Halland

Halland  is one of the traditional provinces of Sweden (landskap in Swedish), on the western coast of Sweden. It borders Västergötland, Småland, Scania and the sea of Kattegat. Until 1645 and the Second Treaty of Brömsebro, it was part of the Kingdom of Denmark.

Halland
Coat of arms of Halland

Coat of arms
Sverigekarta-Landskap Halland
CountrySweden
LandGötaland
CountyHalland County
Västra Götaland County
Skåne County
Area
 • Total4,796 km2 (1,852 sq mi)
Population
(December 31, 2016)[1]
 • Total327,093
 • Density68/km2 (180/sq mi)
Ethnicity
 • LanguageSwedish
 • DialectHalländska
Götamål
Culture
 • FlowerBroom
 • AnimalSalmon
 • BirdPeregrine falcon
 • FishSalmonidae
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Area codes0300
0340–0346
035
0430

Administration

The provinces of Sweden serve no administrative function. Instead, that function is served by the Counties of Sweden. However, the province of Halland is almost coextensive with the administrative Halland County, though parts of the province belong to Västra Götaland County and Skåne County, while the county also includes parts of Småland and Västergötland.

As of December 31, 2016, Halland had a population of 327,093. Of these, 310,536 lived in Halland County; 14,205 lived in Västra Götaland County; and 2,352 lived in Skåne County.[1]

Heraldry

During the Danish era until 1658, the province had no coat of arms and no seal. In Sweden, however, every province had been represented by heraldic arms since 1560.[2] When Charles X Gustav of Sweden suddenly died in 1660 a coat of arms had to be created for the newly acquired province. Each province was to be represented by its arms at the royal funeral. There are several theories about the choice of a lion. Bengt Algotsson, duke of Halland and Finland in the 14th century, used a lion in his personal arms. Blazon: Azure, a Lion rampant Argent langued, armed and dente Gules.

The same coat of arms was later granted for the administrative Halland County, which has almost the same boundaries.

Geography

The rivers of Lagan, Ätran, Nissan and Viskan flow through the province and reach the sea in Kattegat. Halland is well known for its fertile soil and as an agricultural district.

Most of the region is made up of a relief unit known as the Sub-Mesozoic hilly peneplain. Around Morup and Tvååker hilltops are remnants of the Sub-Cambrian peneplain, an ancient erosion surface that covers much of eastern Sweden.[3] Loose flint nodules of Cretaceous age have been found around Halland. The flints are remnants of a former cover of sedimentary rock that has been eroded. At present the sedimentary cover continues to exist in Scania, Denmark and offshore.[4]

History

Early history

The Bronze Age was probably a period of relative prosperity in Halland. This is shown in the number of new settlements and the numerous archaeological remains. Over 1,100 tumuli and grave mounds have been found.

The end of the Bronze Age witnessed an over-consumption of resources. Large areas were deforested. This might have been a result of a high demand for charcoal in smelting gold or bronze among the local elites.

The worsening climate at the beginning of the Iron Age meant that the local elites no longer could obtain bronze to the same extent as before. As a result, the social structures collapsed.

The early Iron Age social structures seem to have been relatively egalitarian, but from around 200 AD there was a trend in which villages formed larger communities and small kingdoms. This is likely to have been a distant influence from the growing Roman Empire. During the 5th and 6th century large free-standing farms were created; they grew larger as time passed. An example of such a farm can be found in Slöinge.

It was not just the social structure that changed, so too did the settlement structure. New villages were formed, while old ones were abandoned. The new centers that were formed became the kernel from which new areas were settled during medieval times.

800-1645 AD

According to information from a trader travelling from Skiringssal, close to the Oslofjord to Hedeby in the 870s it can be concluded that Halland was a Danish area at that time. It would stay so for most of recorded history.

Iron extraction is known to have taken place in Hishult and Tvååker/Sibbarp during the Iron Age.

As part of the Scanian lands (then part of the Kingdom of Denmark) Halland came under the Scanian Law and participated in the Scanian Thing, one of three Things electing the Danish king. Local assemblies took place in Getinge.

Halland was the scene of considerable military action from the 13th century and on as Sweden, Denmark and to some degree Norway fought for supremacy in Scandinavia. The many wars made the province poor. Not only were material damages caused by military action, but the social impact of the fighting was devastating; people lacked the motivation to invest in their land and properties as it was likely to be destroyed anyway.

The county was the site of combat and plunder three times during the 13th Century: in 1256 Haakon IV of Norway invaded, followed by Magnus III of Sweden in 1277 and Eric VI of Denmark in 1294. The county came to be split in two parts for the next century, with the river Ätran forming a boundary. The lords of the two parts succeeded each other in a high tempo.

As the Kalmar Union was formed, Halland came for a brief period of time to be centrally located. According to the union treaty, the king was to be elected in Halmstad.

