Hamilton (/ˈhæmɪltən/) is a port city in the Canadian province of Ontario. An industrialized city in the Golden Horseshoe at the west end of Lake Ontario, Hamilton has a population of 536,917, and a metropolitan (which includes Burlington and Grimsby) population of 747,545. The city is located about 60 km (37 miles) southwest of Toronto, with which the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area (GTHA) is formed.
On January 1, 2001, the current boundaries of Hamilton was created through the amalgamation of the original city with other municipalities of the Regional Municipality of Hamilton-Wentworth. Residents of the city are known as Hamiltonians. Since 1981, the metropolitan area has been listed as the ninth largest in Canada and the third largest in Ontario.
Hamilton is home to the Royal Botanical Gardens, the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum, the Bruce Trail, McMaster University, Redeemer University College and Mohawk College. McMaster University is ranked 4th in Canada and 77th in the world by Times Higher Education Rankings 2018–19 and has a well-known medical school.
|City of Hamilton|
Coat of arms
Together Aspire – Together Achieve
Location in the province of Ontario, Canada
Location of Hamilton in southern Ontario
|Incorporated||June 9, 1846|
|Named for||George Hamilton|
|• Mayor||Fred Eisenberger|
|• City Council||Hamilton, Ontario City Council|
List of MPs
List of MPPs
|• City (single-tier)||1,138.11 km2 (439.43 sq mi)|
|• Land||1,117.11 km2 (431.32 sq mi)|
|• Water||21 km2 (8 sq mi)|
|• Urban||227.70 km2 (87.92 sq mi)|
|• Metro||1,371.76 km2 (529.64 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||324 m (1,063 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||75 m (246 ft)|
|• City (single-tier)||536,917 (10th)|
|• Density||480.6/km2 (1,245/sq mi)|
|• Metro||763,445 (9th)|
|Time zone||UTC−5 (EST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−4 (EDT)|
|Forward sortation area|
|Area codes||226, 289, 519, 365, and 905|
|Highways|| Queen Elizabeth Way|
In pre-colonial times, the Neutral First Nation used much of the land but were gradually driven out by the Five (later Six) Nations (Iroquois) who were allied with the British against the Huron and their French allies. A member of the Iroquois Confederacy provided the route and name for Mohawk Road, which originally included King Street in the lower city.
Following the United States gaining independence after their American Revolutionary War, in 1784, about 10,000 United Empire Loyalists settled in Upper Canada (what is now southern Ontario), chiefly in Niagara, around the Bay of Quinte, and along the St. Lawrence River between Lake Ontario and Montreal. The Crown granted them land in these areas in order to develop Upper Canada and to compensate them for losses in the United States. With former First Nations lands available for purchase, these new settlers were soon followed by many more Americans, attracted by the availability of inexpensive, arable land. At the same time, large numbers of Iroquois who had been allied with Britain arrived from the United States and were settled on reserves west of Lake Ontario as compensation for lands they lost in what was now the United States. During the War of 1812, British regulars and Canadian militia defeated invading American troops at the Battle of Stoney Creek, fought in what is now a park in eastern Hamilton.
The town of Hamilton was conceived by George Hamilton (a son of a Queenston entrepreneur and founder, Robert Hamilton), when he purchased farm holdings of James Durand, the local Member of the British Legislative Assembly, shortly after the War of 1812. Nathaniel Hughson, a property owner to the north, cooperated with George Hamilton to prepare a proposal for a courthouse and jail on Hamilton's property. Hamilton offered the land to the crown for the future site. Durand was empowered by Hughson and Hamilton to sell property holdings which later became the site of the town. As he had been instructed, Durand circulated the offers at York during a session of the Legislative Assembly, which established a new Gore District, of which the Hamilton townsite was a member.
Initially, this town was not the most important centre of the Gore District. An early indication of Hamilton's sudden prosperity was marked by the fact that in 1816 it was chosen over Ancaster, Ontario that year to be the administrative center for the new Gore District. Another dramatic economic turnabout for Hamilton occurred in 1832 when a canal was finally cut through the outer sand bar that enabled Hamilton to become a major port. A permanent jail was not constructed until 1832, when a cut-stone design was completed on Prince's Square, one of the two squares created in 1816. Subsequently, the first police board and the town limits were defined by statute on February 13, 1833. Official city status was achieved on June 9, 1846, by an act of Parliament, 9 Victoria Chapter 73.
By 1845, the population was 6,475. In 1846, there were useful roads to many communities as well as stage coaches and steamboats to Toronto, Queenston, and Niagara. Eleven cargo schooners were owned in Hamilton. Eleven churches were in operation. A reading room provided access to newspapers from other cities and from England and the U.S. In addition to stores of all types, four banks, tradesmen of various types, and sixty-five taverns, industry in the community included three breweries, ten importers of dry goods and groceries, five importers of hardware, two tanneries, three coachmakers, and a marble and a stone works. 
As the city grew, several prominent buildings were constructed in the late 19th century, including the Grand Lodge of Canada in 1855, West Flamboro Methodist Church in 1879 (later purchased by Dufferin Masonic Lodge in 1893), a public library in 1890, and the Right House department store in 1893. The first commercial telephone service in Canada, the first telephone exchange in the British Empire, and the second telephone exchange in all of North America were each established in the city between 1877–78. The city had several interurban electric street railways and two inclines, all powered by the Cataract Power Co.
