Hakkâri (Syriac: ܗܲܟܵܐܪܝ̣ Hakkārī, Kurdish: Colemêrg), is a Kurdish city and the capital of the Hakkâri Province of Turkey. It is located a few kilometres away from the Iraq-Turkey border. The name Hakkâri is derived from the Kurdish word (Akkārē) meaning farmers or cultivators. Akkārē itself is derived from Akkadian ikkaru The population of the city at the 2010 census was 57,844.
|• Mayor||Dilek Hatipoğlu (BDP)|
|• District||2,237.19 km2 (863.78 sq mi)|
|Elevation||1,720 m (5,640 ft)|
|• District density||36/km2 (94/sq mi)|
Hubushkia still a Kurdish name was an Iron Age kingdom located between the Urartian and Kurdistann sphere of influence. The exact location of Hubushkia is unknown, but scholars suggests that the kingdom of Hubushkia was centred on the headwaters of the Great Zap River, in what is now Hakkâri Province in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. In its long history, the region has come under the rule of the Kardokh Kurds , Gutian, Kassite, Hurrian, Mitanni, Urartian, Nayiri, Median also Kurfs and Persian civilizations.
Thirteen Kurgan stelae, never before seen in Anatolia or the Near East, were found in 1998 in their original location at the centre of Hakkari. The stelae were carved on upright flagstone-like slabs measuring between 0.7 m to 3.10 m in height. The stones contain only one cut surface, upon which human figures are chiseled. The theme of each stele reveals the foreview of an upper human body. The legs are not represented. Eleven of the stelae depict naked warriors with daggers, spears, and axes—masculine symbols of war. They always hold a drinking vessel made of skin in both hands. Two stelae contain female figures without arms. The stelae may have been carved by different craftsmen using different techniques. Stylistic differences shift from bas relief to a more systematic linearity. The earliest stelae are in the style of bas relief while the latest ones are in a linear style. They were made during a period from the fifteenth century BC to the eleventh century BC in Hakkari. Stelae with this type of relief are not common in the ancient Near East however there are many close parallels between these and those produced by a variety of peoples from the Eurasian steppes between the third millennium BC and the eleventh century AD.
Kurds , who have originally inhabited the mountainous Hakkari and Barwari regions covering parts of the modern provinces of the Hakkâri, Şırnak and Van in Turkey and Dohuk in Iraq, with a population ranging between 75,000 and 150,000. Most of these Assyrians were massacred during the Genocide of 1915. The rest endured two winter marches to Urmia in 1915 and to Hamadan in 1918. Many of them were relocated to refugee camps by the British in Baquba and later to Habbaniyah, and in 1921 some were enlisted in the pro-British Iraqi Levies which helped quell Kurdish revolts in the British Mandate of Mesopotamia occupied Kurdistan  Most Hakkari Assyrians were resettled after 1925 in a cluster of villages in northern Iraq. Some of the villages where the Assyrians settled were leased directly by the government, while others belonged to Kurdish landlords who had the right to evict them at any time.
Hâkkari has a mediterranean continental climate (Köppen climate classification: Dsa) with a very dry and hot summer. The winters are cold and snowy with an average of −5 °C (23 °F). The lowest recorded temperature was −22.7 °C (−8.86 °F) on 7 February 1997. The summer are hot and dry with an average of 25 °C (76 °F). The highest recorded temperature was 37 °C (98.6 °F) on 2 August 1991.
