knows."[5] Ibn Hajar writes as a conclusion of Ibn sayyid hadiths: "Hamza was born two to four years before Muhammad."[6]. The reliable hadiths state that Hamza was born up to two years before the prophet Muhammad.

Hamza was skilled in wrestling, archery and fighting.[3] He was fond of hunting, and he is described as "the strongest man of the Quraysh, and the most unyielding."[7]:131

Marriages and Children

Hamza married three times and had six children.[2]:3

  1. Salma bint Umays ibn Ma'd, the half-sister of Maymuna bint al-Harith.
    1. Umama bint Hamza , wife of Salama ibn Abi Salama
  2. Zaynab bint Al-Milla ibn Malik of the Aws tribe in Medina.
    1. Amir ibn Hamza.
    2. Bakr ibn Hamza. who died in childhood
  3. Khawla bint Qays ibn Amir of the An-Najjar clan of the Khazraj in Medina.
    1. Yaala ibn Hamza. He had issue, but their descendants had died out by the time of Ibn Sa'd.
    2. Umara ibn Hamza. Married Ruqayyah bint Muhammad.[8]
    3. Atika bint Hamza.[9]
    4. Barra bint Hamza.

Conversion to Islam

Hamza took little notice of Islam for the first few years. He did not respond to Muhammad's first appeal to the Hashimite clan in 613.[7]:117-118

He converted in late 615 or early 616.[2]:3 Upon returning to Mecca after a hunting trip in the desert, he heard that Abu Jahl had "attacked the Prophet and abused and insulted him,"[2]:3 "speaking spitefully of his religion and trying to bring him into disrepute." Muhammad had not replied to him.[7]:131 "Filled with rage," Hamza "went out at a run ... meaning to punish Abu Jahl when he met him." He entered the Kaaba, where Abu Jahl was sitting with the elders, stood over him and "struck him a violent blow" with his bow. He said, "Will you insult him, when I am of his religion and say what he says? Hit me back if you can!"[7]:132 He "struck Abu Jahl's head with a blow that cut open his head."[2]:3 Some of Abu Jahl's relatives approached to help him, but he told them, "Leave Abu Umara [Hamza] alone, for, by God, I insulted his nephew deeply."[7]:132

After that incident, Hamza entered the House of Al-Arqam and declared Islam.[2]:3 "Hamza’s Islam was complete, and he followed the Apostle's commands. When he became a Muslim, the Quraysh recognised that the Apostle had become strong, and had found a protector in Hamza, and so they abandoned some of their ways of harassing him."[7]:132 Instead, they tried to strike bargains with him; but he did not accept their offers.[7]:132-133

Hamza once asked Muhammad to show him the angel Jibreel "in his true form". Muhammad told Hamza that he would not be able to see him. Hamza retorted that he would see the angel, so Muhammad told him to sit where he was. They claimed that Jibreel descended before them and that Hamza saw that Jibreel's feet were like emeralds, before falling down unconscious.[2]:6

Hamza joined the emigration to Medina in 622 and lodged with Kulthum ibn al-Hidm[7]:218 or Saad ibn Khaythama. Muhammad made him the brother in Islam of Zayd ibn Harithah.[2]:3[7]:324

Military expeditions

First expedition

Muhammad sent Hamza on his first raid against Quraysh. Hamza led an expedition of thirty riders to the coast in Juhayna territory to intercept a merchant-caravan returning from Syria. Hamza met Abu Jahl at the head of the caravan with three hundred riders at the seashore. Majdi ibn Amr al-Juhani intervened between them, "for he was at peace with both parties," and the two parties separated without any fighting.[2]:4[7]:283

There is dispute as to whether Hamza or his second cousin Ubaydah ibn al-Harith was the first Muslim to whom Muhammad gave a flag.[7]:283

Battle of Badr

Hamza fought at the Battle of Badr, where he shared a camel with Zayd ibn Harithah[7]:293 and where his distinctive ostrich feather made him highly visible.[2]:4[7]:303 The Muslims blocked the wells at Badr.[7]:297

