Halle (Saale) (UK: /ˈhælə/, US: /ˈhɑːlə/; traditionally Halle an der Saale [ˈhalə ʔan dɐ ˈzaːlə] (listen)) is a city in the southern part of the German state Saxony-Anhalt. It is the largest city of the state and the fourth-largest of former East Germany.
Halle is an economic and educational center in central-eastern Germany. The University of Halle-Wittenberg is the largest university in Saxony-Anhalt, one of the oldest universities in Germany, and a nurturing ground for the local startup ecosystem. Together with Leipzig, Halle is at the heart of the Central German Metropolitan Region.
Coat of arms
Location of Halle (Saale)
|• Mayor||Bernd Wiegand|
|• Total||135.01 km2 (52.13 sq mi)|
|Elevation||87 m (285 ft)|
|• Density||1,800/km2 (4,600/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)|
Halle (Saale) is in the southern part of Saxony-Anhalt, along the river Saale which drains the surrounding plains and the greater part of the neighbouring Free State of Thuringia just to its south, and the Thuringian basin, northwards from the Thuringian Forest. Leipzig, one of Germany's major cities, is only 35 kilometres (22 mi) away.
Halle's early history is connected with the harvesting of salt. The name Halle reflects early Celtic settlement given that halen is the Brythonic (Welsh/Breton) word for salt (cf. salann in Irish). The name of the river Saale also contains the Germanic root for salt, and salt-harvesting has taken place in Halle since at least the Bronze Age (2300–600 BC).
The Latin name Hala Saxonum was also used.
From 1965 to 1995, the official name was Halle/Saale.
The earliest documented mention of Halle dates from AD 806. It became a part of the Archbishopric of Magdeburg in the 10th century and remained so until 1680, when Brandenburg-Prussia annexed it together with Magdeburg as the Duchy of Magdeburg, while it was an important location for Martin Luther's Reformation in the 16th century. Cardinal Albert of Mainz (Archbishop of Magdeburg from 1513 to 1545) also impacted on the town in this period. According to historic documents, the city of Halle became a member of the Hanseatic League at least as early as 1281.
Halle became a center for Pietism, a movement encouraged by King Frederick William I of Prussia (reigned 1713-1740) because it caused the area's large Lutheran population to be more inclined to Fredrick William I's religion (Calvinism), as well as more loyal to the Prussian king instead of to the decentralized feudal system. By the 1740s Halle had established many orphanages as well as schools for the wealthy in the sober style Pietism encouraged. This Halle education was the first time the "modern education" system was established. The Halle Pietists also combated poverty.
During the War of the Fourth Coalition, French and Prussian forces clashed in the Battle of Halle on 17 October 1806. The fighting moved from the covered bridges on the city's west side, through the streets and market place, to the eastern suburbs.
During World War II, KZ-Außenlager Birkhahn, a subcamp of Buchenwald was in Halle, where prisoners from Poland, Czechoslovakia, the Soviet Union, France, Netherlands and other nations were forced to work in the Siebel aircraft plants, making combat aircraft. The plant was later dismantled. In Ammendorf, a large factory owned by Orgacid produced mustard gas.
Near the end of World War II, there were two bombing raids carried out against the town: the first on 31 March 1945, the second a few days later. The first attack took place between the railway station and the city's centre, and the second bombing was in the southern district. It killed over 1,000 inhabitants and destroyed 3,600 buildings. Among them, the Market Church, St. George Church, the Old Town Hall, the municipal theatre, historic buildings on Bruederstrasse and on Grosse Steinstrasse, and the city cemetery.
On 17 April 1945, American soldiers occupied Halle, and the Red Tower was set on fire by artillery and destroyed. The Market Church and the Church of St. George received more hits. However, the city was spared further damage because an aerial bombardment was canceled, after former naval officer Felix von Luckner negotiated the city's surrender to the American army. In July, the Americans withdrew and the city was occupied by the Red Army.
After World War II, Halle served as the capital of the short-lived administrative region of Saxony-Anhalt until 1952, when the East German government abolished its "Länder" (states). As a part of East Germany (until 1990), it functioned as the capital of the administrative district (Bezirk) of Halle.
