Hamlin Garland

Hannibal Hamlin Garland (September 14, 1860 – March 4, 1940) was an American novelist, poet, essayist, short story writer, Georgist, and psychical researcher. He is best known for his fiction involving hard-working Midwestern farmers.[1]

Hamlin Garland
Hamlin Garland 1891
BornSeptember 14, 1860
DiedMarch 4, 1940
OccupationNovelist, poet, psychical researcher, writer


Hannibal Hamlin Garland was born on a farm near West Salem, Wisconsin, on September 14, 1860, the second of four children of Richard Garland of Maine and Charlotte Isabelle McClintock.[2] The boy was named after Hannibal Hamlin, the candidate for vice-president under Abraham Lincoln.[3] He lived on various Midwestern farms throughout his young life, but settled in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1884 to pursue a career in writing.

He read diligently in the Boston Public Library.[4] There he became enamored with the ideas of Henry George, and his Single Tax Movement.[5] George's ideas came to influence a number of his works, such as Main-Travelled Roads (1891), Prairie Folks (1892), and his novel Jason Edwards (1892).[6]

Main-Travelled Roads was his first major success. It was a collection of short stories inspired by his days on the farm. He serialized a biography of Ulysses S. Grant in McClure's Magazine before publishing it as a book in 1898. The same year, Garland traveled to the Yukon to witness the Klondike Gold Rush, which inspired The Trail of the Gold Seekers (1899). He lived on a farm between Osage, and St. Ansgar, Iowa for quite some time. Many of his writings are based on this era of his life.

In Illinois, Garland married Zulime Taft, the sister of sculptor Lorado Taft, and began working as a teacher and a lecturer.[7]

A prolific writer, Garland continued to publish novels, short fiction, and essays. In 1917, he published his autobiography, A Son of the Middle Border. The book's success prompted a sequel, A Daughter of the Middle Border, for which Garland won the 1922 Pulitzer Prize for Biography. After two more volumes, Garland began a second series of memoirs based on his diary. Garland naturally became quite well known during his lifetime and had many friends in literary circles.[8] He was made a member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters in 1918.[4]

After moving to Hollywood, California, in 1929, he devoted his remaining years to investigating psychic phenomena, an enthusiasm he first undertook in 1891. In his final book, The Mystery of the Buried Crosses (1939), he tried to defend such phenomena and prove the legitimacy of psychic mediums.

A friend, Lee Shippey, columnist for the Los Angeles Times, recalled Garland's regular system of writing:

. . . he got up at half past five, brewed a pot of coffee and made toast on an electric gadget in his study and was at work by six. At nine o'clock he was through with work for the day. Then he breakfasted, read the morning paper and attended to his personal mail. . . . After luncheon he and Mrs. Garland would take a long drive . . . . Sometimes they would drop in on Will Rogers, Will Durant, Robert Benchley or even on me, for their range of friends was very wide. . . . After dinner they would go to a show if an exceptionally good one were in town, otherwise one of their daughters would read aloud.[9]

Garland died at age 79, at his home in Hollywood[10] on March 4, 1940. A memorial service was held three days later near his home in Glendale, California.[11] His ashes were buried in Neshonoc Cemetery in West Salem, Wisconsin, on March 14; his poem "The Cry of the Age" was read by Reverend John B. Fritz.[12]

The Hamlin Garland House in West Salem is a historical site.


Middle Border series


  • Roadside Meetings (1930)
  • Companions on the Trail (1931)
  • My Friendly Contemporaries (1932)
  • Afternoon Neighbors (1934)

Other works

  • Main-Travelled Roads (1891)
  • Jason Edwards: An Average Man (1892)
  • A Member of the Third House (1892)
  • A Little Norsk (1892)
  • A Spoil of Office (1892)
  • Prairie Folks (1893)
  • Prairie Songs (1893)
  • Crumbling Idols (1894)
  • Rose of Dutcher's Coolly (1895)
  • Wayside Courtships (1897)
  • The Spirit of Sweetwater (1898)
  • Ulysses S. Grant: His Life and Character (1898)
  • Boy Life on the Prairie (1899)
  • The Trail of the Gold Seekers (1899)
  • The Eagle's Heart (1900)
  • Her Mountain Lover (1901)
  • The Captain of the Gray-Horse Troop (1902)
  • Hesper (1903)
  • The Light of the Star (1904)
  • The Tyranny of the Dark (1905)
  • Witch's Gold (1906)
  • The Long Trail (1907)
  • Money Magic (1907)
  • The Shadow World (1908)
  • The Moccasin Ranch (1909)
  • Cavanagh, Forest Ranger (1910)
  • Other Main-Travelled Roads (1910)
  • Victor Ollnee's Discipline (1911)
  • The Forester's Daughter (1914)
  • They of the High Trails (1916)
  • A Pioneer Mother (1922)
  • The Book of the American Indian (1923)
  • The Westward March of American Settlement (1927)
  • Prairie Song and Western Story (1928)
  • Iowa, O Iowa (1935)
  • Joys of the Trail (1935)
  • Forty Years of Psychic Research (1936)
  • The Mystery of the Buried Crosses (1939)