Al-Aaswad ibn Abdalasad al-Makhzumi, who was a quarrelsome ill-natured man, stepped forth and said, "I swear to God that I will drink from their cistern or destroy it or die before reaching it." Hamza came forth against him, and when the two met, Hamza smote him and sent his foot and half his shank flying as he was near the cistern. He fell on his back and lay there, blood streaming from his foot towards his comrades. Then he crawled to the cistern and threw himself into it with the purpose of fulfilling his oath, but Hamza followed him and smote him and killed him in the cistern."[7]:299

He then killed Utbah ibn Rabi'ah in single combat and helped Ali to kill Utbah's brother Shayba.[7]:299 It is disputed whether it was Hamza or Ali who killed Tuwayma ibn Adiy.[7]:337

Later Hamza carried Muhammad's banner in the expedition against the Banu Qaynuqa.[2]:4

Death

Hamza ibn Abdul-Muttalib Grave at Uhud
Grave of Hamza near Mount Uhud

Hamza was martyred in the Battle of Uhud on 22 March 625 (3 Shawwal 3 hijri) when he was 59 (lunar) years old. He was standing in front of Muhammad, fighting with two swords and shouting, "I am Allah's lion!"[2]

Jubayr ibn Mut'im bribed the Abyssinian slave Wahshi ibn Harb with a promise of manumission if he killed Hamza. This was to revenge his uncle, Tuwayma ibn Adiy, whom Hamza had killed in Badr.[7] Hamza, running back and forth, stumbled and fell on his back; and Wahshi said, "who could throw a javelin as the Abyssinians do and seldom missed the mark,"[7] threw it into Hamza's abdomen and killed him.

Wahshi then slit open his stomach and brought his liver to Hind bint Utbah,[2] whose father Hamza had killed at Badr (see above). Hind chewed Hamza's liver then spat it out. "Then she went and mutilated Hamza and made anklets, necklaces and pendants from his body, and brought them and his liver to Mecca."[2]

Hamza was buried in the same qabr (Arabic: قَـبْـر‎, grave) as his nephew Abdullah ibn Jahsh. Muhammad later said, "I saw the angels washing Hamza because he was in Paradise on that day."[2] Fatima used to go to Hamza's grave and tend it.[2]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Companions of The Prophet", Vol.1, By: Abdul Wahid Hamid
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabair vol. 3. Translated by Bewley, A. (2013). The Companions of Badr. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
  3. ^ a b "Prophetmuhammadforall.org" (PDF). www.prophetmuhammadforall.org.
  4. ^ Al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Rasul al-Maluk. Translated by Watt, W. M., & McDonald, M. V. (1988). Volume VI: Muhammad at Mecca, pp. 5-8. New York: State University of New York Press.
  5. ^ Ibn Sayyid al-Nas, Uyun al-Athar.
  6. ^ Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, Finding the Truth in Judging the Companions.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Muhammad ibn Ishaq. Sirat Rasul Allah. Translated by Guillaume, A. (1955). The Life of Muhammad. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  8. ^ Al-Jibouri, Yasin T. "Descendants of the Prophet's Paternal Uncles". Muhammad, Messenger of Peace and Tolerance. Qum: Ansariyan Publications.
  9. ^ Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir vol. 8. Translated by Bewley, A. (1995). The Women of Madina, p. 288. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
Abd al-Muttalib (name)

Abd al-Muttalib (Arabic: عبد المطلب‎, translit. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib; c.497–578) was the grandfather of Muhammad.