Largest groups of foreign residents by 31.12.2017
Salt, also known as white gold, was extracted from four "Borns" (well-like structures). The four Borns/brine named Gutjahrbrunnen, Meteritzbrunnen, Deutscher Born and Hackeborn, were located around the Hallmarket (or "Under Market"), now a market square with a fountain, just across from the TV station, MDR. The brine was highly concentrated and boiled in Koten, simple structured houses made from reed and clay. Salters, who wore a unique uniform with eighteen silver buttons, were known as Halloren, and this name was later used for the chocolates in the shape of these buttons.
Within East Germany, Halle's chemical industry, now mainly shut down, was of great importance. The two main companies in the region were Buna-Werke and Leuna, and Halle-Neustadt was built in the 1960s to accommodate the employees of these two factories.
Baroque composer Georg Friedrich Händel (later George Frideric Handel) was born in Halle in 1685 and spent the first 17 years of his life in the city. The house where he lived is now a museum about his life. To celebrate his music, Halle has staged a Handel Festival since 1922, annually in June since 1952. The Franckesche Stiftungen (Francke Foundations) are home to the Stadtsingechor zu Halle, which was founded before the year 1116 and is one of the oldest boys' choirs in the world.
The University of Halle was founded here in 1694. It is now combined with the University of Wittenberg and called the Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg. The university's medical school was established by Friedrich Hoffmann. Its botanical garden, the Botanische Garten der Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, dates back to 1698. Halle's German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina is the oldest and one of the most respected scientific societies in Germany. Halle is also home to Germany's oldest Protestant church library, known as the Marienbibliothek, with 27,000 titles. The seat of the Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology, one of the world's largest social anthropological research institutions and a part of the Max Planck Society, is in Halle.
Halle was a centre of German Pietism and played an important role in establishing the Lutheran church in North America, when Henry Muhlenberg and others were sent as missionaries to Pennsylvania in the mid-18th century. Muhlenberg is now called the first Patriarch of the Lutheran Church in America. He and his son, Frederick Muhlenberg, who was the first Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, were graduates of Halle University.
The Silver Treasure of the Halloren is displayed occasionally at the Technical Museum Saline. It is a unique collection of silver and gold goblets dating back to 1266. The ancient craft of "Schausieden" (boiling of the brine) can be observed there too. The State Museum of Prehistory houses the Nebra sky disk, a significant (though unproven) Bronze-Age find with astrological significance.
Halle Zoo contributes to the EAZA breeding programme, in particular for the Angolan lion and the Malaysian tiger. Halle is also known for its thriving coypu (or nutria) population, which is native to South America.
With writers such as Heine, Eichendorff, Schleiermacher, Tieck and Novalis the town was a vibrant scene of the German Romanticism. Also Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was a regular guest at the house of his close friend Johann Friedrich Reichardt.
German-American expressionist painter Lyonel Feininger worked in Halle on an invitation by the city from 1929 to 1931. As one of eleven views of the city termed Halle Cycle, he painted in 1931 Die Türme über der Stadt (The towers above the city), which is now in the Museum Ludwig in Cologne. This painting appeared on a 55 eurocent stamp on 5 December 2002 as a part of the series “Deutsche Malerei des 20. Jahrhunderts” (German painting of the 20th century).
Ludwig Wucherer made Halle an important rail hub in central Germany. In 1840 he opened the Magdeburg-Halle-Leipzig line, completing a connection between Magdeburg and Dresden. In 1841–1860, other lines to Erfurt, Kassel and Berlin followed.
The centrepiece of Halle's urban public transport system is the Halle (Saale) tramway network. It includes the world's first major electric-powered inner-city tram line, which was opened in 1891. Halle (Saale) Hauptbahnhof is the main railway station.
Halle's prominence as a railway centre is set to continue growing with the arrival of the Erfurt-Leipzig/Halle high-speed railway. Leipzig will also be connected to this railway, but since it is a terminus station (though the Leipzig City Tunnel is currently under construction, the route will be shared with S-Bahn trains, making it unlikely that it will be used as a through station for Berlin-Munich trains), Halle is more likely to be used as an intermediate stop for Berlin-Munich trains. The completion of the Nuremberg–Erfurt high-speed railway will also provide a further impetus to use the route.
