A hairdresser is a person whose occupation is to cut or style hair in order to change or maintain a person's image. This is achieved using a combination of hair coloring, haircutting, and hair texturing techniques. Most hairdressers are professionally licensed as either a hairdresser, a barber or a cosmetologist.
Hairdressing as an occupation dates back thousands of years. Ancient art drawings and paintings have been discovered depicting people working on another person's hair. Greek writers Aristophanes and Homer both mention hairdressing in their writings. In Africa, it was believed in some cultures that a person's spirit occupied his or her hair, giving hairdressers high status within these communities. The status of hairdressing encouraged many to develop their skills, and close relationships were built between hairdressers and their clients. Hours would be spent washing, combing, oiling, styling and ornamenting their hair. Men would work specifically on men, and women on other women. Before a master hairdresser died, they would give their combs and tools to a chosen successor during a special ceremony.
In ancient Egypt, hairdressers had specially decorated cases to hold their tools, including lotions, scissors and styling materials. Barbers also worked as hairdressers, and wealthy men often had personal barbers within their home. With the standard of wig wearing within the culture, wigmakers were also trained as hairdressers. In ancient Rome and Greece household slaves and servants took on the role of hairdressers, including dyeing and shaving. Men who did not have their own private hair or shaving services would visit the local barbershop. Women had their hair maintained and groomed at their homes. Historical documentation is lacking regarding hairstylists from the 5th century until the 14th century. Hair care service grew in demand after a papal decree in 1092 demanded that all Roman Catholic clergymen remove their facial hair.
The first appearance of the word "hairdresser" is in 17th century Europe, and hairdressing was considered a profession. Hair fashion of the period suggested that wealthy women wear large, complex and heavily adorned hairstyles, which would be maintained by their personal maids and other people, who would spend hours dressing the woman's hair. A wealthy man's hair would often be maintained by a valet. It was in France where men began styling women's hair for the first time, and many of the notable hairdressers of the time were men, a trend that would continue into contemporary times. The first famous male hairdresser was Champagne, who was born in Southern France. Upon moving to Paris, he opened his own hair salon and dressed the hair of wealthy Parisian women until his death in 1658.
Women's hair grew taller in style during the 17th century, popularized by the hairdresser Madame Martin. The hairstyle, "the tower," was the trend with wealthy English and American women, who relied on hairdressers to style their hair as tall as possible. Tall piles of curls were pomaded, powdered and decorated with ribbons, flowers, lace, feathers and jewelry. The profession of hairdressing was launched as a genuine profession when Legros de Rumigny was declared the first official hairdresser of the French court. In 1765 de Rumigny published his book Art de la Coiffure des Dames, which discussed hairdressing and included pictures of hairstyles designed by him. The book was a best seller amongst Frenchwomen, and four years later de Rumigny opened a school for hairdressers: Academie de Coiffure. At the school he taught men and women to cut hair and create his special hair designs.
By 1777, approximately 1,200 hairdressers were working in Paris. During this time, barbers formed unions, and demanded that hairdressers do the same. Wigmakers also demanded that hairdressers cease taking away from their trade, and hairdressers responded that their roles were not the same, hairdressing was a service, and wigmakers made and sold a product. de Rumigny died in 1770 and other hairdressers gained in popularity, specifically three Frenchmen: Frederic, Larseueur, and Léonard. Leonard and Larseueur were the stylists for Marie Antoinette. Leonard was her favorite, and developed many hairstyles that became fashion trends within wealthy Parisian circles, including the loge d'opera, which towered five feet over the wearer's head. During the French Revolution he escaped the country hours before he was to be arrested, alongside the king, queen, and other clients. He emigrated to Russia, where he worked as the premier hairdresser for Russian nobility.
Parisian hairdressers continued to develop influential styles during the early 19th century. Wealthy French women would have their favorite hairdressers style their hair from within their own homes, a trend seen in wealthy international communities. Hairdressing was primarily a service affordable only to those wealthy enough to hire professionals or to pay for servants to care for their hair. In the United States, Marie Laveau was one of the most famous hairdressers of the period. Laveau, located in New Orleans, began working as a hairdresser in the early 1820s, maintaining the hair of wealthy women of the city. She was a voodoo practitioner, called the "Voodoo Queen of New Orleans," and she used her connections to wealthy women to support her religious practice. She provided "help" to women who needed it for money, gifts and other favors.