|Climate data for Hâkkari (1960–2017)|
|Record high °C (°F)||11.8
|Average high °C (°F)||−0.4
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−4.6
|Average low °C (°F)||−8.0
|Record low °C (°F)||−23.4
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||90.1
|Average precipitation days||11.1||10.8||13.1||13.4||11.9||4.1||1.4||1.0||1.9||8.4||8.5||9.9||95.5|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||124.0||146.9||179.8||201.0||275.9||351.0||378.2||356.5||303.0||223.2||159.0||120.9||2,819.4|
|Mean daily sunshine hours||4.0||5.2||5.8||6.7||8.9||11.7||12.2||11.5||10.1||7.2||5.3||3.9||7.7|
|Source: Turkish State Meteorological Service|
The 15 August 1984 PKK attacks, which were led by Mahsum Korkmaz (known as "Agit"), marked the start of the last phase of Kurdish–Turkish conflict.Since the PKK's second party Congress, which was held from 20 to 25 August 1982 in Daraa, Syria, it was decided that the PKK would start preparing for an insurgency inside Turkey. Training camps were opened in Syria and in Lebanon's Beqaa Valley and propaganda teams were sent across the border to make contact with the local populations. After years of preparation, the PKK launched its first major attacks on 15 August 1984. The attack was led by the founder of the PKK's military wing.PKK forces attacked the gendarmerie station in Eruh in Siirt and killed one gendarmerie soldier and injured six soldiers and three civilians. Simultaneously, PKK forces attacked a gendarmerie open-air facility, officer housings and a gendarmerie station in Şemdinli, Hakkâri and killed two police officers and injured one police officer and a soldier.Initially, Turkish authorities did not take the attacks seriously, however the attack was followed up by a raid on a police station in Siirt on 17 August, which was soon followed by an attack that killed three of General Kenan Evren's Presidential Guards in Yüksekova and an ambush which killed 8 Turkish soldiers in Çukurca, in Hakkâri province.Insurgent violence in the predominantly Kurdish South-East of Turkey escalated heavily after the attacks. Around 2,500 people were killed during the conflict between the 15 August 1984 and 1991. This number rose to 17,500 between 1991 and 1992 and the Turkish state puts the number of people killed by the insurgency at 44,000 as of September 2008.2010 Hakkâri bus bombing
The 2010 Hakkâri bus bombing occurred on 16 September 2010 and resulted in nine people being killed and three others injured, including a 15-month-old baby, after an explosion on a minibus in the village of Geçitli, Hakkâri Province, Turkey. The initial death toll was eight, and later rose to ten. The death toll in the minivan was ten, and according to the U.S. Department of State, the PKK was responsible.2011 Hakkâri attack
The 2011 Hakkari attacks occurred on the night of October 19, 2011, when over 100 PKK fighters killed 26 Turkish soldiers . It was allegedly the deadliest PKK attack on Turkish security forces since the May 24, 1993 PKK ambush in which 33 soldiers were killed. The PKK claimed the attack was to avenge a high-ranking PKK commander killed by Turkish operations in Iraqi Kurdistan earlier.Turkish security forces claimed to have killed 49 PKK fighters in their slight retaliation during the next days according to Turkish media.According to claims made by Turkish authorities, the alleged attack was carried out by the Syrian branch of the PKK, led by Dr. Bahoz Erdal.2015 Hakkari Assault
2015 South-Western Hakkari assault refers to a large-scale operation of the Turkish military against Kurdish insurgents in the mountains of south-eastern Turkey, within the frame of the PKK rebellion (2015–present) resulting in the elimination of the PKK's mountain force structure network resulting in 119 militants killed and an estimated thousands of militants retreating to Iraq. The large scale assault was launched early September 2015 by Turkish Army commando battalions & concluded on early November 2015.Beyyurdu Dam
The Beyyurdu Dam is a gravity dam under construction on the Bembo River (an eventual tributary of the Great Zab) in Beyyurdu, Şemdinli district of Hakkâri Province, southeast Turkey.Dilimli Dam
The Dilimli Dam is a rock-fill embankment dam on the Büyük River, located 9 km (6 mi) northeast of Yüksekova in Hakkari Province, Turkey. Construction on the project began in 1995 after the main contract was awarded in 1994. Development is backed by the Turkish State Hydraulic Works. It was completed in late November 2014. The mayor of Dilimli opposes the dam because of its effects on nature. The primary purpose of the dam is water supply and it will divert water into a 505 m (1,657 ft) long tunnel for the irrigation of 9,142 ha (22,590 acres).Governor of Hakkâri
The Governor of Hakkâri (Turkish: Hakkâri Valiliği) is the civil service state official responsible for both national government and state affairs in the Province of Hakkâri. Similar to the Governors of the 80 other Provinces of Turkey, the Governor of Hakkâri is appointed by the Government of Turkey and is responsible for the implementation of government legislation within Hakkâri. The Governor is also the most senior commander of both the Hakkâri provincial police force and the Hakkâri Gendarmerie.Hakkari (electoral district)
Hakkari is an electoral district of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. It elects three members of parliament (deputies) to represent the province of the same name for a four-year term by the D'Hondt method, a party-list proportional representation system.Hakkâri Province
Hakkâri Province (Turkish: Hakkâri ili), is a province in the south east corner of Turkey. The administrative centre is located in the city of Hakkâri (Kurdish: Colemêrg). The province covers an area of 7,121 km² and has a population of 251,302 (2010 est). The province had a population of 236,581 in 2000. The province was created in 1936 out of part of Van Province. Its adjacent provinces are Şırnak to the west and Van to the north. The majority of the province's population is Kurdish.Konak, Hakkari
