Hammudid dynasty

The Hammudid dynasty (Arabic: بنو حمود‎, romanizedBanū Ḥammūd) was a Berberised Arab Muslim[1][2] dynasty that briefly ruled the Caliphate of Córdoba[3][4] and the taifas of Málaga and Algeciras and nominal control in Ceuta.[1] Their Idrisid ancestors were Zaydi,[5][6][7][8] which would explain why the Hammudids were described as Shi'ite whilst not displaying any practices nor tendencies of the Imami Shia.[9]

The dynasty

The dynasty is named after their ancestor, Hammud, a descendant of Idris ibn Abdallah, whose ancestors had established themselves among the Berber tribes of northern Morocco.[10] When Sulayman ibn al-Hakam carved out Andalusian land for his Berber allies, two members of the Hammudid family were given the governorship of Algeciras, Ceuta and Tangier. The Hammudids thus gained control of the traffic across the Straits of Gibraltar, suddenly becoming a powerful force. Claiming to act on behalf of the dethroned Hicham II, the Hammudi governor of Ceuta Ali ibn Hammud al-Nasir marched upon Córdoba in the year 1016, where he was crowned Caliph.

In 1056, the last Hammudid Caliph was dethroned, losing Malaga to the Zirids of Granada,[11] who had previously been the Hammudids' most important supporters. The Hammudi family was then forced to settle in Ceuta.

References

  1. ^ a b Viguera-Molins 2010, pp. 26-27.
  2. ^ Bosworth 2004, p. 15.
  3. ^ Lane-Poole (1894), p.21
  4. ^ Altamira, Rafael (1999). "Il califfato occidentale". Storia del mondo medievale. vol. II. pp. 477–515.
  5. ^ Ibn Abī Zarʻ al-Fāsī, ʻAlī ibn ʻAbd Allāh (1340), Rawḍ al-Qirṭās: Anīs al-Muṭrib bi-Rawd al-Qirṭās fī Akhbār Mulūk al-Maghrib wa-Tārīkh Madīnat Fās, ar-Rabāṭ: Dār al-Manṣūr (published 1972), p. 38
  6. ^ Ignác Goldziher & Bernard Lewis, Introduction to Islamic theology and law, Princeton University Press (1981), p. 218
  7. ^ James Hastings, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, Part 24, Kessinger Publishing (2003), p. 844
  8. ^ Abd Ar Rahman ibn Khaldun (translated by Franz Rosenthal), The Muqaddimah, Chap III : On dynasties, royal authority, the caliphate, government ranks, and all that goes with these things, on www.muslimphilosophy.com
  9. ^ "Al-Humaydi and Peter Scales (1994: 94-95) seem to be ignorant of the Zaydiyya, whose outward practice appears Sunni. Possibly, Al-Humaydi and Scales have conflated Shi'ite with Imamiyyah and are in fact refuting their projection of the Hammudids." Article by Sayyid 'Ali ibn 'Ali Al-Zaidi, At-tarikh as-saghir 'an ash-shia al-yamaniyeen (Arabic: التاريخ الصغير عن الشيعة اليمنيين, A short History of the Yemenite Shi‘ites). 2005
  10. ^ Hammudids, A. Huici Miranda, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. III, ed. B. Lewis, V.L. Menage, C. Pellat and J. Schacht, (Brill, 1986), 147;"HAMMUDIDS, dynasty which reigned over various towns in Muslim Spain from 407/1016 till 450/1058. Sulayman al-Musta'm [q.v.], on his second succession to the caliphal throne in Shawwal 4O3/ May 1013, had to distribute large fiefs among the Berbers who had raised him to power. He allotted to 'Ali b. Hammud the governorship of Ceuta and to his brother al-Kasim that of Algeciras, Tangier, and Arzila. The two were genuine Idrisids [q.v.], their great-grandfather Hammud being the great-grandson of Idris II."
  11. ^ Collins 2012, p. 203.

