Halls Stream

Halls Stream or Rivière Hall is a 25.2-mile-long (40.6 km)[1] tributary of the Connecticut River in eastern North America. For most of its length, it forms the Canada–United States border, with the province of Quebec (Canada) to its west and the state of New Hampshire (United States) to its east.

Halls Stream
Rivière Hall (in Quebec)
RiviereHalls
Halls Stream near East Hereford, Quebec
Location
CountriesCanada and United States
Province and StatesQuebec, New Hampshire and Vermont
Administrative regionsEstrie (Quebec)
Pittsburg (New Hampshire)
Canaan (Vermont)
Physical characteristics
Source 
 ⁃ locationCanada-US border (Québec-New Hampshire
 ⁃ coordinates45°13′30″N 71°25′31″W / 45.22500°N 71.42528°W
 ⁃ elevation1,912 feet (583 m)
Mouth 
 ⁃ location
Beecher Falls, Vermont
 ⁃ coordinates
45°00′31″N 71°30′17″W / 45.0085°N 71.5046°WCoordinates: 45°00′31″N 71°30′17″W / 45.0085°N 71.5046°W
 ⁃ elevation
1,072 feet (327 m)
Length25.2 miles (40.6 km)

Geography

The stream flows from north to south, with a logging landscape on the New Hampshire side, and a mixture of woodland and farms on the Quebec side. Near the southern end of the stream, the international boundary diverges from Halls Stream and heads west, along a line which, when it was originally surveyed, was intended to be on the 45th parallel. South of this line, Halls Stream enters the state of Vermont, flowing through the town of Canaan in Essex County for a little over a half mile. In the village of Beecher Falls, Vermont, it empties into the Connecticut River (which forms the boundary between Vermont and New Hampshire).

Where Halls Stream forms the international border, it divides the following municipalities:

History

Historically, Halls Stream factored into an international boundary dispute in this area, and it formed part of the border of the so-called Republic of Indian Stream.

Toponymy

The term "Halls" is a surname of English origin.

The toponym "Rivière Hall" was officialized on December 5, 1968, at the Commission de toponymie du Québec (Quebec Geographical Names Board)[2] and on October 29, 1980, in the United States Geographic Names Information System (GNIS).[3]

See also

References

  1. ^ New Hampshire GRANIT state geographic information system Archived 2013-08-03 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ Commission de toponymie du Québec - Banque de noms de lieux (Bank of place names) - Toponym: "Rivière Hall".
  3. ^ Geographic Names Information System (GNIS)
Beecher Falls-East Hereford Border Crossing

The Beecher Falls-East Hereford Border Crossing connects the towns of East Hereford, Quebec (formerly Comins Mills) and the village of Beecher Falls, Vermont on the Canada–United States border. It is reached by Vermont Route 253 on the American side and by Quebec Route 253 on the Canadian side. Both the Canadian and the U.S. stations are open 24 hours a day. Whilst the Canadian station is open for commercial traffic, this is only on a more limited basis. The U.S. station facilities, built in the 1930s, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2014.

Canaan, Vermont

Canaan is a town in Essex County, Vermont, United States. The population was 972 at the 2010 census, down from 1,078 at the 2000 census. Canaan contains the village of Beecher Falls, located at the confluence of the Connecticut River and Halls Stream. It is part of the Berlin, NH–VT Micropolitan Statistical Area.

Connecticut Lakes

The Connecticut Lakes are a group of lakes in Coos County, northern New Hampshire, United States, situated along the headwaters of the Connecticut River. They are accessed via the northernmost segment of U.S. Route 3, between the village of Pittsburg and the Canada port of entry south of Chartierville, Quebec. The lakes are located within the boundaries of Pittsburg, but are far from the town center. Connecticut Lakes State Forest adjoins them.

There are four lakes: First, Second, Third and Fourth Connecticut Lake, numerically running south to north. The lakes decrease in size and increase in elevation, sequentially from first to fourth. The fourth lake is the source of the Connecticut River. The first three lakes can be viewed and accessed from U.S. Route 3, while the only access to the fourth lake is via the Fourth Connecticut Lake Trail, which goes in and out of Canada. All lakes are north of the 45th parallel.

Lake Francis lies to the south of the four Connecticut Lakes. It is a man-made reservoir and the last of the major lakes along the Connecticut River in northern New Hampshire.