The football team Hallescher FC Wacker 1900 had some regional importance before World War II. In the German Championship Wacker reached the semi-finals in 1921, and the quarter-finals in 1928. The successor team became East German champions in 1949 and 1952 under the names of ZSG Union and BSG Turbine Halle. From these evolved today's Turbine Halle and Hallescher FC. In the era of the German Democratic Republic, the latter club (as Chemie Halle ) was a mainstay in the first division and won the Cup tournament in 1956 and 1962. The most prominent player was 72-times international Bernd Bransch, who was with Chemie in the 1960s and 1970s. These days, Hallescher FC usually plays in the third division.
The general sports club SV Halle, originating from Chemie Halle, created a notable number of Olympic gold medallists and world champions, mainly in nautical and watersports, e.g., swimmer Kornelia Ender won four Olympic gold medals in 1976 and Andreas Hajek won four rowing world championships between 1998 and 2001. The basketball team of the club - these days known as Lions and focusing on the woman's team which plays in the national first division - won five men's and 10 women's championships of the German Democratic Republic. The Hallesher FC's location is extremely close to a train station.
Furthermore, Halle has friendship agreements with:
Halle (Saale) and Leipzig are the two centres of the Central German Metropolitan Region with more than 2.4 million people.
In Halle, too, the local Pietists battled poverty and indigence. Around the charismatic figure of August Hermann Francke there was an extraordinary flowering of Christian voluntarism. In 1695, Francke opened a poor-school financed by pious donations.
89.0 RTL is a German radio channel whose studios are located in Halle (Saale). It aims at the 14-29 age bracket.
It aired first on 24 August 2003 and replaced the radio channel Project 89.0 Digital. While it is licensed to Saxony-Anhalt, the exposed position of the Brocken at 3,743 ft allows the channel to cover large parts of central Germany, including Lower Saxony, Thuringia, Brandenburg and Saxony. The channel can be received on FM 89.0 and on DAB channel 12C.Andreas Wank
Andreas Wank (born 18 February 1988) is a German ski jumper who competes at World Cup level. He is 1.90 m (6 ft 3 in) tall and weighs 73 kg (161 lbs).Annett Hesselbarth
Annett Hesselbarth (born June 4, 1966 in Halle) is a retired German sprinter who specialized in the 400 metres.
At the 1990 European Championships in Athletics in Split she finished fourth in 400 m and won the 4x400 m relay for East Germany together with Grit Breuer, Manuela Derr and Petra Schersing. At the 1991 IAAF World Indoor Championships in Seville Hesselbarth helped win the gold medal in an indoor world record time of 3:27.22 minutes. The teammates were Sandra Seuser, Katrin Schreiter and Grit Breuer. At the 1991 World Championships in Athletics she ran in the heats for the German team who finished third in the final.Daniel Meyer (coach)
Daniel Meyer is a German football manager. He is currently the manager of FC Erzgebirge Aue in the 2. Bundesliga.Erdgas Sportpark
Erdgas Sportpark, is a stadium in Halle, Germany. It has a capacity of 15,057 spectators. It is the home of Hallescher FC and replaced Kurt-Wabbel-Stadion.Franziska Hildebrand
Franziska Hildebrand (born 24 March 1987) is a German biathlete. Hildebrand started in her first world cup races in the 2011/12-season after winning three medals at the two previous European Championships. In 2014, she participated in the Winter Olympics in Sochi. She was officially nominated by the DOSB on 23 January 2014.Halle (Saale) Hauptbahnhof
Halle (Saale) Hauptbahnhof is the main railway station in the city of Halle in southern part of the German state of Saxony-Anhalt. The station is situated east of the city centre and is a category 2 station.Handel Festival, Halle
The Handel Festival (in German: Händel-Festspiele) in Halle an der Saale, Saxony-Anhalt, is an international music festival concentrating on the music of George Frideric Handel in the composer's birthplace. It was founded in 1922 and it grew into a center of Handel studies and performance in Europe. Especially Handel's operas have been staged regularly, some of them as first revivals.Jochen Pietzsch
Jochen Pietzsch (born 1 December 1963 in Halle, Saxony-Anhalt) is an East German luger who competed during the mid-1980s. Together with Jörg Hoffmann, he won two medals in the men's doubles event with a gold in 1988 and a bronze in 1984.