Bibliography

Royal house
Hammudid dynasty
Preceded by
Umayyad dynasty
Caliphs of Córdoba
1016–1023
1025–1027
Succeeded by
Umayyad dynasty
(Restored)
New title Taifa kings of Malaga
1026–1057
Annexed to the Taifa of Granada
New title Taifa kings of Ceuta
1009–1055
Succeeded by Barghawāṭa
New title Taifa kings of Algeciras
1039–1058
Annexed to the Taifa of Seville
Al-Muʿayṭī

Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿUbayd Allāh ibn al-Walīd al-Muʿayṭī, also spelled al-Muʿiṭī (died AD 1041 [AH 432]), was an Umayyad Caliph reigning in Dénia from 1014 until 1016 in opposition to Sulaymān ibn al-Mustaʿīn, reigning from Córdoba. He was a member of the Marwanid lineage and the only Andalusian Umayyad caliph not descended from ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III. He was a puppet of his ḥājib (chamberlain) Mujāhid al-ʿĀmirī, who was the actual ruler of the kingdom of Dénia. His authority did not extended beyond Dénia and the Balearic Islands.

Al-Muʿayṭī's name consists of the kunya, Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (meaning "father of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān"); his actual given name, ʿAbd Allāh; and a series of patronymics indicating his descent from his father, ʿUbayd Allāh, as far back as an author wished to go. The historian Ibn Bashkuwāl recorded al-Muʿayṭī's genealogy back to Umayya ibn ʿAbd Shams, namesake of the dynasty. The name al-Muʿayṭī itself indicates that he belonged to the branch descended from Abī Muʿayṭ.The seizure of Almería by Mujāhid's rival, Khayrān, in July 1014 provided the impetus for Mujāhid to legitimise his rule by proclaiming a caliph of his own. ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿUbayd Allāh al-Muʿayṭī, as a descendant of Muḥammad and of the Qurayshī tribe, was a legitimate claimant. He was a faqīh (religious scholar), originally from Egypt, who had fled Córdoba and sought refuge in Dénia when Sulaymān, with an army of Berbers, had deposed the caliph Hishām II in 1013. He was proclaimed caliph in December 1014 with the honorific title al-Muntaṣir biʾllāh (Victor in God). Mujāhid then performed the bayʿa (oath of allegiance) and was appointed ḥājib.The given names of al-Muʿayṭī and that of his son, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, were put on the coins and flags of Dénia. Although the daʿwa (call) of al-Muʿayṭī was not widely heeded outside of the lands ruled by Mujāhid, it did receive the support of the great scholar Ibn Ḥazm when in 1016 al-Muʿayṭī was briefly the only Umayyad claimant. For this, the scholar was imprisoned by Khayrān, a support of the non-Umayyad caliph.Within months of al-Muʿayṭī's appointment, Mujāhid set out on an expedition to conquer the island of Sardinia in the name of the new caliph. During his absence, an uprising led by ʿAlī ibn Ḥammūd deposed and executed Sulaymān. According to the historian Ibn ʿIdhāri, Sulaymān was distracted by the elevation of al-Muʿayṭī as his rival and did not foresee the uprising of ʿAlī, who soon had himself, although a non-Umayyad, proclaimed caliph.Al-Muʿayṭī himself took advantage of Mujāhid's absence to assert his own authority. When the ḥājib returned from his second failed expedition to Sardinia in 1016, he deposed al-Muʿayṭī and exiled him to Africa. There he "eked out his remaining days as a wandering teacher, no doubt enthralling his pupils with tall stories of how he had once been the successor of the Prophet". He died in 1041, either at Kutāma in Morocco or at Baghdad.With al-Muʿayṭī removed, Mujāhid recognised Sulaymān ibn al-Mustaʿīn's successor in Córdoba, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Murtaḍā, as caliph in 1017 or 1018. It has even been suggested that al-Muʿayṭī's deposition was precipitated by the need for a united front against the anti-Umayyad usurpers of the Ḥammūdid dynasty after 1016.

