Hainan partridge

The Hainan partridge (Arborophila ardens) is a species of bird in the family Phasianidae. It is endemic to Hainan Island, China. Its natural habitats are primary evergreen forests. It is threatened by habitat loss and has been assessed as a vulnerable species.

Hainan partridge
Hainan Partridge
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Galliformes
Family: Phasianidae
Genus: Arborophila
A. ardens
Binomial name
Arborophila ardens
(Styan, 1892)[2]

Arboricola ardens Styan, 1892


This species was described by Styan in 1892.[3] It is monotypic.[4]


The Hainan partridge is 26–28 cm (10–11 in) long. The male weighs about 300 g (11 oz), and the female weighs about 237 g (8.4 oz).[4] The head is blackish, and there is a white patch on the ear coverts[5] and a whitish supercilium. The crown and nape are dark brown, with black mottles. The upperparts are olive-brown and have black scales. The throat and neck-sides are blackish, and there is an orange collar around the lower neck. The underparts are grey, and the central belly is buffish. The wings are greyish-brown. The beak is black, the eyes are brown, and the legs are dull reddish. The female is smaller and less bright than the male.[4]

Distribution and habitat

The Hainan partridge is endemic to Hainan, although there are unsubstantiated reports from Guangxi. Its habitat is primary evergreen forests that are broadleaved or mixed coniferous-broadleaved, at elevations of 600–1,600 m (2,000–5,200 ft). It also occurs in forests that have recovered from logging.[1]


There is little information about this partridge's behaviour. It presumably behaves like other species in its genus. Single birds, pairs and coveys have been observed. It eats snails and seeds.[4] Its call is two notes repeated, including ju-gu ju-gu ju-gu.[5] Sometimes a second bird gives quick single notes.[4]


The population has been estimated at 2600–3500 mature birds, but may be larger because new populations were discovered in 2002 to 2005. There was probably a rapid population decline because of habitat loss. New populations have been discovered since 2002 and more forest has been protected, so the decline may have slowed. The species is threatened by forest clearance for timber and agriculture, and illegal hunting. Climate change may also be a threat. Because of its small, declining population and small range, the IUCN has assessed it as a vulnerable species. In China, the Hainan partridge is a nationally protected species. Of the 660 km2 (250 sq mi) of suitable habitat, 410 km2 (160 sq mi) are in nature reserves such as Hainan Bawangling National Nature Reserve, Jianfengling, Wuzhishan, Diaoluoshan Limushan and Nanweiling.[1]


  1. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2016). "Arborophila ardens". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2016: e.T22679063A92802107. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22679063A92802107.en. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
  2. ^ Styan, W.F. (1892). "[untitled]". Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club. 1 (2): 6.
  3. ^ Gill, F.; Donsker, D. (eds.). "Pheasants, partridges & francolins". IOC World Bird List Version 7.2. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
  4. ^ a b c d e Madge, Steve; McGowan, Phil (2010). Pheasants, Partridges & Grouse: Including buttonquails, sandgrouse and allies. Bloomsbury. p. 259. ISBN 9781408135655.
  5. ^ a b MacKinnon, John; Phillipps, Karen (2000). A Field Guide to the Birds of China. Oxford University Press. pp. 40–41. ISBN 9780198549406.

External links


Basuo is a town on the west coast of Hainan Province, China. It is the administrative center of the county-level city of Dongfang; in other words, Basuo is Dongfang's main urban area, and Basuo's location is usually shown on less-detailed maps by a circle labeled "Dongfang".

Danzhou Airport

Danzhou Airport (Chinese: 儋州机场) is an under-construction airport in approximately 25 km northeast of Nada, Danzhou, Hainan, China. It will be international-class, built to handle the increasing number of tourists visiting the area.

Dazhou Island

Dazhou Island (commonly known as Grand Island or Tinhosa Island) is a state-level nature reserve located about 5 km off the coast of Wanning, Hainan, China. This protected area covers 4.36 square kilometres, and comprises three mountains spanning two islands. These mountains, the tallest of which is 289 metres above sea level, have been used as navigational markers by mariners since the Tang Dynasty.