During the rebellion of Engelbrekt in 1434 the fortress in Falkenberg was burnt down and two years later Lagaholm was captured by the Swedes. The Swedo-Danish struggles in the early 16th century came to affect the province as well, as in 1519 when the border regions were sacked by the Swedes as a vengeance for similar Danish action in Västergötland.

The Danish civil war called the Count's Feud in 1534–36, the Northern Seven Years' War between Denmark and Sweden in 1563–1570 and the Kalmar War between Denmark and Sweden in 1611–1613 all affected Halland. One of the major battles of the Northern Seven Years' War, the battle of Axtorna, took place in Halland.

After 1645

Fredsstenen i Brömsebro
The peace stone in Brömsebro is not a runestone even if it looks like one. The stone was made in 1915 to commemorate the peace between Denmark and Sweden and the text is written with Latin letters. The text on the stone says "Memory of the peace in Brömsebro - Gaspard Coignet de La.Thuilerie - Axel Oxenstierna - Corfitz Ulfeldt". The three named persons were the negotiators. Thuilerie was an ambassador from France, Oxenstierna represented Sweden and Ulfeldt represented Denmark.

Halland was temporarily (for a period of 30 years) transferred to Sweden in 1645 under the terms of the Second Treaty of Brömsebro. The conquest was later made permanent by the ceding of the province in the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658. The last battle in Halland took place in Fyllebro on 17 August 1676, during the Scanian War.

The more peaceful conditions that followed meant that the province could start to develop again. The 19th century saw the farming develop quickly to become one of the more efficient in the country by the end of the century. Parts of the province did however remain poor and erosion and blown sand remained a problem for much of the century. The county did therefore see a lot of emigration, continuing well into the 20th century.

The 20th century has seen the province becoming one of the fastest growing in Sweden, as it has doubled its population since World War II. This is in part due to the northern parts, such as Kungsbacka and Onsala, more or less becoming suburbs of Gothenburg.

Cities

During Danish rule, privileges to towns in Halland were granted to:

Such privileges have no official significance nowadays.

Hundreds

Hundreds of Sweden were provincial divisions until the early 20th century, when they lost importance. Halland's hundreds were: Faurås Hundred, Fjäre Hundred, Halmstad Hundred, Himle Hundred, Höks Hundred, Tönnersjö Hundred, Viske Hundred and Årstad Hundred.

Culture

The language varieties spoken in Halland are together called halländska, though they belong to two main dialectal groups. In northern Halland a variation of the Götaland dialect is spoken and in the south the spoken language is a variety of Scanian.

Sights

The Varberg Fortress was built in the 13th century and improved with higher walls in the 15th century.

Dukes of Halland

As early as the 13th century, southern Halland was given as duchy to a branch of the Danish royal family. In the 14th century, it was given to various relatives of Danish and Swedish royal families, such as Benedict, Duke of Halland 1353-57.

Since 1772 Swedish royal princes have been nominated dukes of provinces without political significance. Such a title was held by Prince Bertil, Duke of Halland (1912–1997); who was survived by his wife Princess Lilian, Duchess of Halland (1976-2013).

Sports

Football in the province is administered by Hallands Fotbollförbund. Team handball is also popular, with HK Drott.

References

  1. ^ a b "Folkmängd i landskapen den 31 december 2016" (in Swedish). Statistics Sweden. March 21, 2017. Retrieved 2017-11-25.
  2. ^ Clara Nevéus, Bror Jacques de Wærn: Ny svensk vapenbok. Riksarkivet 1992. (In Swedish)
  3. ^ Lidmar-Bergström, Karna; Olvmo, Mats; Bonow, Johan M. (2017). "The South Swedish Dome: a key structure for identification of peneplains and conclusions on Phanerozoic tectonics of an ancient shield". GFF.
  4. ^ Lidmar-Bergström, Karna (1972). "Two detached nodules of Cretaceous flint from Halland, south-western Sweden". GFF. 94: 565–567.

Sources

  • Kungsvägen genom Halland - Bidrag till halländsk kulturhistoria och underlag för vägminnesvårdsprogram. Stellan Haverling. 1996. Gothenburg: Vägverket

External links

Coordinates: 56°45′N 13°00′E / 56.750°N 13.000°E

East Hoathly with Halland

East Hoathly with Halland is a civil parish in the Wealden District of East Sussex, England. The parish contains the two villages of East Hoathly and Halland, two miles (3.2 km) to the west; it sits astride the A22 road, four miles (6.4 km) north-west of Hailsham, although the original sharp bend on that road through East Hoathly has now been bypassed.

Falkenberg

Falkenberg is a locality and the seat of Falkenberg Municipality, Halland County, Sweden, with 20,035 inhabitants in 2010 (out of a municipal total of 41,000). It is located at the mouth of river Ätran. The name consists of the Swedish words for falcon (falk) and mountain (berg). Falkenberg is a popular tourist destination in the summers, and the main beach of the town is Skrea strand.

HSwMS Småland (J19)

HSwMS Småland (J19) is a Swedish Halland-class destroyer. She and HSwMS Halland were the only ones built of their class. Two more ships were ordered but they were never completed.