Connecticut River

The Connecticut River is the longest river in the New England region of the United States, flowing roughly southward for 406 miles (653 km) through four states. It rises at the U.S. border with Quebec, Canada, and discharges at Long Island Sound. Its watershed encompasses five U.S. states and one Canadian province, 11,260 square miles (29,200 km2) via 148 tributaries, 38 of which are major rivers. It produces 70% of Long Island Sound's fresh water, discharging at 19,600 cubic feet (560 m3) per second.The Connecticut River Valley is home to some of the northeastern United States' most productive farmland, as well as a metropolitan region of approximately two million people surrounding Springfield, Massachusetts and Hartford, Connecticut.

Dublin Pond

Dublin Pond or Dublin Lake is a 236-acre (0.96 km2) water body located in Cheshire County in southwestern New Hampshire, United States, in the town of Dublin. The pond lies at an elevation of 1,480 feet (451 m) above sea level, near the height of land between the Connecticut River/Long Island Sound watershed to the west and the Merrimack River/Gulf of Maine watershed to the east.

East Hereford, Quebec

East Hereford is a municipality of about 300 people in southeastern Quebec, Canada, in Coaticook Regional County Municipality in the Estrie region.

East Hereford is located just north of Beecher Falls, Vermont, and on the east side of East Hereford it is bordered by New Hampshire. Halls Stream, a south-flowing tributary of the Connecticut River, forms the eastern boundary of the municipality and the Canada–United States border. Dairy farming and lumber products are the main sources of income in the area.

The nearby Mont Hereford has a developed trail network for the sport of mountain biking.

Geology of New Hampshire

The geology of New Hampshire is relatively similar to the rest of the New England region in consisting of a series of metamorphosed sedimentary and volcanic rocks of Late Proterozoic to Devonian age intruded by numerous plutons and dikes ranging in age from Late Proterozoic to early Cretaceous. New Hampshire is known as ‘the Granite State’ though less than half is actually underlain by granite; much of it is schist or gneiss, both of which are metamorphic rocks.

Indian Stream

Indian Stream is a tributary of the Connecticut River, approximately 19.1 miles (30.9 km) long, in New Hampshire in the United States. It rises in the mountains of extreme northern New Hampshire, in Coos County near the Canada–United States border, where the Middle Branch of Indian Stream joins the West Branch. Indian Stream flows south-southwest, joining the Connecticut two miles (3.2 km) downstream from the village of Pittsburg.

The area around Pittsburg was the subject of a border dispute in the 1830s between the United States and Canada, leading to the short-lived, self-proclaimed Republic of Indian Stream. The border dispute, based upon an ambiguity in the Treaty of Paris (1783), was resolved in 1842, with the river drainage and the land lying east of Halls Stream established as part of the state of New Hampshire.

Lake Francis (Murphy Dam)

Lake Francis is a reservoir on the Connecticut River in northern New Hampshire, United States. The lake is located in Coos County, east of the village of Pittsburg and along the boundary between the towns of Pittsburg and Clarksville. The lake is impounded by Murphy Dam, built in 1940 as a flood control project. The 117-foot (36 m) earthen dam is owned by the Water Division of the state's Department of Environmental Services, and is operated by TC Energy (formerly TransCanada Corporation).Lake Francis and Murphy Dam are named after Francis P. Murphy, who served as the Governor of New Hampshire from 1937 to 1941. The lake covers nearly 2,000 acres (8 km2), has a capacity of 131,375 acre feet (162,049,000 m3), and has average and maximum depths of 40 feet (12 m) and 82 feet (25 m), respectively.The lake is classified as a coldwater fishery, with observed species including rainbow trout, brown trout, landlocked salmon, lake trout, and chain pickerel. There are two public boat launch locations, and ice fishing is permitted from January through March.Lake Francis State Park is located on the northeast side of the lake, where the Connecticut River flows in. North of Lake Francis is Back Lake, while First Connecticut Lake (one of a series of four Connecticut Lakes that serve as the headwaters of the Connecticut River) lies to the northeast.

List of river borders of U.S. states

Because of its unique history, many of the boundaries of the political divisions of the United States were artificially constructed (rather than being permitted to evolve and drawn using natural features of the landscape). Therefore, many U.S. states have straight lines as boundaries, especially in the West. However, there are a number of states, particularly in the Midwest, North and South with at least partial river borders.