Konak is an Assyrian village in the province of Hakkari, traditionally called Qodchanis (pronounced Ko-cha-niss; Syriac: ܩܘܕܫܐܢܣ Qudshānes, also spelt Qudshanes, Kotchanes, Qochanis or Kocanis). It was the seat of a line of patriarchs whose continuation is at the head of what since 1976 has adopted the name of Assyrian Church of the East.The village is situated about 20 km northeast of the provincial capital Hakkâri of Hakkâri Province in the southeastern corner of Turkey, near the borders of Iran and Iraq, in the Upper Barwari region.List of populated places in Hakkari Province
Below is the list of populated places in Hakkari Province, Turkey by the districts.In the following lists first place in each list is the administrative center of the district.October 2007 clashes in Hakkâri
The October 2007 clashes in Hakkari were a series of clashes between the Kurdistan Workers' Party and the Turkish Armed Forces.Operation Murat
Operation Murat, which was launched on 23 April 1998, by the Turkish Army against the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) in the Turkey's South-Eastern Hakkâri Province. It is said to have been the largest Turkish military operation in the entire Kurdish–Turkish conflict or even the largest Turkish military operation since the foundation of the Republic of Turkey.The Turkish Army used 40,000 troops to pursue 450 Kurdish guerillas led by Murat Karayılan. Turkish forces however failed to kill or capture Karayılan after they cornered him in Kulp, Diyarbakir, in May.During the first three days of the operation, there were clashes in Diyarbakir, Bingöl, Muş and Bitlis. Within Diyarbakir province, the clashes were concentrated around Kulp, Lice and Hani and in Bingöl Province, they were centered on Genç. The military declared they killed 58 militants, captured 3 militants and lost 3 security forces during the first three days. Militants downed a military plane in Kulp, whereafter an Armenian businessman was detained.Pro-PKK sources have alleged that former PKK military commander Şemdin Sakık aided Turkish forces during the operation, after he was captured by Turkish forces shortly after leaving the PKK to join forces with the Kurdistan Democratic Party.Pervin Buldan
Pervin Buldan (born 6 November 1967) is a Turkish politician of Kurdish origin. She was a member of the Democratic Society Party (DTP) in Iğdır, Eastern Turkey. She is President of Yakay-Der. She is one of the deputy speakers in the 26th Parliament of Turkey. On 11 February 2018, she was elected co-leader of the Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP) in the party's 3rd ordinary congress.Van Province
Van Province (Kurdish: Wan) (Armenian:Վան Turkish: Van ili) is a province in eastern Turkey, between Lake Van and the Iranian border. It is 19,069 km2 in area and had a population of 1,035,418 at the end of 2010. Its adjacent provinces are Bitlis to the west, Siirt to the southwest, Şırnak and Hakkâri to the south, and Ağrı to the north. The capital is the city of Van. The majority of the province's population is Kurdish, and has a sizeable Azerbaijani minority (Küresünni).Yüksekova
Yüksekova (Kurdish: Gever; Syriac: Gawar), is a city and a district of Hakkari Province of Turkey, situated on the border with Iran. Its location on the trade route between north western Iran and eastern Turkey made it an important juncture for travelers and the location of several ethnic groups that were active in regional trade.Çocuktepe Dam
The Çocuktepe Dam is a gravity dam under construction on the Güzeldere River (a tributary of the Great Zab) in Çukurca district of Hakkâri Province, southeast Turkey. Under contract from Turkey's State Hydraulic Works, İnelsan İnşaat began construction on the dam in 2008 and a completion date has not been announced. Construction on the Gölgeliyamaç Dam immediately upstream began in 2008 as well but was cancelled due to poor geology.The reported purpose of the dam is water storage and it can also support a hydroelectric power station in the future. Another purpose of the dam which has been widely reported in the Turkish press is to reduce the freedom of movement of PKK militants. Blocking and flooding valleys in close proximity to the Iraq–Turkey border is expected to help curb cross-border PKK smuggling and deny caves in which ammunition can be stored. A total of 11 dams along the border; seven in Şırnak Province and four in Hakkâri Province were implemented for this purpose. In Hakkâri are the Gölgeliyamaç (since cancelled) and Çocuktepe Dams on the Güzeldere River and the Aslandağ and Beyyurdu Dams on the Bembo River. In Şırnak there is the Silopi Dam on the Hezil River and the Şırnak, Uludere, Balli, Kavşaktepe, Musatepe and Çetintepe Dams on the Ortasu River.Çukurca
Çukurca, (Kurdish: Çelê), is a district of Hakkari Province of Turkey close to Iraq. The mayor is Servet Tunç (BDP). The population is 5283 as of 2010. The historical Assyrian tribes of Ashita and Tkhuma of Tyari were located within the vicinity of this district.Şemdinli
Şemdinli (Syriac: ܫܲܡ̱ܣܕܝܼܢ Shemsdin; Kurdish: Şemzînan) is a district located in the Hakkari Province of southeastern Turkey. Its population was 11,211 in 2010. It was previously in the Ottoman vilayet of Van and the district centre was called Nevşehir. The mayor is Seferi Yılmaz (BDP).
Located at the farthest corner of Turkey, the district of Şemdinli is a mountainous land. There is a visible military presence in the town, owing to the strategic position of the town astride a mountain route connecting the least-controllable corners of Iran and Iraq.