She was decommissioned in 1979, and since 1987 has been a museum ship at Maritiman in Gothenburg, where she is the largest vessel on display.

Halland County

Halland County (Swedish: Hallands län) is a county (län) on the western coast of Sweden. It corresponds roughly to the cultural and historical province of Halland. The capital is Halmstad.

It borders the counties of Västra Götaland, Jönköping, Kronoberg, Skåne and the sea of the Kattegat.

Hallands Fotbollförbund

The Hallands Fotbollförbund (Halland Football Association) is one of the 24 district organisations of the Swedish Football Association. It administers lower tier football in the historical province of Halland.

Halmstad

Halmstad (Swedish: [ˈhalmsta] (listen)), is a port, university, industrial and recreational city at the mouth of the Nissan river, in the province of Halland on the Swedish west coast. Halmstad is the seat of Halmstad Municipality and the capital of Halland County. The city had a population of 92,797 in 2012, out of a municipal total of over 90,000 (18th most populous - 2012). Halmstad is Sweden's 20th-largest city by population and located about midway between Gothenburg (the second most populous) and Malmö (the third). It is Europe's northernmost city with a lot of timber framing architecture.

IFK Fjärås

IFK Fjärås is a Swedish football club located in Fjärås in Kungsbacka Municipality.

Kattegat

The Kattegat (Danish: [ˈkadəɡad]; Swedish: Kattegatt, pronounced [²katːɛˌɡat]) is a 30,000 km2 (12,000 sq mi) sea area bounded by the Jutlandic peninsula in the west, the Danish Straits islands of Denmark to the south and the provinces of Västergötland, Scania, Halland and Bohuslän in Sweden in the east. The Baltic Sea drains into the Kattegat through the Danish Straits. The sea area is a continuation of the Skagerrak and may be seen as a bay of the Baltic Sea or the North Sea or, as in traditional Scandinavian usage, neither of these.

The Kattegat is a rather shallow sea and can be very difficult and dangerous to navigate, due to the many sandy and stony reefs and tricky currents that often shift. In modern times, artificial seabed channels have been dug, many reefs have been dredged by either sand pumping or stone fishing, and a well-developed light signaling network has been installed, to safeguard the very heavy international traffic of this small sea.

There are several large cities and major ports in the Kattegat, including Gothenburg, Aarhus, Aalborg, Halmstad and Frederikshavn, mentioned by descending size.

Kungsbacka

Kungsbacka (pronunciation) is a locality and the seat of Kungsbacka Municipality in Halland County, Sweden, with 19,057 inhabitants in 2010.It is one of the most affluent parts of Sweden, in part due to its simultaneous proximity to the countryside and the large city of Gothenburg.

Kungsbacka IF

Kungsbacka IF is a Swedish football club located in Kungsbacka.

Laholms FK

Laholms FK is a Swedish football club located in Laholm in Halland County.

Onsala BK

Onsala BK is a Swedish football club located in Onsala.

Onsala BK is the biggest football club in Halland with over a thousand active players both boys and girls.

Prince Bertil, Duke of Halland

Prince Bertil, Duke of Halland (Bertil Gustaf Oskar Carl Eugén; 28 February 1912 – 5 January 1997), was a member of the Swedish royal family. He was the third son of King Gustaf VI Adolf and his first wife, Princess Margaret of Connaught, as well as the uncle of King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, Queen Margrethe II of Denmark and Queen Anne-Marie of Greece. From 1973 to 1977 he was heir presumptive to his nephew King Carl XVI Gustaf and the Swedish throne.

Princess Lilian, Duchess of Halland

Princess Lilian of Sweden, Duchess of Halland (born Lillian May Davies, later Craig; 30 August 1915 – 10 March 2013), was a British fashion model who became a member of the Swedish royal family through her 1976 marriage to Prince Bertil, Duke of Halland (1912–1997). As such, she was a paternal aunt of King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden and a maternal aunt of Queen Margrethe II of Denmark and Queen Anne-Marie of Greece.

Snöstorp Nyhem FF

Snöstorp Nyhem FF is a Swedish football club located in Halmstad.

Stafsinge IF

Stafsinge IF is a Swedish football club located in Falkenberg in Halland County.

Ullareds IK

Ullareds IK is a Swedish football club located in Ullared.

Varberg

Varberg is a locality and the seat of Varberg Municipality, Halland County, Sweden with 27,602 inhabitants in 2010.Varberg and all of Halland are well known for their "typical west coast" sandy beaches. In Varberg the coast changes from wide sandy beaches to rocky terrain that continues north into the Bohuslän archipelago and as far as the North Cape. Varberg is a charming and popular summer resort and many people from inland cities such as Borås are either moving to Varberg or holidaying there.

Vinbergs IF

Vinbergs IF is a Swedish football club located in Vinberg in Falkenberg Municipality, Halland County.

Götaland
Svealand
Norrland

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