  1. ^ "Garland, Hamlin 1860 - 1940". Dictionary of Wisconsin History. Wisconsin Historical Society. Retrieved 2009-10-17.
  2. ^ McCullough, Joseph B. Hamlin Garland. Twayne Publishers, Inc. (1978): 13.
  3. ^ Newlin, Keith. Hamlin Garland: A Life. University of Nebraska Press (2008): 12. ISBN 978-0-8032-3347-8
  4. ^ a b Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1922). "Garland, Hamlin". Encyclopædia Britannica (12th ed.). London & New York.
  5. ^ Garland, Hamlin (1998). Selected Letters of Hamlin Garland. U of Nebraska Press. p. 325. ISBN 0-8032-2160-6.
  6. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-02-03. Retrieved 2014-01-29.
  7. ^ Charles Rounds (ed.). Wisconsin Authors and Their Works Archived 2014-04-26 at the Wayback Machine.. Madison, Wis.: Parker Educational, 1918.
  8. ^ See, e.g., his association with Frank Lebby Stanton.
  9. ^ Lee Shippey, Luckiest Man Alive, Los Angeles: Westernlore Press (1959), pages 178, 179
  10. ^ "Hamlin Garland and the University of Southern California". The Hamlin Garland Collection. University of Southern California Libraries, Special Collections Department. Retrieved June 7, 2010.
  11. ^ Newlin, Keith. Hamlin Garland: A Life. University of Nebraska Press (2008): 2. ISBN 978-0-8032-3347-8
  12. ^ Newlin, Keith. Hamlin Garland: A Life. University of Nebraska Press (2008): 1. ISBN 978-0-8032-3347-8

Further reading

  • Holloway, Jean. Hamlin Garland: A Biography. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2014.

External links

1860 in poetry

Nationality words link to articles with information on the nation's poetry or literature (for instance, Irish or France).

1922 Pulitzer Prize

The following are the Pulitzer Prizes for 1922.

A Member of the Third House

A Member of the Third House is a novel by American author Hamlin Garland.

Arena Publishing Co.

Arena Publishing Company was an American book and magazine publishing firm of the late 19th century, founded by author and editor B. O. Flower.

Burr Oak, Iowa

Burr Oak is a small unincorporated community in Winneshiek County, Iowa, United States, very close to the Minnesota state line. Burr Oak is a census-designated place and the population was 166 in the 2010 census.

Cedar Valley Seminary

Cedar Valley Seminary (Mitchell County Historical Museum) is a historic seminary building currently at N. 7th and Chase Streets in Osage, Iowa. Prior to June 2016, it had been located at N. 6th and Mechanic Streets.

It was built in 1869 and added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1977.

The school was founded at Osage, as a Baptist academy, in 1862, by the joint efforts of Rev. Alva Bush, the citizens of Osage, and the Cedar Valley Baptist Association. On Monday morning, January 12, 1863, Prof. Bush opened the first term of the school, with seventeen boys and fourteen girls.In his memoir "A Son of the Middle Border", Hamlin Garland recalled that in the late 1870s "The school was in truth a very primitive institution, hardly more than a high school, but it served its purpose. It gave farmers' boys like myself the opportunity of meeting those who were older, finer, more learned than they, and every day was to me like turning a fresh and delightful page in a story book, not merely because it brought new friends, new experiences, but because it symbolized freedom from the hay fork and the hoe."

Before going to the University of Chicago, the orientalist John Merlin Powis Smith taught Greek at Cedar Valley Seminary.

The school was closed in 1910 because, according to one historian, "Waldorf College was established in Forest City by the Norwegian Lutheran people and took away many students and much financial support that would naturally have come to the seminary; the grade of work in the public schools improved with time, and the Cedar Valley Seminary was a near neighbor. These reasons made it seem unwise to longer continue to maintain the seminary".

Chicago literature

Chicago literature is writing, primarily by writers born or living in Chicago, that reflects the culture of the city.

Cliff Dwellers Club

The Cliff Dwellers Club is a private civic arts organization in Chicago, Illinois. The Club was founded in 1907 by Chicago author Hamlin Garland as "The Attic Club", On January 18, 1909, the name was formally changed to The Cliff Dwellers. In 1908, Cliff Dwellers entered into a lease for the eighth floor and the ninth-story penthouse above Orchestra Hall (now Symphony Center) at 220 South Michigan Avenue. Garland's model was the New York Players Club.

Crumbling Idols

Crumbling Idols is a collection of 12 essays written and completed by Hamlin Garland in 1894. Garland was one of the most prominent American authors of the early 20th century, and contributed heavily to the literary movement known as American Realism. His work, Crumbling Idols, expresses his views and manifesto as a veritist (realist) artist. In it, he repeatedly emphasizes the importance of a uniquely American literature, one that breaks away from tradition and the past and focuses on the present in order to depict reality through the artists own eyes.