French hairdresser Marcel Grateau developed the "Marcel wave" in the late part of the century. His wave required the use of a special hot hair iron and needed to be done by an experienced hairdresser. Fashionable women asked to have their hair "marceled." During this period, hairdressers began opening salons in cities and towns, led by Martha Matilda Harper, who developed one of the first retail chains of hair salons, the Harper Method.
Beauty salons became popularized during the 20th century, alongside men's barbershops. These spaces served as social spaces, allowing women to socialize while having their hair done and other services such as facials. Wealthy women still had hairdressers visit their home, but, the majority of women visited salons for services, including high-end salons such as Elizabeth Arden's Red Door Salon.
Major advancements in hairdressing tools took place during this period. Electricity led to the development of permanent wave machines and hair dryers. These tools allowed hairdressers to promote visits to their salons, over limited service in-home visits. New coloring processes were developed, including those by Eugene Schueller in Paris, which allowed hairdressers to perform complicated styling techniques. After World War I, the bob cut and the shingle bob became popular, alongside other short haircuts. In the 1930s complicated styles came back into fashion, alongside the return of the Marcel wave. Hairdressing was one of the few acceptable professions during this time for women, alongside teaching, nursing and clerical work.
Occupationally, hairdressing is expected to grow faster than the average for all other occupations, at 20%. A state license is required for hairdressers to practice, with qualifications varying from state to state. Generally a person interested in hairdressing must have a high school diploma or GED, be at least 16 years of age, and have graduated from a state-licensed barber or cosmetology school. Full-time programs often last 9 months or more, leading to an associate degree. After students graduate from a program, they take a state licensing exam, which often consists of a written test, and a practical test of styling or an oral exam. Hairdressers must pay for licenses, and occasionally licenses must be renewed. Some states allow hairdressers to work without obtaining a new license, while others require a new license. About 44% of hairdressers are self-employed, often putting in 40-hour work weeks, and even longer among the self-employed. In 2008, 29% of hairstylists worked part-time, and 14% had variable schedules. As of 2008, people working as hairdressers totaled about 630,700, with a projected increase to 757,700 by 2018.
Aston Park, also known as Aston, is a small, residential village in Flintshire, North Wales. It is near to Hawarden and Shotton, alongside the A494 road, and it is often incorrectly referred to as Higher Shotton. It is situated in a fairly urban area but there is still a lot of countryside - Wepre Country Park is only a short distance away.
In the village there are some shops, a hairdresser, an Indian takeaway, a bowling green, a park, a primary school and a hospital, Deeside Community Hospital. Aston Park Rangers is the local football team.
Former footballer Gary Speed grew up in the village.Bente Thorsen
Bente Thorsen (born 31 October 1958 in Karmøy) is a Norwegian politician representing the Progress Party. She has been a member of the Storting since following the 2009 parliamentary election as Rogaland's 12th representative. She was a deputy representative between 2005 and 2009.Prior to her election to parliament, Thorsen was a member of the Karmøy municipality council from 1987, and also a member of the formannskap between 1995 and 2009. She has been a member of the Rogaland county council between 1991 and 1995, and again between 1999 and 2003.Ahead of the 2009 election, Thorsen was nominated as the Progress Party's fourth candidate on the Rogaland ballot. Following the election there was some confusion about the result because of a calculation error at Statistics Norway which showed that Karmøy mayor Kjell Arvid Svendsen (KrF) had won the 12th seat instead of Thorsen. When this was corrected, it turned out that Thorsen had won the seat and that Svendsen was out.After finishing grade school in 1974, Thorsen entered the Bergeland vocational school to train as a hairdresser. This was her profession until 2009.Bishampton
Bishampton is a village and civil parish in the Wychavon district of Worcestershire, England with a population of 688. It contains a church, a village shop and post office (which is now also a cafe), a hairdresser, a village hall with a park and children's play areas, and a pub. There is a Nature reserve and a cricket pitch within walking distance of the village. Fashion designer Stella McCartney lives near the village in the parish. Just outside the village is a golf club with a 9 and 18 hole courses a driving range, and clubhouse and restaurant.Bumble and bumble
Bumble and bumble Products, LLC is one of 27 brands owned by Estée Lauder Companies, Inc. It was founded as a New York City hair salon in 1977 by hairdresser and entrepreneur Michael Gordon. The company operates two flagship salons in Manhattan: a midtown location on East 56th Street and the 6th floor of The House of Bumble in the Meatpacking District.Chain Valley Bay, New South Wales
Chain Valley Bay is a suburb of the Central Coast region of New South Wales, Australia. It is part of the Central Coast Council local government area.