Though suffering through the Hamilton Street Railway strike of 1906, with industrial businesses expanding, Hamilton's population doubled between 1900 and 1914. Two steel manufacturing companies, Stelco and Dofasco, were formed in 1910 and 1912, respectively. Procter & Gamble and the Beech-Nut Packing Company opened manufacturing plants in 1914 and 1922, respectively, their first outside the US. Population and economic growth continued until the 1960s. In 1929 the city's first high-rise building, the Pigott Building, was constructed; in 1930 McMaster University moved from Toronto to Hamilton, in 1934 the second Canadian Tire store in Canada opened here; in 1940 the airport was completed; and in 1948, the Studebaker assembly line was constructed. Infrastructure and retail development continued, with the Burlington Bay James N. Allan Skyway opening in 1958, and the first Tim Hortons store in 1964.
Since then, many of the large industries have moved or shut down operations in restructuring that also affected the United States. The economy has shifted more toward the service sector, such as transportation, education, and health services.
On January 1, 2001, the new city of Hamilton was formed from the amalgamation of Hamilton and its five neighbouring municipalities: Ancaster, Dundas, Flamborough, Glanbrook, and Stoney Creek. Before amalgamation, the "old" City of Hamilton had 331,121 residents and was divided into 100 neighbourhoods. The former region of Hamilton-Wentworth had a population of 490,268. The amalgamation created a single-tier municipal government ending subsidization of its suburbs. The new amalgamated city has 519,949 people in more than 100 neighbourhoods, and surrounding communities.
In 1997 there was a devastating fire at the Plastimet plastics plant. Approximately 300 firefighters battled the blaze, and many sustained severe chemical burns and inhaled volatile organic compounds when at least 400 tonnes of PVC plastic were consumed in the fire.
Hamilton is in Southern Ontario on the western end of the Niagara Peninsula and wraps around the westernmost part of Lake Ontario; most of the city, including the downtown section, is on the south shore. Hamilton is in the geographic centre of the Golden Horseshoe and is roughly the midway point between Toronto and Buffalo, New York, although slightly closer to the former. Its major physical features are Hamilton Harbour, marking the northern limit of the city, and the Niagara Escarpment running through the middle of the city across its entire breadth, bisecting the city into "upper" and "lower" parts. The maximum high point is 250m (820') above the level of Lake Ontario.
According to all records from local historians, this district was called Attiwandaronia by the native Neutral people. The first aboriginals to settle in the Hamilton area called the bay Macassa, meaning "beautiful waters". Hamilton is one of 11 cities showcased in the book, Green City: People, Nature & Urban Places by Quebec author Mary Soderstrom, which examines the city as an example of an industrial powerhouse co-existing with nature. Soderstrom credits Thomas McQuesten and family in the 1930s who "became champions of parks, greenspace and roads" in Hamilton.
Hamilton Harbour is a natural harbour with a large sandbar called the Beachstrip. This sandbar was deposited during a period of higher lake levels during the last ice age, and extends southeast through the central lower city to the escarpment. Hamilton's deep sea port is accessed by ship canal through the beach strip into the harbour and is traversed by two bridges, the QEW's Burlington Bay James N. Allan Skyway and the lower Canal Lift Bridge.
Between 1788 and 1793, the townships at the Head-of-the-Lake were surveyed and named. The area was first known as The Head-of-the-Lake for its location at the western end of Lake Ontario. John Ryckman, born in Barton township (where present day downtown Hamilton is), described the area in 1803 as he remembered it: "The city in 1803 was all forest. The shores of the bay were difficult to reach or see because they were hidden by a thick, almost impenetrable mass of trees and undergrowth ... Bears ate pigs, so settlers warred on bears. Wolves gobbled sheep and geese, so they hunted and trapped wolves. They also held organized raids on rattlesnakes on the mountainside. There was plenty of game. Many a time have I seen a deer jump the fence into my back yard, and there were millions of pigeons which we clubbed as they flew low."
George Hamilton, a settler and local politician, established a town site in the northern portion of Barton Township in 1815. He kept several east–west roads which were originally Indian trails, but the north–south streets were on a regular grid pattern. Streets were designated "East" or "West" if they crossed James Street or Highway 6. Streets were designated "North" or "South" if they crossed King Street or Highway 8. The overall design of the townsite, likely conceived in 1816, was commonplace. George Hamilton employed a grid street pattern used in most towns in Upper Canada and throughout the American frontier. The eighty original lots had frontages of fifty feet; each lot faced a broad street and backed onto a twelve-foot lane. It took at least a decade for all of the original lots to be sold, but the construction of the Burlington Canal in 1823, and a new court-house in 1827 encouraged Hamilton to add more blocks around 1828–9. At this time, he included a market square in an effort to draw commercial activity onto his lands, but the natural growth of the town was to the north of Hamilton's plot.
The Hamilton Conservation Authority owns, leases or manages about 4,500 hectares (11,100 acres) of land with the city operating 1,077 hectares (2,661 acres) of parkland at 310 locations. Many of the parks are along the Niagara Escarpment, which runs from Tobermory at the tip of the Bruce Peninsula in the north, to Queenston at the Niagara River in the south, and provides views of the cities and towns at Lake Ontario's western end. The hiking path Bruce Trail runs the length of the escarpment. Hamilton is home to more than 100 waterfalls and cascades, most of which are on or near the Bruce Trail as it winds through the Niagara Escarpment.