List of rivers of New Hampshire

This is a list of rivers and significant streams in the U.S. state of New Hampshire.

All watercourses named "River" (freshwater or tidal) are listed here, as well as other streams which are either subject to the New Hampshire Comprehensive Shoreland Protection Act or are more than 10 miles (16 km) long. New Hampshire rivers and streams qualify for state shoreland protection (and are listed here in bold) if they are fourth-order or larger water bodies, based on the Strahler method of stream order classification.

Pittsburg, New Hampshire

Pittsburg is a town in Coos County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 869 at the 2010 census. It is the northernmost town in New Hampshire and the largest town by area in the state – and in New England as well – more than twice the size of the next largest town, Lincoln. U.S. Route 3 is the only major highway in the town, although the northern terminus of New Hampshire Route 145 also lies within Pittsburg.

Pittsburg is part of the Berlin, New Hampshire–Vermont Micropolitan Statistical Area.

Republic of Indian Stream

The Republic of Indian Stream or Indian Stream Republic was an unrecognized constitutional republic in North America, along the section of the border that divides the current Canadian province of Quebec from the U.S. state of New Hampshire. It existed from July 9, 1832, to August 5, 1835. Described as "Indian Stream Territory, so-called" by the United States census-taker in 1830, the area was named for Indian Stream, a small watercourse. It had an organized elected government and constitution and served about three hundred citizens.

Saville Dam

Saville Dam is an earthen embankment dam with masonry work on the eastern branch of the Farmington River in southwestern Barkhamsted, Connecticut. The dam is 135 ft. (41 m) tall and 1,950 ft. (590 m) long and has an uncontrolled spillway on its western portion. It creates the Barkhamsted Reservoir which has a volume of 36.8 billion US gallons (139,000,000 m3) and is the primary water source for Hartford, Connecticut.

In 1927, the Metropolitan District Commission began to purchase land in the present-day footprint of the dam and reservoir. Construction of the dam commenced in 1936 while land to the north was being stripped of lumber and buildings.

Before the Metropolitan District Commission named the Saville Dam in 1940 in honor of its chief engineer, Caleb Mills Saville, it was referred to as the Bill's Brook Dam after the brook that ran near the site at the time.

The foundations for "Bill's Brook Dam" and the diversion tunnel for the East Branch of the Farmington River were completed in August 1934. Subsequently, the East Branch was diverted into the concrete conduit at the bottom of the Bill's Brook Dam site. The dam was completed in May 1940, at a total cost for dam and reservoir of $10M.Although the Saville Dam was completed in 1940, it was not until 1948 that the Barkhamsted Reservoir finally filled to capacity. The Farmington River East Branch is impounded for nearly 8 miles (13 km) behind the dam, with the northernmost open waters of Barkhamsted Reservoir terminating in Hartland, Connecticut just south of the Massachusetts border.The reservoir flooded many buildings and farms of Barkhamsted, including the village of Barkhamsted Hollow. The village of Barkhamsted Center, partially flooded, lies just to the west of the reservoir. Its remaining buildings are part of the Barkhamsted Center Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Territorial evolution of Canada

The history of post-colonial Canada began on July 1, 1867, when the British North American colonies of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia were united to form a single Dominion within the British Empire. Upon Confederation, the United Province of Canada was immediately split into the provinces of Ontario and Quebec. The colonies of Prince Edward Island and British Columbia joined shortly after, and Canada acquired the vast expanse of the continent controlled by the Hudson's Bay Company, which was eventually divided into new territories and provinces. Canada evolved into a fully sovereign state by 1982.Before being part of British North America, the constituents of Canada consisted of the former colonies of Canada and Acadia from within New France which had been ceded to Great Britain in 1763 as part of the Treaty of Paris. French Canadian nationality was maintained as one of the "two founding nations" and legally through the Quebec Act which ensured the maintenance of the Canadian French language, Catholic religion, and French civil law within Canada, a fact which remains true today.Canada today has ten provinces and three territories; it only lost significant territory in the border dispute over Labrador with the Dominion of Newfoundland, which later joined Canada as the 10th province.

Tributaries
Lakes
Towns
Crossings
Gulf of Maine
Long Island Sound
Connecticut River Watershed
Hudson River Watershed
Saint Lawrence River Watershed

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