Abd al-Muttalib, Abdul-Muttalib, or variations of this name, may also refer to:

Al-Harith ibn Abd al-Muttalib (fl. 6th century), uncle of Muhammad

Az-Zubayr ibn Abd al-Muttalib (fl. 6th century), paternal uncle of Muhammad

Barrah bint Abdul Muttalib (fl. 6th century), aunt of Muhammad

Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib (c. 539–c. 619), leader of Banu Hashim clan, Quraysh tribe, Mecca, Arabia

Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib (545–c.570), father of Muhammad

Umm Hakim bint Abdul Muttalib (born c.546), paternal aunt of Muhammad

Abu Lahab ibn 'Abdul Muttalib or Abu Lahab (c.549–624), paternal uncle of Muhammad

Umama bint Abdulmuttalib (born 540), paternal aunt of Muhammad

Atika bint Abdul Muttalib (fl. 624), aunt of Muhammad

Arwa bint Abdul Muttalib (born c.560), aunt of Muhammad

Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib (c.567–c.653), companion and paternal uncle of Muhammad

Safiyyah bint Abd al-Muttalib (c.569–c.640), companion and aunt of Muhammad

Hamza ibn Abdul-Muttalib (c.570–625), companion and paternal uncle of Muhammad

Abdul Muttalib (Dai) (died 1354), 14th Dai of the Dawoodi Bohra Ismaili Muslims, 1345–1354

Abd al-Muttalib ibn Ghalib (1790–1886), Emir and Grand Sharif of Mecca, 1827, 1851–1856, 1880–1881

Ismail Abdul Muttalib (born 1954), Member of the Parliament of Malaysia for Maran, Pahang

Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab (born 1986), the "underwear bomber"

Al-Arqam ibn-abil-Arqam

Arqam ibn Abi'l-Arqam (c.597-675) was a companion of Muhammad. He was the owner of the house where the early Muslim community held its meetings.

Ammar ibn Yasir

ʻAmmār ibn Yāsir ibn ʿĀmir ibn Mālik Abū al-Yaqzān (Arabic: عمار بن یاسر‎) was one of the Muhajirun in the history of Islam and, for his dedicated devotion to Islam's cause, is considered to be one of the most loyal and beloved companions of Muhammad and ‘Ali; thus, he occupies a position of the highest prominence in Islam. Historically, Ammar ibn Yasir is the first Muslim to build a mosque. He is also referred to by Shia Muslims as one of the Four Companions. Some Shia consider Ammar's ultimate fate to be unique among the fates of Muhammad's companions, for they perceive his death at the battle of Siffin as the decisive distinguisher between the righteous group and the sinful one in the First Fitna.

As'ad ibn Zurarah

Asad ibn Zurara (died 623), often known by his kunya Abu Umama, was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the first chief in Medina to become a Muslim.

Demolition of al-Baqi

Al-Baqi cemetery, the oldest and one of the two most important Islamic graveyards located in Medina, in current-day Saudi Arabia, was demolished in 1806 and, following reconstruction in the mid-19th century, was destroyed again in 1925 or 1926. An alliance of the House of Saud, and the followers of the Wahhabi movement known as the Emirate of Diriyah, carried out the first demolition. The Sultanate of Nejd, also ruled by the House of Saud and followers of Wahhabism, carried out the second. In both cases, the actors were motivated by the Wahhabi interpretation of Islam, which prohibits the building of monuments on graves.

Expedition of Hamza ibn 'Abdul-Muttalib

Expedition of Hamza ibn 'Abdul-Muttalib (Arabic: سرية حمزة بن عبد المطلب‎), also known as Sif Al-Baḥr platoon (Arabic: سرية سيف البحر‎) was the first expedition sent out by the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. It was sent in 1 A.H. of the Islamic calendar in the month of Ramadan (March, 623 CE).

The raid, which was to intercept a caravan that belonged to Quraish, was undertaken by the Muhajirun (Muslim exiles in Medina) alone (none of the Ansar, Helpers of Madinah, participated in it).

Expedition of Ubaydah ibn al-Harith

In April 623, the Islamic Prophet Muhammad sent Ubaydah ibn al-Harith with a party of sixty armed Muhajirun (Muslim exiles in Medina) to the valley of Rabigh, in modern-day Saudi Arabia. They expected to intercept a Quraysh caravan that was returning from Syria under the protection of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb and 200 armed riders. The Muslim party travelled as far as the wells at Thanyat al-Murra, where Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas shot an arrow at the Quraysh. This is known as the first arrow of Islam. Despite this surprise attack, "they did not unsheathe a sword or approach one another," and the Muslims returned empty-handed; however, two Meccans traders left their caravan, became Muslim, and went with the expedition back to Medina.