Hamilton's climate is humid-continental, characterized by changeable weather patterns. In the Köppen classification, Hamilton it is on the Dfb/Dfa border found in southern Ontario because the average temperature in July is 22 °C, although the east falls on the hot summer subtype towards Niagara Falls. However, its climate is moderate compared with most of Canada. Hamilton's location on an embayment at the southwestern corner of Lake Ontario with an escarpment dividing upper and lower parts of the city results in noticeable disparities in weather over short distances. This is also the case with pollution levels, which depending on localized winds patterns or low clouds can be high in certain areas mostly originating from the city's steel industry mixed with regional vehicle pollution. With a July average of exactly 22.0 °C (71.6 °F), the lower city is in a pocket of the Dfa climate zone found at the southwestern end of Lake Ontario (between Hamilton and Toronto and eastward into the Niagara Peninsula), while the upper reaches of the city fall into the Dfb climate zone.
The airport's open, rural location and higher altitude (240m vs. 85m ASL downtown) results in lower temperatures, generally windier conditions, and higher snowfall amounts than lower, built-up areas of the city. One exception is on early spring afternoons; when colder than air lake temperatures keep shoreline areas significantly cooler, under the presence of an east or north-east onshore flow.
As per the 2016 Canadian census, 24.69% of the city's population was not born in Canada. Between 2001 and 2006, the foreign-born population increased by 7.7% while the total population of the Hamilton census metropolitan area (CMA) grew by 4.3%.
Hamilton is home to 26,330 immigrants who arrived in Canada between 2001 and 2010 and 13,150 immigrants who arrived between 2011 and 2016.
Hamilton maintains significant Italian, English, Scottish, German and Irish ancestry. 130,705 Hamiltonians claim English heritage, while 98,765 indicate their ancestors arrived from Scotland, 87,825 from Ireland, 62,335 from Italy, 50,400 from Germany.
Hamilton also has a notable French community for which provincial services are offered in French. In Ontario, urban centres where there are at least 5000 Francophones, or where at least 10% of the population is francophone, are designated areas where bilingual provincial services have to be offered. As per the 2016 census, the Francophone community maintains a population of 6,760, while 30,530 residents, or 5.8% of the city's population, have knowledge of both official languages. The Franco-Ontarian community of Hamilton boasts two school boards, the public Conseil scolaire Viamonde and the Catholic Conseil scolaire catholique MonAvenir, which operate five schools (2 secondary and 3 elementary). Additionally, the city maintains a Francophone community health centre that is part of the LHIN (Centre de santé communautaire Hamilton/Niagara), a cultural centre (Centre français Hamilton), three daycare centres, a provincially funded employment centre (Options Emploi), a community college site (Collège Boréal) and a community organization that supports the development of the francophone community in Hamilton (ACFO Régionale Hamilton).
Children aged 14 years and under accounted for 16.23% of the city's population, a decline of 1.57% from the 2011 census. Hamiltonians aged 65 years and older constituted 17.3% of the population, an increase of 2.4% since 2011. The city's average age is 41.3 years.
54.9% of Hamiltonians are married or in a common-law relationship, while 6.4% of city residents are divorced. Same-sex couples (married or in common-law relationships) constitute 0.08% (2,710 individuals) of the partnered population in Hamilton.
The most described religion in Hamilton is Christianity although other religions brought by immigrants are also growing. The 2011 census indicates 67.6% of the population adheres to a Christian denomination, with Catholics being the largest at 34.3% of the city's population. The Christ the King Cathedral is the seat of the Diocese of Hamilton. Other denominations include the United Church (6.5%), Anglican (6.4%), Presbyterian (3.1%), Christian Orthodox (2.9%), and other denominations (9.8%). Other religions with significant populations include Islam (3.7%), Buddhist (0.9%), Sikh (0.8%), Hindu (0.8%), and Jewish (0.7%). Those with no religious affiliation accounted for 24.9% of the population.
Environics Analytics, a geodemographic marketing firm that created 66 different "clusters" of people complete with profiles of how they live, what they think and what they consume, sees a future Hamilton with younger upscale Hamiltonians—who are tech savvy and university educated—choosing to live in the downtown and surrounding areas rather than just visiting intermittently. More two and three-storey townhouses and apartments will be built on downtown lots; small condos will be built on vacant spaces in areas such as Dundas, Ainslie Wood and Westdale to accommodate newly retired seniors; and more retail and commercial zones will be created.
|Visible minority and Aboriginal population (Canada 2016 Census)|
|Population group||Population||% of total population|
|Visible minority group
|Other visible minority||5,680||1.1%|
|Multiple visible minority||3,745||0.7%|
|Total visible minority population||100,060||19%|
|Multiple Aboriginal identity||185||0%|
|Total Aboriginal population||12,135||2.3%|
|Total population in private households||527,930||100%|
The most important economic activity in Ontario is manufacturing, and the Toronto–Hamilton region is the country's most highly industrialized area. The area from Oshawa, Ontario around the west end of Lake Ontario to Niagara Falls, with Hamilton at its centre, is known as the Golden Horseshoe and had a population of approximately 8.1 million people in 2006. The phrase was first used by Westinghouse President Herbert H. Rogge in a speech to the Hamilton Chamber of Commerce, on January 12, 1954. "Hamilton in 50 years will be the forward cleat in a golden horseshoe of industrial development from Oshawa to the Niagara River ... 150 miles long and 50 miles (80 km) wide...It will run from Niagara Falls on the south to about Oshawa on the north and take in numerous cities and towns already there, including Hamilton and Toronto."