Al-Qasim al-Ma'mun

Al-Qasim al-Ma'mun ibn Hammud was an Arab Caliph of Córdoba in Muslim Spain for two periods, 1018 to 1021, and again for a short time in 1023.

This was during a short period when the caliphate was held by the Hammudid dynasty.

Alcazaba of Málaga

The Alcazaba (Arabic: القصبة‎) is a palatial fortification in Málaga, Spain. It was built by the Hammudid dynasty in the early 11th century.This is the best-preserved alcazaba (from the Arabic al-qasbah, قصبة, meaning "citadel") in Spain. Adjacent to the entrance of the Alcazaba are remnants of a Roman theatre dating to the 1st century BC, which are undergoing restoration. Some of the Roman-era materials were reused in the Moorish construction of the Alcazaba.

Ferdinand and Isabella captured Málaga from the Moors after the Siege of Málaga (1487), one of the longest sieges in the Reconquista, and raised their standard at the "Torre del Homenaje" in the inner citadel.

According to architect restorer, Leopoldo Torres Balbás, the Alcazaba of Málaga is the prototype of military architecture in the Taifa period, with its double walls and massive entry fortifications. Its only parallel is the castle of Krak des Chevaliers in Syria.

Ali ibn Hammud al-Nasir

Ali ibn Hammud al-Nasir (Arabic: الناصر علي بن حمود‎ - al-nāṣir ʿalī ben ḥammūd) (died 22 March 1018) was the sixth Caliph of Córdoba from 1016 until his death. He was a member of the Hammudid dynasty of the Al-Andalus.

He was named governor of Ceuta after 1013 by caliph Sulayman ibn al-Hakam. Taking advantage of the anarchy then existing in the reign, he conquered Tangiers, also in Africa, then, after occupying the Iberian port of Algeciras, he moved to Málaga. After conquering also the latter, he moved with his North-African army to the capital, Córdoba, capturing it on 1 July 1016. Caliph Suleyman was first imprisoned and then beheaded, when news arrived of the death of the former caliph, Hisham II al-Hakam.

Ali was elected caliph, adopting the title (laqab) of al-Nasir li-din Allah ("Defender of the Religion of God"). Initially the population welcomed him for his impartiality; however, later both his severity and the appearance of a ruler from the previous ruling dynasty of the Umayyads, Abd ar-Rahman IV, his popularity fell down and he was assassinated on 22 March 1018. Abd ar-Rahman was elected caliph, but he was in turn ousted by Ali's brother, al-Qasim al-Ma'mun, governor of Seville.

Alids

The Alids are the dynasties descended from Ali ibn Abi Talib, cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad (see Family tree of Muhammad and Family tree of Husayn ibn Ali). Shia Muslims consider him the First Imam appointed by Muhammad and the first rightful caliph.

Costa del Sol

The Costa del Sol (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈkosta ðel sol]; literally, "Coast of the Sun" or "Sun Coast") is a region in the south of Spain, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, comprising the coastal towns and communities along the coastline of the Province of Málaga.

The Costa del Sol is situated between two lesser known coastal regions, the Costa de la Luz and the Costa Tropical. Formerly made up only of a series of small fishing settlements, today the region is a world-renowned tourist destination.

Fitna of al-Andalus

The Fitna of al-Andalus (Arabic: فتنة الأندلس‎) (1009–1031) was a period of instability and civil war that preceded the ultimate collapse of the Caliphate of Córdoba. It began in the year 1009 with a coup d'état which led to the assassination of Abd al-Rahman Sanchuelo, the son of Almanzor, the deposition of the Caliph Hisham II al-Hakam, and the rise to power of Muhammad II of Córdoba, great-grandson of Abd-ar-Rahman III. The conflict would eventually divide all of Al-Andalus into a series of Taifa Kingdoms. The Fitna finally ended with the definitive abolition of the Cordoban Caliphate in 1031, although various successor kingdoms would continue to claim the caliphate for themselves. In addition to the political turmoil, large purges were also carried out by Almanzor throughout his territories. The added pressures of financial collapse were present due to the large tax burden placed on the populace to finance the continuous war.