Chain Valley Bay has a shopping area containing a general store/liquor shop,take away shop and a hairdresser salon.Christiana Carteaux Bannister
Christiana Carteaux Bannister (1819–1902) was a business entrepreneur, hairdresser, and abolitionist in New England. She was known professionally as Madame Carteaux.Christine Minier
Christine Minier (born 1964 in Saint-Raphaël) is a French singer.
In 1987 whilst working as a hairdresser, Minier won the French National Final to represent France at the 1987 Eurovision Song Contest with the song "Les mots d'amour n'ont pas de dimanche". She received 44 points, placing France in 14th place. In spite of the poor result, Minier didn’t regret anything and still considers Eurovision as a great experience.Dawn Martin
Dawn Martin (born 1976 in Dundalk) is an Irish singer who represented Ireland in the 1998 Eurovision Song Contest.Erbray
Erbray is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in western France. It is a popular destination for pensioners and the retired. The town has an elementary school, a Catholic church, pharmacy, hairdresser, food shops, bakery, post office and a bar.Jheri curl
The Jheri curl (often spelled Jerry curl or Jeri Curl) is a permed hairstyle that was popular among African Americans during the 1980s. Invented by the hairdresser Jheri Redding, the Jheri curl gave the wearer a glossy, loosely curled look. It was touted as a "wash and wear" style that was easier to care for than the other popular chemical treatment of the day, the relaxer.Kapsalon
Kapsalon ([kɑpsɐˈlɔn]) is a fast food dish created in 2003 in the Dutch city of Rotterdam, consisting of a layer of fries placed into a disposable metal take-away tray, topped with shawarma meat, covered with slices of Gouda cheese, and heated in an oven until the cheese melts. Then a layer of shredded iceberg lettuce is added, dressed with garlic sauce and sambal, a hot sauce from the former Dutch colony of Indonesia. The term kapsalon is Dutch for "hair salon", alluding to one of the inventors of the dish who worked as a hairdresser. The dish has spread internationally in a relatively short time.Maureen Starkey Tigrett
Maureen "Mo" Starkey Tigrett (born Mary Cox; 4 August 1946 – 30 December 1994) was a hairdresser from Liverpool, England, best known as the first wife of Ringo Starr, the Beatles' drummer. When she was a trainee hairdresser in Liverpool, she met Starr at The Cavern Club, where the Beatles were playing. Starr proposed marriage at the Ad-Lib Club in London, on 20 January 1965. They married at the Caxton Hall Register Office, London, in 1965, and divorced in 1975.