With sixty percent of Canada's steel being produced in Hamilton by Stelco and Dofasco, the city has become known as the Steel Capital of Canada. After nearly declaring bankruptcy, Stelco returned to profitability in 2004. On August 26, 2007 United States Steel Corporation acquired Stelco for C$38.50 in cash per share, owning more than 76 percent of Stelco's outstanding shares. On September 17, 2014, US Steel Canada announced it was applying for bankruptcy protection and it would close its Hamilton operations.
A stand-alone subsidiary of Arcelor Mittal, the world's largest steel producer, Dofasco produces products for the automotive, construction, energy, manufacturing, pipe and tube, appliance, packaging, and steel distribution industries. It has approximately 7,300 employees at its Hamilton plant, and the four million tons of steel it produces each year represents about 30% of Canada's flat-rolled sheet steel shipments. Dofasco was North America's most profitable steel producer in 1999 and the most profitable in Canada in 2000 as well as a long-time member of the Dow Jones Sustainability World Index. Previously ordered by the U.S. Department of Justice to divest itself of the Canadian company, Arcelor Mittal has been allowed to retain Dofasco provided it sells several of its American assets.
In the 1940s, the John C. Munro Hamilton International Airport was used as a wartime air force training station. Today TradePort International Corporation manages and operates the John C. Munro Hamilton International Airport. Under TradePort management, passenger traffic at the Hamilton terminal has grown from 90,000 in 1996 to approximately 900,000 in 2002. The airport's mid-term target for growth in its passenger service is five million air travelers annually. The airport's air cargo sector has 24–7 operational capability and strategic geographic location, allowing its capacity to increase by 50% since 1996; 91,000 metric tonnes (100,000 tons) of cargo passed through the airport in 2002. Courier companies with operations at the airport include United Parcel Service and Cargojet Canada. In 2003, the city began developing a 30-year growth management strategy which called, in part, for a massive aerotropolis industrial park centred on Hamilton Airport. The aerotropolis proposal, now known as the Airport Employment Growth District, is touted as a solution to the city's shortage of employment lands. Hamilton turned over operation of the airport to TradePort International Corp. in 1996. In 2007, YVR Airport Services (YVRAS), which runs the Vancouver International Airport, took over 100 percent ownership of TradePort in a $13-million deal. The airport is also home to the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum.
A report by Hemson Consulting identified an opportunity to develop 1,000 hectares (2,500 acres) of greenfields (the size of the Royal Botanical Gardens) that could generate an estimated 90,000 jobs by 2031. A proposed aerotropolis industrial park at Highway 6 and 403, has been debated at City Hall for years. Opponents feel the city needs to do more investigation about the cost to taxpayers before embarking on the project.
The Hamilton GO Centre, formerly the Toronto, Hamilton and Buffalo Railway station, is a commuter rail station on the Lakeshore West line of GO Transit. While Hamilton is not directly served by intercity rail, the Lakeshore West line does offer an off-peak bus connection and a peak-hours rail connection to Aldershot station in Burlington, which doubles as a VIA Rail station.
When ranked on a "total crime severity index", Hamilton was 21st in Canada in 2011 for a metropolitan area. This was an eight percent decrease from 2010. Hamilton ranks first in Canada for police-reported hate crimes in 2016. The homicide rate in Hamilton in 2017 was 1.43 per 100,000 population. Organized crime also has a notable presence in Hamilton with three centralized Mafia organizations in Hamilton, the Luppino crime family, the Papalia crime family and the Musitano crime family.
Citizens of Hamilton are represented at all three levels of Canadian government - federal, provincial, and munipical. Following the 2015 Federal Election, representation in the Parliament of Canada will consist of five Members of Parliament representing the federal ridings of Hamilton West—Ancaster—Dundas, Hamilton Centre, Hamilton East—Stoney Creek, Hamilton Mountain, and Flamborough—Glanbrook. This election marked the first occasion in which Hamilton will have five Members of Parliament representing areas wholly within Hamilton's city boundaries, with previous boundaries situating rural ridings across municipal lines.
Provincially, there are five elected Members of Provincial Parliament who serve in the Legislature of Ontario. Leader of the Ontario New Democratic Party and Leader of the Official Opposition, Andrea Horwath, represents Hamilton Centre, Paul Miller (NDP) represents Hamilton East-Stoney Creek, Monique Taylor (NDP) represents Hamilton Mountain, Sandy Shaw (NDP) represents Hamilton West—Ancaster—Dundas, and Progressive Conservative Donna Skelly represents Flamborough—Glanbrook.
Hamilton's municipal government consists of one mayor, elected city wide, and 15 city councillors, elected individually by each of the city's wards, to serve on the Hamilton City Council. Presently, Hamilton's mayor is Fred Eisenberger, elected on October 22, 2018 to a third term. Additionally, both Public and Catholic school board trustees are elected for defined areas ranging from two trustees for multiple wards to a single trustee for an individual ward.
The Hamilton City Council is granted authority to govern by the province through the Municipal Act of Ontario. As with all municipalities, the Province of Ontario has supervisory privilege over the municipality and the power to redefine, restrict or expand the powers of all municipalities in Ontario.
The Criminal Code of Canada is the chief piece of legislation defining criminal conduct and penalty. The Hamilton Police Service is chiefly responsible for the enforcement of federal and provincial law. Although the Hamilton Police Service has authority to enforce, bylaws passed by the Hamilton City Council are mainly enforced by Provincial Offences Officers employed by the City of Hamilton.