Pietzsch also found great success at the FIL World Luge Championships with a total of six medals, including four gold (Men's doubles: 1983, 1985, 1987; Mixed team: 1990) and two bronzes (Men's doubles: 1989, 1990). He also won three medals at the FIL European Luge Championships with two golds (Men's doubles and mixed team: both 1990) and one silver (Men's doubles: 1986).Pietzsch won the overall Luge World Cup title in men's doubles in 1983-84. He married cross-country skier Kerstin Mohring.Karl Platen
Karl Platen (6 March 1877 – 4 July 1952) was a German actor.
Platen was born Carl Platen in Halle an der Saale and died in Weimar.Kersten Neisser
Kersten Neisser (later Köpke and then Kriesel, born 4 May 1956 in Halle, Saxony-Anhalt) is a German rower.Manfred Deckert
Manfred Deckert (born 31 March 1961) is an East German former ski jumper.Mitteldeutsche Zeitung
The Mitteldeutsche Zeitung (Central German Newspaper) is a regional daily newspaper for southern Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Published in Halle with several local versions, the paper is owned by M. DuMont Schauberg, Cologne.Petra Kandarr
Petra Kandarr (née Vogt; 20 August 1950 in Halle – 12 March 2017 in Karlsruhe) was an East German sprinter who specialized in the 100- and 200-metre track events.S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland
S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland represents an enlargement of the previous Leipzig-Halle S-Bahn. It is an electric rail public transit system operating in the metropolitan area of Leipzig-Halle, Germany. This S-Bahn (German abbreviation for Stadtschnellbahn - literally, "urban rapid [rail]road") network had developed from two separate S-Bahn networks of Halle (Saale) and Leipzig, which were established separately in 1969 and then linked in 2004. With the opening of the Leipzig City Tunnel on 15 December 2013 as a new artery, the network was extended to the federal states of Thuringia and Brandenburg. The locomotive-hauled double-decker trains had been replaced by electric multiple unit Bombardier Talent 2 trains.
It is operated by DB Regio Südost, Verkehrsbetrieb Mitteldeutschland mainly on behalf of Zweckverband für den Nahverkehrsraum Leipzig (ZVNL) and Nahverkehrsservicegesellschaft Sachsen-Anhalt GmbH (nasa), but also another four public transport authorities in Saxony, Thuringia (Nahverkehrsservicegesellschaft Thüringen) and Brandenburg (Verkehrsverbund Berlin-Brandenburg).Stefan Pfannmöller
Stefan Pfannmöller (born 4 December 1980 in Halle an der Saale) is a German slalom canoeist who competed at the international level from 1997 to 2007. Competing in two Summer Olympics, he won a bronze medal in the C1 event in Athens in 2004.Pfannmöller also won five medals at the ICF Canoe Slalom World Championships with a gold (C1 team: 2006), three silvers (C1 team: 1999, 2002, 2005), and a bronze (C1: 2003).He is the overall World Cup champion in the C1 class from 2002. At the European Championships he won a total of six medals (2 golds and 4 silvers).Torsten Spanneberg
Torsten Spanneberg (born 13 April 1975 in Halle, Saxony-Anhalt) is an Olympic medal winning German swimmer. He won the bronze medal in the 4×100 m medley relay at the 2000 Summer Olympics and participated in the swimming at the 2004 Summer Olympics. His trainer is Norbert Warnatzach and his club is S.G. Neukölln. As of 2004, Spanneberg is a student and is 2.02 metres tall and weighs 88 kilograms.Trams in Halle (Saale)
The Halle (Saale) tramway network (German: Straßenbahnnetz Halle (Saale)) is a network of tramways forming part of the public transport system in Halle (Saale), a city in the federal state of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.VfL Halle 1896
VfL Halle 1896 is a German football club from the city of Halle (Saale) in Saxony-Anhalt.
Urban and rural districts in the state of Saxony-Anhalt in Germany
Cities in Germany by population
Members of the Hanseatic League by quarter