First living at 34 Montagu Square, Marylebone, the Starrs bought Sunny Heights, in St George's Hill, Weybridge. In 1973, they bought Tittenhurst Park from John Lennon. They had three children together: sons Zak and Jason, and daughter Lee. As a favour to Starr, Frank Sinatra taped a special version of "The Lady Is a Tramp" re-written by Sammy Cahn for Maureen's 22nd birthday in 1968.Paul Mitchell (hairdresser)
Paul Mitchell (born Cyril Thomson Mitchell; January 27, 1936 – April 21, 1989) was a Scottish American hairstylist and co-founder of the hair care product company John Paul Mitchell Systems in 1980. Paul Mitchell the School was later inspired in 2000, now with over 100 locations.Robert Spencer
Robert Spencer may refer to:
Robert Spencer (artist) (1879–1931), American painter
Robert Spencer (doctor) (1889–1969), American general practitioner, best known as an abortionist
Robert Spencer, 1st Baron Spencer of Wormleighton (1570–1627), English peer
Robert Spencer, 1st Viscount Teviot (1629–1694), English politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1660 to 1679
Robert Spencer, 2nd Earl of Sunderland (1641–1702), English statesman and nobleman
Robert Spencer, 4th Earl of Sunderland (1701–1729), British peer
Robert Spencer of Spencer Combe (died 1510), landowner in Devon
Robert B. Spencer (born 1962), American author and blogger, critic of Islam
Robert Cavendish Spencer (1791–1830), English officer of the Royal Navy
Robert L. Spencer (1920–2014), Beverly Hills hairdresser and fashion designer
J. Robert Spencer (born 1969), American Broadway actor
Lord Robert Spencer (1747–1831), British politician
Bob Spencer (born 1957), Australian rock guitarist
Bobbie Spencer, fictional character in General HospitalShampoo (film)
Shampoo is a 1975 American satirical comedy-drama film written by Robert Towne and Warren Beatty, and directed by Hal Ashby. It stars Warren Beatty, Julie Christie, Goldie Hawn, Lee Grant, Jack Warden, Tony Bill, and Carrie Fisher in her film debut.
The film is set on Election Day 1968, the day Richard Nixon was first elected as President of the United States, and was released soon after the Watergate scandal had reached its conclusion. The political atmosphere provides a source of dramatic irony, since the audience, but not the characters, are aware of the direction the Nixon presidency would eventually take. However, the main theme of the film is not presidential politics, but sexual politics; it is renowned for its sharp satire of late-1960s sexual and social mores.
The lead character, George Roundy, is reportedly based on several actual hairdressers, including Jay Sebring, Jack Sahakian, and film producer Jon Peters, who is a former hairdresser. Sebring was murdered by Charles "Tex" Watson in 1969. According to the 2010 book Star: How Warren Beatty Seduced America by Peter Biskind, the screenwriter Towne based the character on Beverly Hills hairdresser Gene Shacove.Suedehead
"Suedehead" is the debut solo single by English singer Morrissey, released in February 1988.
The single charted higher than any of the singles released by his former band the Smiths, entering the UK Singles Chart at No. 6 and then peaking at No. 5 the week after. "Suedehead" peaked at No. 2 in Ireland, No. 8 in New Zealand, and reached the Top 50 in Germany, the Netherlands, and Australia. The lead track was featured on Morrissey's debut album Viva Hate and the compilation album Bona Drag, the latter of which also featured the B-side "Hairdresser on Fire". The artwork of the single features a photo taken by Geri Caulfield during a Smiths gig at the London Palladium.
The music video, directed by Tim Broad, features Morrissey walking through the streets of Fairmount, Indiana, the boyhood city of actor James Dean, including shots of the school where Dean studied and the Park Cemetery, where he is buried. Other allusions to Dean in the video include a child (played by Sam Esty Rayner, Morrissey's nephew, who went on to direct the video for "Kiss Me a Lot" in 2015) delivering to Morrissey a copy of Antoine de Saint-Exupéry's The Little Prince, Dean's favourite book.The Blue Collar Worker and the Hairdresser in a Whirl of Sex and Politics
The Blue Collar Worker and the Hairdresser in a Whirl of Sex and Politics (Italian: Metalmeccanico e parrucchiera in un turbine di sesso e politica, also known as The Worker and the Hairdresser) is a 1996 Italian comedy film directed by Lina Wertmüller.The Matrimonial Bed
The Matrimonial Bed is a 1930 American pre-Code comedy film produced and released by Warner Bros.. It was based on the French play by André Mouëzy-Éon and Yves Mirande. The English version of the play, by Sir Seymour Hicks, opened in New York on October 12, 1927 and had 13 performances.Virginie Pouchain
Virginie Pouchain (born 1980 in Saint-Montan, Ardèche), is a singer and hairdresser from the département of Ardèche in southern France. On 14 March 2006 she was selected by the viewers of France 3 and a jury presided by Charles Aznavour to represent France in Eurovision Song Contest 2006. For the French national grand finale, she sang Céline Dion's hit song Pour que tu m'aimes encore. In Athens, Virginie performed a song – written especially for the occasion by the German-born singer Corneille – entitled Il était temps (It's about time). She finished in the third-to-last position scoring only five points.