The Canadian Military maintains a presence in Hamilton, with the John Weir Foote Armoury in the downtown core on James Street North, housing the Royal Hamilton Light Infantry as well as the 11th Field Hamilton-Wentworth Battery and the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders of Canada. The Hamilton Reserve Barracks on Pier Nine houses the naval reserve division HMCS Star, 23 Service Battalion and the 23 Field Ambulance.
Hamilton is home to several post-secondary institutions that have created numerous direct and indirect jobs in education and research. McMaster University moved to the city in 1930 and today has around 30,000 enrolled students, of which almost two-thirds come from outside the immediate Hamilton region. Brock University of St. Catharines, Ontario has a satellite campus used primarily for teacher education in Hamilton. Colleges in Hamilton include:
Public education for students from kindergarten through high school is administered by three school boards. The Hamilton-Wentworth District School Board manages 114 public schools, while the Hamilton-Wentworth Catholic District School Board operates 55 schools in the greater Hamilton area. The Conseil scolaire Viamonde operates one elementary and one secondary school (École secondaire Georges-P.-Vanier), and the Conseil scolaire de district catholique Centre-Sud operates two elementary schools and one secondary school. Calvin Christian School, Providence Christian School and Timothy Christian School are independent Christian elementary schools. Hamilton District Christian High School, Rehoboth Christian High School and Guido de Bres Christian High School are independent Christian high schools in the area. Both HDCH and Guido de Brès participate in the city's interscholastic athletics. Hillfield Strathallan College is on the West Hamilton mountain and is a CAIS member, non-profit school for children from early Montessori ages through grade twelve. Columbia International College is Canada's largest private boarding high school, with 1,700 students from 73 countries.
The Dundas Valley School of Art is an independent art school which has served the Hamilton region since 1964. Students range in age from 4 years old to senior citizens and enrollment as of February 2007 was close to 4,000. In 1998, a new full-time diploma programme was launched as a joint venture with McMaster University. The faculty and staff are highly regarded regional artists.
The Hamilton Conservatory for the Arts is home to many of the area's talented young actors, dancers, musicians, singers and visual artists. The school has a keyboard studio, spacious dance studios, art and sculpting studios, gallery space and a 300 seat recital hall. HCA offers over 90 programs for ages 3–93, creating a "united nations" of arts under one roof.
The Hamilton Literacy Council is a non-profit organization that provides basic (grades 1–5 equivalent) training in reading, writing, and math to English-speaking adults. The council's service is free, private, and one-to-one. It started to assist adults with their literacy skills in 1973.
Hamilton is home to two think tanks, the Centre for Cultural Renewal and Cardus, which deals with social architecture, culture, urbanology, economics and education and also publishes the LexView Policy Journal and Comment Magazine.
Hamilton's local attractions include the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum, the HMCS Haida National Historic Site, Dundurn Castle (the residence of a Allan MacNab, the 8th Premier of Canada West), the Royal Botanical Gardens, the Canadian Football Hall of Fame, the African Lion Safari Park, the Cathedral of Christ the King, the Workers' Arts and Heritage Centre, and the Hamilton Museum of Steam & Technology
As of September 2018, there are 40 pieces in the city's Public Art Collection. The works are owned and maintained by the city. Information and the locations of each piece in Public Art Collection can be viewed on this interactive map.
Founded in 1914, the Art Gallery of Hamilton is Ontario's third largest public art gallery. The gallery has over 9,000 works in its permanent collection that focus on three areas: 19th century European, Historical Canadian and Contemporary Canadian.
The McMaster Museum of Art (MMA), founded at McMaster University in 1967, houses and exhibits the university's art collection of more than 7,000 objects, including historical, modern and contemporary art, the Levy Collection of Impressionist and Post-Impressionist paintings, and a collection of over 300 German Expressionist prints. Hamilton has an active theatre scene, with the professional company Theatre Aquarius, plus long-time amateur companies, the Players' Guild of Hamilton and Hamilton Theatre Inc.. Many smaller theatre companies have also opened in the past decade, bringing a variety of theatre to the area.
Growth in the arts and culture sector has garnered media attention for Hamilton. A 2006 article in The Globe and Mail, entitled "Go West, Young Artist", focused on the growing art scene in Hamilton. The Factory: Hamilton Media Arts Centre, opened up a new home on James Street North in 2006. Art galleries have sprung up on streets across the city: James Street, King William Street, Locke Street and King Street.The opening of the Downtown Arts Centre on Rebecca Street has spurred further creative activities in the core. The Community Centre for Media Arts (CCMA) continues to operate in downtown Hamilton. The CCMA works with marginalized populations and combines new media services with arts education and skills development programming.
Supercrawl is a large community arts and music festival that takes place in September in the James Street North area of the city. In 2018, Supercrawl celebrated its 10th year anniversary with over 220,000 visitors.
In March 2015, Hamilton was host to the JUNO Awards, which featured performances by Hedley, Alanis Morissette and Magic!. The award ceremony was held at the FirstOntario Centre in downtown Hamilton. During JUNOfest, hundreds of local acts performed across the city, bringing thousands of tourists.