Haikou Port New Seaport

Haikou Port New Seaport is a seaport located around 1 km north of South Port, Haikou, Hainan, China. It has 8 passenger and cargo berths, and a capacity for one million vehicles and 6 million passengers annually. It will become the main port receiving ships from Guangdong. The project began construction on December 25, 2015. It officially opened January 26, 2017. The total investment in the project is 3.8 billion yuan.

Haikou Television

Haikou Television (HKTV) (海口电视台) is a television and radio station in Hainan, China. It broadcast three television channels, and 3 radio channels.

The station broadcasts a total of 11,000 hours annually, producing approximately 49 television programs. The signal strength covers 15 square kilometers.

Haikou Xiuying Port

Haikou Xiuying Port (Chinese: 海口秀英港; pinyin: Hǎikǒu Xiùyīng Gǎng), is a seaport located 7 km west of Haikou New Port, in Haikou, Hainan, China.Xiuying Port will relocate to an area several hundred metres north of South Port, the southern terminus of the Guangdong–Hainan Railway.

Hainan Bawangling National Nature Reserve

The Hainan Bawangling National Nature Reserve (Chinese: 海南霸王岭国家级自然保护) is a nature reserve in Changjiang County, western Hainan, China. It is home to the Hainan black crested gibbon, which is on the verge of extinction, and Hainan partridge. The total area of the reserve is 8,444.3 hectares.

List of universities and colleges in Hainan

The following is list of universities and colleges in Hainan.

Longhua District, Haikou

Longhua (simplified Chinese: 龙华区; traditional Chinese: 龍華區; pinyin: Lónghuá Qū) is one of 4 urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Haikou, the capital of Hainan Province, South China. The district's total area is 300 km2 (116 sq mi), and its population was 440,000 people in 2002.

The Shapo Reservoir is located within this district.

Macun Port

Macun Port (simplified Chinese: 马村港; traditional Chinese: 馬村港; pinyin: Mǎcūn Gǎng) is a seaport in Hainan, China.

Meilan District

Meilan (simplified Chinese: 美兰区; traditional Chinese: 美蘭區; pinyin: Měilán Qū) is one of 4 urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Haikou, the capital of Hainan Province, South China.

Meishe River

The Meishe River (Chinese: 美舍河) is a river within Haikou City, Hainan, China. Its source is the spillway at the east end of the Shapo Reservoir located just south of the city. The Meishe flows eastward under Longkun Road south of the Haikou East Railway Station. It then turns north, past the Meishe River National Wetland Park and winds northward through the east side of urban Haikou, under Guoxing Avenue, finally emptying into the Haidian River just east of Heping Bridge.

Mission Hills Star Trophy

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Partridges are medium-sized non-migratory birds, with a wide native distribution throughout the Old World, including Europe, Asia, and parts of Africa. They are sometimes grouped in the Perdicinae subfamily of the Phasianidae (pheasants, quail, etc.). However, molecular research suggests that partridges are not a distinct taxon within the family Phasianidae, but that some species are closer to the pheasants, while others are closer to the junglefowl.

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It has 25 berths with 15 shipping lines to Singapore, Vietnam and the Middle East, and is the biggest import and export port in the South China Sea. It is operated by SDIC Yangpu Ltd.


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Wanquan River

The Wanquan River (Chinese: 万泉河; pinyin: Wànquán Hé; literally: 'ten-thousand-spring river') is the third longest river in Hainan Province, China, and is 162 km long. It rises in the Wuzhi Mountain, and flows generally northeast turbulently in a narrow route through mountainous regions. About half way downstream, it enters Qionghai. Here the river bed widens and the water flows gently, and on the banks are mostly coconut trees and banana plantations. For its last 30 km, the river makes a southeast turn, and before it empties into the South China Sea at Bo'ao, where it joins the Longgun River and Jiuqu River in a common estuary.

In the ballet, Red Detachment of Women, the People's Liberation Army set their camp beside the Wanquan River.

Wenchang chicken

Wenchang chicken (simplified Chinese: 文昌鸡; traditional Chinese: 文昌雞; pinyin: Wénchāng Jī), is a type of chicken and a chicken dish from the Wenchang city area in Hainan, China.

Xiuying District

Xiuying (Chinese: 秀英区; pinyin: Xiùyīng Qū) is one of 4 urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Haikou, the capital of Hainan Province, South China. The district's total area is 512 square kilometers, and its population was 290,000 people in 2002.


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