Throughout the conflict, various Muslim kingdoms were aided by the Christian kingdoms to the north, both in an official capacity and by mercenary Christian soldiers. Cordoba and its suburbs were repeatedly looted during the war, destroying many iconic monuments such as the Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos and the Medina Azahara. The capital was temporarily moved to Málaga. In a little less than twenty years, 10 different caliphates emerged as successor states to the Caliphate of Cordoba (amongst them was a restored kingdom under Hisham II). Three of these successor kingdoms formed a dynastic succession line known as the Hammudid Dynasty.

Hammud

Hammud may refer to:

Hammud, Iran

Hammudid dynasty

History of Málaga

The history of Málaga, shaped by the city's location in the south of Spain on the western shore of the Mediterranean Sea, spans about 2,800 years, making it one of the oldest cities in the world. The first inhabitants to settle the site may have been the Bastetani, an ancient Iberian tribe. The Phoenicians founded their colony of Malaka (Punic: 𐤌𐤋𐤊𐤀 MLKʾ) (Greek: Μάλακα, Málaka) about 770 BC. From the 6th century BC, it was under the hegemony of Carthage in present-day Tunisia. From 218 BC, Malaca was ruled by the Roman Republic; it was federated with the Roman Empire at the end of the 1st century during the reign of Domitian. Thereafter it was governed under its own municipal code, the Lex Flavia Malacitana, which granted free-born persons the privileges of Roman citizenship.The decline of the Roman imperial power in the 5th century led to invasions of Hispania Baetica by Germanic peoples, who were opposed by the Byzantine Empire. In Visigothic Spain, the Byzantines took Malaca and other cities on the southeastern coast and founded the new province of Spania in 552. Malaca became one of the principal cities of the short-lived Byzantine Provincia Spaniae; it lasted until 624, when the Byzantines were expelled from the peninsula. After the Muslim conquest of Spain (711–718), the city, then known as Mālaqah (Arabic: مالقة‎), was encircled by walls, next to which Genoese and Jewish merchants settled in their own quarters. In 1026 it became the capital of the Taifa of Málaga, an independent Muslim kingdom ruled by the Hammudid dynasty in the Caliphate of Córdoba, which existed for four distinct time-periods: from 1026 to 1057, from 1073 to 1090, from 1145 to 1153 and from 1229 to 1239, when it was finally conquered by the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada.

The siege of Mālaqa by Isabella and Ferdinand in 1487 was one of the longest of the Reconquista. The Muslim population was punished for its resistance by enslavement or death. Under Castillian domination, churches and convents were built outside the walls to unite the Christians and encourage the formation of new neighbourhoods. In the 16th century, the city entered a period of slow decline, exacerbated by epidemics of disease, several successive poor food crops, floods, and earthquakes.

With the advent of the 18th century the city began to recover some of its former prosperity. For much of the 19th century, Málaga was one of the most rebellious cities of the country, contributing decisively to the triumph of Spanish liberalism. Although this was a time of general political, economic and social crisis in Málaga, the city was a pioneer of the Industrial Revolution on the Iberian peninsula, becoming the first industrialised city in Spain. This began the ascendancy of powerful Málagan bourgeois families, some of them gaining influence in national politics. In the last third of the century, during the short regime of the First Spanish Republic, the social upheavals of the Cantonal Revolution of 1873 culminated in the proclamation of the Canton of Málaga on 22 July 1873. Málaga political life then was characterised by a radical and extremist tone. The federal republican (republicanismo federal) movement gained strong support among the working classes and encouraged insurrection, producing great alarm among the affluent.

A new decline of the city began in 1880. The economic crisis of 1893 forced the closing of the La Constancia iron foundry and was accompanied by the collapse of the sugar industry and the spread of the phylloxera blight, which devastated the vineyards surrounding Málaga. The early 20th century was a period of economic readjustment that produced a progressive industrial dismantling and fluctuating development of commerce. Economic depression, social unrest and political repression made it possible for petite bourgeois republicanism and the labor movement to consolidate their positions.