Crumbling Idols was decreed a controversial work by the general population and critics during the time of its publication as it attacked many of the features and ideas of nineteenth century literature. Three of his essays, "Provincialism", "Literary Centres", and "Literary Masters", were especially controversial and criticized as they heavily attacked the "imitated" literature of the east coast as well as the lack of innovation in American literature as a whole. Most of his other essays worked to promote realist ideals and values, such as local color and distinction and originality in art. Crumbling Idols was especially supported by fellow Realist authors, such as William Dean Howells and Stephen Crane.

Donald Pizer

Donald Pizer is an American academic and literary critic. He is the Pierce Butler Professor of English Emeritus at Tulane University, and the author of several books on naturalism. He was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1962.For University of Georgia professor James Nagel, Pizer "has made enormous contributions to the study of naturalism in the period from 1890 through World War II, with a score or more of books on Jack London, Hamlin Garland, Theodore Dreiser, Frank Norris, John Dos Passos, the 1890s, and twentieth-century fiction."

Garland House

Garland House or Garland Farm may refer to:

in the United States(by state then city)

Augustus Garland House, Little Rock, Arkansas, listed on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP)

Garland House (Dubuque, Iowa), listed on the NRHP in Dubuque County

Garland House (Bernice, Louisiana), listed on the NRHP in Union Parish

Garland Farm, Bar Harbor, Maine, listed on the NRHP in Hancock County

Garland-Buford House, Leasburg, North Carolina, listed on the NRHP in Caswell County

Hamlin Garland House, West Salem, Wisconsin, listed on the NRHP in La Crosse County

Hamlin Garland House

The Hamlin Garland House is a historic house at 357 West Garland Street in West Salem, Wisconsin, USA. It was from 1893 to the 1910s the principal residence of writer Hamlin Garland (1860–1940). Garland was a prominent and well-regarded writer of regional fiction. Designated a National Historic Landmark, it is now a museum managed by the local historical society.

List of National Historic Landmarks in Wisconsin

This is a list of National Historic Landmarks in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. National Historic Landmarks are designated by the U.S. National Park Service, which recognizes buildings, structures, districts, objects, and sites which satisfy certain criteria for historic significance. There are 43 National Historic Landmarks in Wisconsin.

Main-Travelled Roads

Main-Travelled Roads is a collection of short stories by the American author Hamlin Garland. First published in 1891, the stories are set in what the author refers to as the "Middle Border," the northwestern prairie states of Wisconsin, Nebraska, Iowa, Minnesota and South Dakota. In the book's eleven stories, Garland portrays the hardships of agrarian life, deconstructing the conventional myth of the American prairie while highlighting the economic and social conditions that characterized agricultural communities in the rural Midwest.

The Arena (magazine)

The Arena was a liberal literary and political magazine published by Arena Publishing Co. in Boston, Massachusetts. It was founded by Benjamin Orange Flower in 1889 and existed for twenty years. Though it had a circulation of more than 30,000 at one point, it was rarely profitable. The final issue was published in August 1909.

The Chap-Book

The Chap-Book was an American literary magazine between 1894 and 1898. It is often classified as one of the first "little magazines" of the 1890s.The first edition of The Chap-Book was dated 15 May 1894. Its editor was Herbert Stuart Stone and it was published by Stone and Kimball. It was originally published in Cambridge, Massachusetts, but after six months moved to Chicago, Illinois when Stone and Kimball relocated to Chicago.

The Chap-Book was published twice monthly. Its final issue was issued on 1 July 1898. After this, it merged with The Dial.

Contributors to The Chap-Book included Henry James, Hamlin Garland, Eugene Field, Bliss Carman, Julian Hawthorne, Max Beerbohm, W. E. Henley, and H. G. Wells.

The Solitude of the Soul

The Solitude of the Soul refers to one of three known works of sculpture of that name by the American sculptor Lorado Taft, a Midwesterner born in 1860, who was active in the Chicago area from 1885 until his death in 1936. The accompanying photographs show the best-known version, carved in marble and dated 1914, which is among works of American sculpture on display in the Roger McCormick Memorial Court of the Art Institute of Chicago.

Additional photographs, circa 1911, show models of this work in Taft’s studio prior to the First World War.

Taft, an Illinois native who had been classically trained in Paris and who came increasingly under the influence of Auguste Rodin, explained the concept of the statue as follows: "The thought is the eternally present fact that however closely we may be thrown together by circumstances . . . we are unknown to each other."

Two other versions are known to exist. One is a near-same-sized plaster cast, possibly as early as 1901 and probably one of the models shown in the 1911 photographs, now in the collection of American art at the Dayton Art Institute. The other is a smaller but much finer version cast in bronze, presently in the collection of the Krannert Art Museum on the campus of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

During his lifetime Taft was friendly toward many Chicago-area artists and writers, including novelist Henry Blake Fuller, Poetry magazine founder and editor Harriet Monroe, and his own brother-in-law, novelist Hamlin Garland. Midwestern poet Jared Carter pays tribute to Taft's "The Solitude of the Soul" in his contemporary sonnet of the same name.

West Salem, Wisconsin

West Salem is a village in La Crosse County, Wisconsin, United States, along the La Crosse River. It is part of the La Crosse-Onalaska, WI-MN Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 4,799 as of the 2010 Census.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.