Hamilton was the host of Canada's first major international athletic event, the first Commonwealth Games (then called the British Empire Games) in 1930. Hamilton bid unsuccessfully for the Commonwealth Games in 2010, losing out to New Delhi in India. On November 7, 2009, in Guadalajara, Mexico it was announced that Toronto would host the 2015 Pan Am Games after beating out two rival South American cities, Lima, Peru and Bogota, Colombia. The city of Hamilton co-hosted the Games with Toronto. Hamilton Mayor Fred Eisenberger said "the Pan Am Games will provide a 'unique opportunity for Hamilton to renew major sport facilities giving Hamiltonians a multi-purpose stadium, a 50-metre swimming pool, and an international-calibre velodrome to enjoy for generations to come'." Hamilton's major sports complexes include Tim Hortons Field and FirstOntario Centre.
Hamilton is represented by the Tiger-Cats in the Canadian Football League. The team traces their origins to the 1869 "Hamilton Foot Ball Club". Hamilton is also home to the Canadian Football Hall of Fame museum. The museum hosts an annual induction event in a week-long celebration that includes school visits, a golf tournament, a formal induction dinner and concludes with the Hall of Fame game involving the local CFL Hamilton Tiger-Cats at Tim Hortons Field.
Hamilton hosted an NHL team in the 1920s called the Hamilton Tigers. The team folded after a players' strike in 1925. Research in Motion CEO Jim Balsillie has shown interest in bringing another NHL team to southern Ontario. The NHL's Phoenix Coyotes filed for bankruptcy in 2009 and have included within their Chapter 11 reorganization a plan to sell the team to Balsillie and move the team and its operations to Hamilton, Ontario. In late September, however, the bankruptcy judge did not rule in favour of Balsillie.
The Around the Bay Road Race circumnavigates Hamilton Harbour. Although it is not a marathon distance, it is the longest continuously held long distance foot race in North America. The local newspaper also hosts the amateur Spectator Indoor Games.
In addition to team sports, Hamilton is home to an auto race track, Flamboro Speedway and Canada's fastest half-mile harness horse racing track, Flamboro Downs. Another auto race track, Cayuga International Speedway, is near Hamilton in the Haldimand County community of Nelles Corners, between Hagersville and Cayuga.
|Hamilton Tiger-Cats||Canadian Football League||Tim Hortons Field||1869||15|
|Forge FC||Canadian Premier League||Tim Hortons Field||2018||0|
|Hamilton City SC||Canadian Soccer League||Heritage Field||2016||0|
|Hamilton Bulldogs||Ontario Hockey League||FirstOntario Centre
formerly Copps Coliseum
|Hamilton Hurricanes||Canadian Junior Football League||Tim Hortons Field||1963||3|
|Hamilton Croatia||Hamilton & District Premier Soccer League||Brian Timmis Stadium||1957||1|
|Hamilton Kilty B's Jr B||Greater Ontario Junior Hockey League||Dave Andreychuk Mountain Arena||2018||0|
|Hamilton Hornets R.F.C.||Niagara Rugby Union||Mohawk Sports Park||1954||0|
|Hamilton Wildcats||AFL Ontario||Mohawk Sports Park||1997||0|
|Hamilton Cardinals||Intercounty Baseball League||Bernie Arbour Memorial Stadium||1957||1|
Hamilton is a sister city with Flint, Michigan, and its young amateur athletes compete in the CANUSA Games, held alternatively in the two cities since 1958. Flint and Hamilton hold the distinction of having the oldest continuous sister-city relationship between a U.S. and Canadian city, since 1957.
Other sister cities with Hamilton include:
Other city relationships:
The 1930 British Empire Games were the first of what later became known as the Commonwealth Games, and were held in Hamilton, in the province of Ontario in Canada from 16–23 August 1930. The games were organized by Hamilton Spectator sportswriter Bobby Robinson after he attended the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam as manager of the Canadian track and field team and was inspired to create a similar event for the British Empire. After campaigning for the idea among contacts he met at the Olympics, he was asked to organise the first British Empire Games in Hamilton.The events included athletics, boxing, lawn bowls, rowing, swimming, and wrestling. Women competed only in aquatic events. The opening ceremonies and many events were held at Civic Stadium (later renamed Ivor Wynne Stadium) in east Hamilton.The games were opened by the Governor General of Canada, Lord Willingdon on 16 August. Canadian triple jumper Gordon Smallacombe won the first ever gold medal in the history of the Games a few hours later.Confederation Beach Park
Confederation Beach Park (known as Confederation Park until 2016) is a Tourist Area/Park in Hamilton, Ontario. The park includes: Wild Waterworks, an outdoor waterpark; Adventure Village, an amusement centre with laser tag, bumper cars and an 18-hole mini golf course; and a fast food diner restaurant with a 1950s motif called Hutch's. There is also a restaurant/entertainment centre called Barangas on the Beach. There is an observation tower, a beachfront restaurant, a swimming pool, beach and trail, and a go-kart track. There was a full-sized amusement park until the late 1970s. It is also the namesake for nearby planned GO train station, Confederation GO Station.Eugene Levy
Eugene Levy, (born December 17, 1946) is a Canadian actor, comedian, producer, director, and writer. He is the only actor to have appeared in all eight of the American Pie films, in his role as Noah Levenstein. He often plays nerdy, unconventional figures, with his humour often deriving from his excessive explanations of matters and the way in which he deals with sticky situations. Levy is a regular collaborator of actor-director Christopher Guest, appearing in and co-writing four of his films, commencing with Waiting for Guffman (1996).