In 1933, during the Second Spanish Republic, Málaga elected the first deputy of the Communist Party of Spain, or Partido Comunista de España (PCE). In February 1937 the nationalist army, with the help of Italian volunteers, launched an offensive against the city under the orders of General Queipo de Llano, occupying it on 7 February. Local repression by the Francoist military dictatorship was perhaps the harshest of the civil war, with an estimated 17,000–20,000 citizens shot and buried in mass graves at the cemetery of San Rafael.

During the military dictatorship, the city experienced an expansion of tourism from abroad to the Costa del Sol, igniting an economic boom in the city beginning in the 1960s. After the end of the Francoist military dictatorship, the first candidate for mayor on the ticket of the Spanish Socialist Workers Party or Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE) was elected, and remained in office until 1995, when the conservative Popular Party or Partido Popular (PP) won the municipal elections and have governed since.

Idrisid dynasty

The Idrisids (Arabic: الأدارسة‎ al-Adārisah; Berber: ⴰⵢⵜ ⵉⴷⵔⵉⵙ ayt idris) were an Arab Zaydi-Shia dynasty of Morocco, ruling from 788 to 974. Named after the founder Idriss I, the great grandchild of Hasan ibn Ali, the Idrisids are considered to be the founders of the first Moroccan state.

List of Shia dynasties

The following is a list of Shia Muslim dynasties.

Siege of Málaga (1487)

The Siege of Málaga (1487) was an action during the Reconquest of Spain in which the Catholic Monarchs conquered the city of Málaga from the Muslims.

The siege lasted about four months.

It was the first conflict in which ambulances, or dedicated vehicles for the purpose of carrying injured persons, were used.

Taifa of Algeciras

The Taifa of Algeciras was a medieval Muslim taifa kingdom in what is now southern Spain and Gibraltar, that existed from 1035 to 1058.

Taifa of Ceuta

The Taifa of Ceuta was one of the Berber taifa states formed after the breakup of the Caliphate of Córdoba in the early 11th century. The cities of Ceuta (Arabic: Sabta) and Tangiers were a part of the Ḥammūdid dynasty taifa of Málaga from 1026. From 1036 (427 AH) it was governed on behalf of the Ḥammūdids by the Barghawāṭa, a Berber tribe with a non-Islamic religion. Shortly before 1061 (453 AH), the Barghawāṭa, led by the illiterate Saqqūt, took power from the Ḥammūdids. They could field a large army of 12,000 cavalry, but were defeated and conquered by the rising power of the Almoravids in 1078/79.

Taifa of Málaga

The Taifa of Málaga was an Islamic Moorish taifa kingdom located in what is now southern Spain. It existed during four distinct time periods: from 1026 to 1057, 1073 to 1090, 1145 to 1153, and 1229 to 1239, when the polity was finally conquered by the Emirate of Granada.

Umayyad dynasty

The Banu Umayya (Arabic: بَنُو أُمَيَّة‎, romanized: Banū Umayya, lit. 'Sons of Umayya') or Umayyads (الأمويون), were the ruling family of the caliphate between 661 and 750 and later of Islamic Spain between 750 and 1031. In the pre-Islamic period, they were a prominent clan of the Quraysh tribe descended from Umayya ibn Abd Shams. Despite staunch opposition to the Islamic prophet Muhammad, the Umayyads embraced Islam before the latter's death in 632. A member of the clan, Uthman, went on to become the third Rashidun caliph in 644–656, while other members held various governorships. One of these governors, Mu'awiya I, won the First Muslim Civil War in 661 and established the Umayyad Caliphate with its capital in Damascus, Syria. This marked the beginning of the Umayyad dynasty, the first hereditary dynasty in the history of Islam, and the only one to rule over the entire Islamic world of its time.

