Halisarna

Halisarna (Ancient Greek: Ἁλίσαρνα) was a town of ancient Mysia on the north bank of the river Caïcus.[1][2] The nearby towns of Halisarna, Pergamum, and Teuthrania had been given by the Persian king Darius I to the Spartan king Demaratus about the year 486 BCE for his help in the expedition against Greece. Demaratus's descendants continued to rule these cities at the beginning of the 4th century BCE.[3][4] During the withdrawal of Pergamum from The March of the Ten Thousand, it was attacked by, among others, troops from Halisarna and Teuthrania under command of Procles, son of Demaratus.[5] In the Hellenica, Xenophon relates that Halisarna, together with Pergamum, Teuthrania, Gambrium, Palaegambrium, Myrina and Gryneium were delivered by their rulers to the army that, under the command of the Spartan Thimbron, around the year 399 BCE, had come to the area to try to liberate the Greek colonies from the Persian domain.[3]

Its site is located near modern Eğrigöltepe, in Asiatic Turkey.[6][7]

References

  1. ^ Strabo. Geographica. 14.2.19. Page numbers refer to those of Isaac Casaubon's edition.
  2. ^  Smith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Halisarna". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.
  3. ^ a b Xenophon. Hellenica. 3.1.6.
  4. ^ Herodotus. Histories. 6.70.
  5. ^ Xenophon, Anabasis 7.8.17.
  6. ^ Richard Talbert, ed. (2000). Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. Princeton University Press. p. 56, and directory notes accompanying.
  7. ^ Lund University. Digital Atlas of the Roman Empire.

Coordinates: 39°02′42″N 27°06′54″E / 39.045111°N 27.114997°E

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Cyaneae

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Eurysthenes (Pergamon)

Eurysthenes (Greek: Εὐρυσθένης, circa 400 BC) was a descendant of the Spartan king Demaratus.

After his deposition in 491 BC, Demaratus had fled to Persia, where king Darius I made him ruler of the cities of Pergamon, Teuthrania and Halisarna. About a hundred years later Eurysthenes and his brother Procles reigned over the same cities; their joint rule is at least attested for the year 399 BC.

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Prokles (Pergamon)

Prokles (circa 400 BC) was a descendant of the exiled Spartan king Demaratus, and ruler of Pergamon in Asia Minor under the Achaemenid Empire. He was a brother of Eurysthenes, with whom he was a joint ruler.

After his deposition in 491 BC Demaratus had fled to Persia, where king Darius I made him ruler of the cities of Pergamon, Teuthrania and Halisarna. About a hundred years later Eurysthenes and his brother Prokles reigned over the same cities; their joint rule is at least attested for the year 399 BC.Xenophon and the Ten Thousand received some support from Prokles in facing Achaemenid troops, at the beginning of their campaign into Asia Minor. According to Xenophon (Anabasis, 7.8.8-17), when he arrived in Mysia in 399, he met Hellas, the widow of Gongylos and probably daughter of Themistocles, who was living at Pergamon. His two sons, Gorgion and Gongylos the younger, ruled respectively over the cities of Gambrium, Palaegambrium for Gorgion, and Myrina and Grynium for Gongylos. Xenophon received some support from the descendants of Gongylos for his campaign into Asia Minor, as well as from the descendants of Demaratos, a Spartan exile who also had become a satrap for the Achaemenids, in the person of his descendant Prokles.The coinage of Prokles displays one of the earliest portraits of a Greek ruler on a coin.The city of Pergamon was later taken over by the Spartan general Thibron, who was fighting against the Achaemenid Satrap of Lydia and Ionia Tissaphernes.

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Teuthrania

Teuthrania (Ancient Greek: Τευθρανία) was a town in the western part of ancient Mysia, and the name of its district about the river Caicus, which was believed to be derived from a legendary Mysian king Teuthras. This king is said to have adopted, as his son and successor, Telephus, a son of Heracles; and Eurypylus, the son of Telephus, appears in the Odyssey as the ruler of the Ceteii. The town was situated between Elaea, Pitane, and Atarneus. The nearby towns of Halisarna, Pergamum, and Teuthrania had been given by the Persian king Darius I to the Spartan king Demaratus about the year 486 BCE for his help in the expedition against Greece. Demaratus's descendants continued to rule these cities at the beginning of the 4th century BCE. During the withdrawal of Pergamum from The March of the Ten Thousand, it was attacked by, among others, troops from Halisarna and Teuthrania under command of Procles, son of Demaratus. In the Hellenica, Xenophon relates that Teuthrania, together with Pergamum, Halisarna, Gambrium, Palaegambrium, Myrina and Gryneium were delivered by their rulers to the army that, under the command of the Spartan Thimbron, around the year 399 BCE, had come to the area to try to liberate the Greek colonies from the Persian domain.Its site is located near modern Kalerga, in Asiatic Turkey.

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Üçayaklı ruins

The Üçayaklı ruins are in Mersin Province, Turkey.

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