Levy received the Governor General's Performing Arts Award, Canada's highest honour in the performing arts, in 2008. He was appointed to the Order of Canada on June 30, 2011.Flag of Hamilton, Ontario
The official flag of Hamilton, Ontario, was designed by Bishop Ralph Spence and granted to the city on July 15, 2003.The flag was specially designed to complement the Canadian flag being a triband with a Canadian pale at centre. The colours are yellow and royal blue. In the centre is a golden yellow cinquefoil which, as the badge of Clan Hamilton, represents the city's name. The chain on the outside symbolizes both unity and the community's steel industry. The six links in the chain represent the city’s six communities: Hamilton, Ancaster, Dundas, Flamborough, Glanbrook, and Stoney Creek.Hamilton, Ontario City Council
The Hamilton, Ontario City Council is the governing body of the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
The current council consists of the mayor plus fifteen councillors, one elected from each of the city's wards. The incumbent council was elected in a Hamilton municipal election on October 22, 2018.Hamilton GO Centre
Hamilton GO Centre is a GO Transit train and bus station located at Hunter Street East and Hughson Street South in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The centre doubles as a regional bus terminal for private intercity coach carriers including Greyhound Canada and Coach Canada.Hamilton Public Library (Ontario)
The Hamilton Public Library (HPL) is the public library system of Hamilton, Ontario.List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Hamilton, Ontario
This is a list of National Historic Sites (French: Lieux historiques nationaux du Canada) in Hamilton, Ontario. There are 15 National Historic Sites designated in Hamilton, of which one (HMCS Haida) is administered by Parks Canada (identified below by the beaver icon ). Burlington Heights was designated in 1929 and was the first site designated within what are now the boundaries of Hamilton.
Numerous National Historic Events also occurred in Hamilton, and are identified at places associated with them, using the same style of federal plaque which marks National Historic Sites. Several National Historic Persons are commemorated throughout the city in the same way. The markers do not indicate which designation—a Site, Event, or Person—a subject has been given.
National Historic Sites located elsewhere in Ontario are listed at National Historic Sites in Ontario.
This list uses names designated by the national Historic Sites and Monuments Board, which may differ from other names for these sites.List of head offices in Hamilton, Ontario
Companies with head offices located in Hamilton, Ontario and Area include:
Hamilton Health Sciences
Arcelor Mittal Dofasco Inc.
National Steel Car
Hamilton Port Authority
Orlick Industries Limited
Siemens Canada Ltd.
Coppley Apparel Group
Fluke Transportation Group
Fox 40 International Inc.
Hamilton Specialty Bar Corp.
John Deere Ltd.
Horizon Utilities Corporation
Fortinos Supermarket Limited
Arcor Windows & Doors
Oakrun Farm Bakery Ltd.
E.D. Smith & Sons Ltd.
Tiercon Industries Inc.
Turkstra Windows (Industries)
Regional Die Casting Ltd.
Samuel Plate Sales
Universal Handling Equipment Co. Ltd.
McKeil Marine Ltd.
Robertson Building Systems
First Ontario Credit Union
CARSTAR Automotive Canada IncList of mayors of Hamilton, Ontario
List of mayors of Hamilton, Ontario
Colin Campbell Ferrie - 1847
George Sylvester Tiffany - 1848
William L. Distin - 1849
John Fisher - 1850
John Rose Holden - 1851
Nehemiah Ford - 1852
William G. Kerr - 1853
James Cummings - 3 months in 1854
Charles Magill - 9 months in 1854–1855
James Cummings - 1856
John Francis Moore - 1857
George Hamilton Mills - 1858
Henry McKinstry - 1859–1861
Robert McElroy - 1862–1864
Charles Magill - 1865–1866
Benjamin Ernest Charlton - 1867
Hutchison Clark - 1868
James Edwin O'Reilly - 1869
George Murison - 1870
Daniel Black Chisholm - 1871–1872
Benjamin Ernest Charlton - 1873–1874
George Roach - 1875–1876
Francis Edwin Kilvert - 1877–1878
James Edwin O'Reilly - 1879–1881
Charles Magill - 1882–1883
John James Mason - 1884–1885
Alexander McKay - 1886–1887
William Doran - 1888–1889
David McLellan - 1890–1891
Peter Campbell Blaicher - 1892–1893
Alexander David Stewart - 1894–1895
George Elias Tuckett - 1896
Edward Alexander Colquhoun - 1897–1898
James Vernall Teetzel - 1899–1900
John Strathearne Hendrie - 1901–1902
Wellington Jeffers Morden - 1902–1903
Sanford Dennis Biggar - 1905–1906
Thomas Joseph Stewart - 1907–1908
John Inglis McLaren - 1909–1910
George Harmon Lees - 1911–1912
John Allan - 1913–1914
Chester Samuel Walters - 1915–1916
Thomas Skinner Morris - 1916 (acting mayor only, never elected)
Charles Goodenough Booker - 1917–1920
George Charles Coppley - 1921–1922
Thomas William Jutten - 1923–1925
Freeman Ferrier Treleaven, Q.C. - 1926–1927
William Burton - 1928–1929
John Peebles - 1930–1933
Herbert Earl Wilton - 1934–1935
William Robert Morrison, K.C. - 1936–1943
Samuel Lawrence - 1944–1949
Lloyd Douglas Jackson - 1950–1962
Victor Kennedy Copps - 1963–1976
Vince Agro - 1976–1977 (acting)
John Alexander MacDonald - 1977–1980
William Powell - 1981–1982
Robert Maxwell Morrow - 1982–2000
Robert E. Wade - 2000–2003
Larry Di Ianni - 2003–2006
Fred Eisenberger - 2006–2010
Bob Bratina - 2010–2014
Fred Eisenberger - 2014–List of roads in Hamilton, Ontario
This is a List of streets in Hamilton, Ontario, many of which were named after the Loyalist families who arrived to Hamilton after the British lost the American Revolutionary War. These names include Hess, Hughson, Herkimer, Land, Beasley, Gage, Doan, Davis, Mills, Carpenter, and Brant. The Loyalists were the pioneers of Hamilton and area.Many of the street names in Hamilton have changed over the years. James Street south of King was called Jarvis, Jackson Street was Maiden Lane, John Street was Mountain Street, Main Street east of James was Brougham Street, Hunter Street east of James was called Peel Street, Charlton Avenue West was Anderson Street, Charlton Avenue was Hannah Street, Park Street was Bond Street, Bay Street South was Bowry Street, Cannon Street was known as Henry Street, Barton Street West was Concession and Upper James Street on the mountain was known as Caledonia Road.List of tallest buildings in Hamilton, Ontario
Hamilton is the fifth-largest city in Ontario, Canada. In Hamilton, there are 17 buildings that stand taller than 75 metres (230 ft). The tallest building in the city is the 43-storey, 130 m (427 ft) Landmark Place. The second-tallest building in the city is 22 George St, standing at 106 m (348 ft) tall with 32 storeys. The third-tallest building in the city is Stelco Tower, standing at 104 m (341 ft) tall with 25 storeys.