The Sufyanid line founded by Mu'awiya failed in 683 and Umayyad authority was challenged in the Second Muslim Civil War, but the dynasty ultimately prevailed under Marwan I, who founded the Marwanid line of Umayyad caliphs. The Umayyads drove on the early Muslim conquests, including North Africa, Spain, Central Asia, and Sindh, but the constant warfare exhausted the state's military resources, while Alid revolts and tribal rivalries weakened the regime from within. Finally, in 750 the Abbasid Revolution overthrew Caliph Marwan II and massacred most of the family. One of the survivors, Abd al-Rahman, a grandson of Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik, escaped to Muslim Spain (al-Andalus), where he founded the Umayyad Emirate of Córdoba, which Abd al-Rahman III elevated to the status of a caliphate in 929. After a brief golden era, the Caliphate of Córdoba disintegrated into several independent taifa kingdoms in 1031, thus marking a definitive end to the Umayyad dynasty.

Yahya ibn Ali ibn Hammud al-Mu'tali

Yahya ibn Ali ibn Hammud al-Mu'tali (المعتلي يحي بن علي; died 1035) was Caliph of Cordoba in the Hammudid dynasty of the Al-Andalus (Moorish medieval Iberia) for two times, from 1021 to 1023 and from 1025 to 1026. He was the son of caliph Ali ibn Hammud, of Berber-Arab origins.

Zaidiyyah

Zaidiyyah or Zaidism (Arabic: الزيدية‎ az-zaydiyya, adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi) is one of the Shia sects closest in terms of theology to the Ibadhi and Mutazila schools. Zaidiyyah emerged in the eighth century out of Shi'a Islam. Zaidis are named after Zayd ibn ʻAlī, the grandson of Husayn ibn ʻAlī and the son of their fourth Imam Ali ibn 'Husain. Followers of the Zaydi Islamic jurisprudence are called Zaydi and make up about 50% of Muslims in Yemen, with the vast majority of Shia Muslims in the country being Zaydi.

Zirid dynasty

The Zirid dynasty (Berber languages: ⵉⵣⵉⵔⵉⴻⵏ Tagelda en Ayt Ziri, Arabic: زيريون‎ /ALA-LC: Zīryūn; Banu Ziri) was a Sanhaja Berber dynasty from modern-day Algeria which ruled the central Maghreb from 972 to 1014 and Ifriqiya (eastern Maghreb) from 972 to 1148.Descendants of Ziri ibn Menad, a military leader of the Cairo-based Fatimid Caliphate and the eponymous founder of the dynasty, the Zirids were Emirs who ruled in the name of the Fatimids. The Zirids gradually established their autonomy in Ifriqiya through military conquest until officially breaking with the Fatimids in the mid-11th century. The rule of the Zirid emirs opened the way to a period in North African history where political power was held by Berber dynasties such as the Almoravid dynasty, Almohad Caliphate, Zayyanid dynasty, Marinid dynasty and Hafsid dynasty.Continuing their conquests to Fez and much of modern-day Morocco in 980, the Zirids encountered resistance from the local Zenata Berbers, who gave their allegiance to the Caliphate of Cordoba. Various Zirid branches did however rule the central Maghreb. This branch of the Zirids, at the beginning of the 11th century, following various family disputes, broke away as the Hammadids and took control of the territories of the central Maghreb. The Zirids proper were then designated as Badicides and occupied only Ifriqiyah between 1048 and 1148. Part of the dynasty fled to al-Andalus and later founded, in 1019, the Taifa of Granada on the ruins of the Caliphate of Cordoba. The Zirids of Granada were again defeated by the expansion of the Almoravids, who annexed their kingdom in 1090, while the Badicides and the Hammadids remained independent. Following the recognition of the Sunni Muslim Abbasid Caliphate and the assertion of Ifriqiya and the Central Maghreb as independent kingdoms of Sunni obedience in 1048, the Fatimids reportedly masterminded the migration of the Hilalians to the Maghreb. In the 12th century, the Hilalian invasions combined with the attacks of the Normans of Sicily on the littoral weakened Zirid power. The Almohad caliphate finally conquered the central Maghreb and Ifriqiya in 1152, thus unifying the whole of the Maghreb and ending the Zirid dynasties.

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