Jabhat Ansar al-Islam

The Supporters of Islam Front (Arabic: جبهة أنصار الإسلام‎; Jabhat Ansar al-Islam), originally formed as the Gathering of Supporters of Islam (Arabic: تجمع أنصار الإسلام‎; Tajamu Ansar al-Islam) in August 2012, is an independent Sunni Islamist Syrian rebel group active in the Quneitra and Daraa Governorates.

Jabhat Ansar al-Islam is among dozens of Syrian rebel groups that have in the past been supplied with US-made BGM-71 TOW anti-tank missiles and Soviet-made 9K32 Strela-2 MANPADS with US approval.

Jubayr ibn Mut'im

Jubayr ibn Mut‘im (Arabic: جبير بن مطعم‎) (d. AH 57 (676/677) or AH 59 (678/679)) was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He accepted Islam after initially being a non-believer.

List of Muslim military leaders

Entries in this chronological list of Muslim military leaders are accompanied by dates of birth and death, branch of Islam, country of birth, field of study, campaigns fought and a short biographical description. The list includes notable conquerors, generals and admirals from early Islamic history to the 21st century.

List of expeditions of Muhammad

The list of expeditions of Muhammad includes the expeditions undertaken by the Muslim community during the lifetime of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

Some sources use the word ghazwa and its plural maghazi in a narrow technical sense to refer to the expeditions in which Muhammad took part, while using the word sariyya (pl. saraya) for those early Muslim expeditions where he was not personally present. Other sources use the terms ghazwa and maghazi generically to refer to both types of expeditions.Early Islamic sources contain significant divergences in the chronology of expeditions. Unless noted otherwise, the dates given in this list are based on Muhammad at Medina by Montgomery Watt, who in turn follows the chronology proposed by Leone Caetani.

Muhajirun

Muhajirun (Arabic: المهاجرون‎ The Emigrants) were the first converts to Islam and the Islamic Prophet Muhammad's advisors and relatives, who emigrated with him from Mecca to Medina, the event known in Islam as The Hijra. The early Muslims from Medina are called the Ansar ("helpers").

National Front for Liberation

The National Front for Liberation (Arabic: جبهة الوطنية للتحرير‎, Jabhat al-Wataniya lil-Tahrir) is a Syrian rebel coalition identifying as part of the Free Syrian Army fighting in the Syrian Civil War. The group was formed by 11 rebel factions in northwestern Syria in May 2018, and was officially announced on 28 May 2018. The formation receives major support from Turkey.

Sermon of Ali ibn Husayn in Damascus

The Sermon of Ali ibn Husayn in Damascus are the statements of Ali ibn Husayn in the presence of Umayyad caliph Yazid I. After Battle of Karbala, the captured family of Muhammad, the prophet of Islam, and the heads of those killed were moved to the Levant by the forces of Yazid. By order of Yazid, a pulpit was prepared, and a public speaker gave a lecture that placed blame on Ali and Husayn ibn Ali. With the permission of Yazid, Ali ibn Husayn seized the opportunity to speak. He introduced himself and his descendants. Also, he recounted the events leading to the death of Husayn ibn Ali.

Umama bint Hamza

Umama bint Hamza was a companion and first cousin of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

Utbah ibn Rabi'ah

ʿUtbah ibn Rabīʿah (Arabic: عتبة بن ربيعة‎) (c.563-624) was one of the prominent pagan leaders of the Quraysh during the era of Muhammad. He is the father of Hind bint Utbah and father-in-law of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb.

Wahshi ibn Harb

Wahshi ibn Harb ("the savage son of war") was a slave of Jubayr ibn Mut'im and a Sahabi (companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad). He is best known for killing a leading Muslim fighter, Hamza ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, Muhammad's uncle, prior to accepting Islam, and afterwards killing Musaylimah, the leader of an enemy apostate army who were waging war against the Muslims.

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