As of March 2019, the city contains 17 skyscrapers over 75 m (246 ft) and 121 high-rise buildings that exceed 35 m (115 ft) in height.The tallest new development in Hamilton will be the 36-storey Residences of Royal Connaught. This multi-phase development will include the restoration of the Royal Connaught Hotel and the addition of three new buildings atop a seven-storey podium which features ground floor retail.List of tourist attractions in Hamilton, Ontario
Hamilton, Ontario has a large variety of historical sites and cultural and educational institutions.Power Play (1998 TV series)
Power Play is a Canadian television drama series, which aired on CTV from 1998 to 2000. The series was filmed at Copps Coliseum (now FirstOntario Centre) in Hamilton, Ontario.The show starred Michael Riley as Brett Parker, a former New York City sports agent who became the general manager of a (fictional) National Hockey League franchise, the Hamilton Steelheads.
One of the throughline plots of the series dealt with Parker's ongoing love–hate relationships with the sport, the team and his superior at McArdle Industries, corporate executive Colleen Blessed, played by Kari Matchett.
The cast also included Gordon Pinsent as team owner Duff McArdle, Jonathan Crombie, Jennifer Dale and Al Waxman. The show's theme song was a modernized version of the Stompin' Tom Connors classic, "The Hockey Song", performed partly by Connors himself, and then transitioning to the performance of the band Rusty.
The show was briefly aired on the United States broadcast network UPN, starting in 1999, but was pulled after just two episodes. The second episode aired in the United States has the distinction of being the lowest-rated episode (since the Nielsen ratings service began in the 1950s) of any prime-time TV series ever aired by any United States network.Stoney Creek, Ontario
See also Stoney Creek (electoral district).Stoney Creek is a community in Hamilton, Ontario. It was amalgamated into Hamilton in 2001. Prior to 2001, it was a separate city.
The community of Stoney Creek on the south shore of western Lake Ontario, just east of Hamilton (pre-amalgamation) into which feed the watercourse of Stoney Creek as well as several other minor streams. The historic area, known as the "Old Town", is below the Niagara Escarpment. In 1984 Stoney Creek became a city.
Though residential growth exploded, particularly in the 1970s and 1980s in the lower city and in the west mountain in the 1990s and 2000s, most of the land mass of Stoney Creek remains agricultural. The communities of Elfrida, Fruitland, Tapleytown, Tweedside, Vinemount, and Winona serve as distinct reminders of the agricultural legacy of Stoney Creek and Saltfleet township.
It lost its independent status in 2001 as the Provincial Government formally merged Stoney Creek, Ancaster, Glanbrook, Dundas, Flamborough and Hamilton into the new city of Hamilton, turning the new multimillion-dollar Stoney Creek City Hall into a Stoney Creek Public Library.The Hamilton Spectator
The Hamilton Spectator, founded in 1846, is a newspaper published every day but Sunday in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
|Climate data for Hamilton, Ontario (Royal Botanical Gardens), 1981−2010 normals, extremes 1866−present[a]|
|Record high °C (°F)||18.3
|Average high °C (°F)||−0.9
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−4.7
|Average low °C (°F)||−8.5
|Record low °C (°F)||−30.6
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||56.8
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||27.4
|Average snowfall cm (inches)||32.4
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm)||14.7||12.1||12.3||13.5||12.2||10.5||10.7||11.1||12.3||11.8||14.3||13.8||149.1|
|Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm)||5.7||5.0||8.8||12.6||12.2||10.5||10.7||11.1||12.3||11.8||12.8||7.6||120.9|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm)||10.5||8.6||4.9||1.2||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||2.6||8.4||36.2|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||87.2||113.4||152.4||182.2||244.0||279.1||303.5||262.6||177.7||148.6||88.9||71.0||2,110.6|
|Percent possible sunshine||30.0||38.3||41.3||45.4||53.7||60.7||65.1||60.7||47.3||43.4||30.4||25.3||45.1|
|Source: Environment Canada|
|Parks in Hamilton|
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