Haider al-Abadi

Haider Jawad Kadhim al-Abadi; Arabic: حيدر جواد كاظم العبادي‎, born 25 April 1952) is an Iraqi politician who was Prime Minister of Iraq from September 2014 until October 2018. Previously he served as Minister of Communication from 2003 to 2004, in the first government after Saddam Hussein was deposed.

He was designated as Prime Minister by President Fuad Masum on 11 August 2014 to succeed Nouri al-Maliki[1] and was approved by the Iraqi parliament on 8 September 2014.[2]

Haider al-Abadi
Haider al-Abadi portrait
Haider Al-Abadi in 2017
48th Prime Minister of Iraq
In office
8 September 2014 – 25 October 2018
PresidentFuad Masum
Barham Salih
DeputySaleh al-Mutlaq
Baha Araji
Hoshyar Zebari
Rowsch Shaways
Preceded byNouri al-Maliki
Succeeded byAdil Abdul-Mahdi
Leader of the Victory Alliance
Assumed office
14 December 2017
Preceded byPosition established
Deputy Leader of the Islamic Dawa Party
In office
15 January 2007 – 8 September 2014
Preceded byNouri al-Maliki
Succeeded byBaha Araji
Minister of Communications
In office
1 September 2003 – 1 June 2004
Prime MinisterIraqi Governing Council
Preceded byMuhammad Saeed al-Sahhaf
Succeeded byMuhammad Ali Hakim
Personal details
Haider Jawad Kadhim al-Abadi

25 April 1952 (age 66)
Bagdad, Iraq
Political partyVictory Alliance
Other political
Islamic Dawa
Alma materUniversity of Technology
University of Manchester

Early life and education

Al-Abadi's father was a member of the Baghdad Neurosurgery Hospital and Inspector General of the Iraqi Ministry of Health. He was forced to retire in 1979 due to disagreements with the Ba'athist regime, and was buried abroad after his death.[3] Al-Abadi, who speaks English, graduated high school in 1970 from the Central High School (Arabic: الإعدادية المركزية‎) in Bagdad.[4] In 1975, he earned a Bachelor's degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Baghdad.[5] In 1980, he earned a PhD degree in Electrical engineering from the University of Manchester.[6]


Al-Abadi joined the Dawa Party in 1967.[4] Two of his brothers were killed and one was put in prison 1980, 1981, and 1982 for belonging to the Dawa Party. In 1981, his third brother was arrested and spent 10 years in prison.[5] In 1977, he became in charge of its organization in Britain.[7] In 1979, he became a member of the party's executive leadership.[8] In 1983, the government confiscated al-Abadi's passport for conspiring against Iraq's Ba'ath Party.[8]


Al-Abadi remained in the UK, in voluntary exile, until the 2003 invasion of Iraq.[9] His positions during this time included:[4]

  • Director general of a small design and development firm in London specialising in high-technology vertical and horizontal transportation (1993–2003)
  • Consultant, in London, in matters relating to transportation (1987–2003)
  • Research leader for a major modernization contract in London (1981–1986)

Al-Abadi was awarded a grant from the UK Department of Trade and Industry in 1998.[10] While working in London in 2001 al-Abadi registered a patent relating to rapid transit systems.

Return to Iraq

In 2003, al-Abadi became skeptical of the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) privatization plan, proposing to Paul Bremer that they had to wait for a legitimate government to be formed. In October 2003, al-Abadi with all 25 of the interim Governing Council ministers protested to Paul Bremer and rejected the CPA's demand to privatize the state-owned companies and infrastructure prior to forming a legitimate government. The CPA, led by Bremer, fell out with al-Abadi and the Governing Council. The CPA worked around the Governing Council, forming a new government that remained beholden to the CPA to serve until the general elections, prompting more aggressive armed actions by insurgents against US-led coalition personnel.[11]

While al-Abadi was Minister of Communications, the CPA awarded licenses to three mobile operators to cover all parts of Iraq. Despite being rendered nearly powerless by the CPA,[12] Al-Abadi was not prepared to be a rubber stamp and introduced more conditions for the licenses. Among them that a sovereign Iraqi government has the power to amend or terminate the licenses and introduce a fourth national license, which caused some friction with the CPA. In 2003, press reports indicated Iraqi officials were under investigation over a questionable deal involving Orascom, an Egypt-based telecoms company, which in late 2003 was awarded a contract to provide a mobile network to central Iraq. Al-Abadi asserted that there was no illicit dealing in the completed awards.[13] In 2004, it was revealed that these allegations were fabrications, and a US Defense Department review found that telecommunications contracting had been illegally influenced in an unsuccessful effort led by disgraced US Deputy Undersecretary of Defense John A. Shaw and not by Iraqis.[14]

Between January and December 2005, he served as an adviser to the Prime Minister of Iraq in the first elected government.[15]

He was elected as a member of the Iraqi Parliament in the December 2005 parliamentary election and chaired the parliamentary committee for Economy, Investment and Reconstruction. Al-Abadi was re-elected in the 2010 parliamentary election as a member of the Iraqi Parliament representing Baghdad. In 2013, he chaired the Finance Committee and was at the center of a parliamentary dispute over the allocation of the 2013 Iraqi budget.[16]

Al-Abadi's name was circulated as a prime ministerial candidate during the formation of the Iraqi government in 2006 during which time Ibrahim al-Jaafari was replaced by Nouri al-Maliki as Prime Minister.[17]

In 2008, al-Abadi remained steadfast in his support of Iraqi sovereignty, insisting on specific conditions to the agreement with the U.S. regarding its presence in Iraq.[18]

In 2009, al-Abadi was identified by the Middle East Economic Digest as a key person to watch in Iraq's reconstruction.[15]

He is an active member of the Iraq Petroleum Advisory Committee, participating in the Iraq Petroleum Conferences of 2009–2012 organized by Nawar Abdulhadi and Phillip Clarke of The CWC Group .[19]

He was one of several Iraqi politicians supporting a suit against Blackwater as a result of the 2010 dismissal of criminal charges against Blackwater personnel involved in the 2007 killing of 17 Iraqi civilians.[20]

Al-Abadi was again tapped as a possible Prime Minister during the tough negotiations between Iraqi political blocs after the elections of 2010 to choose a replacement to incumbent PM Nouri al-Maliki. Again in 2014, he was nominated by Shia political parties as an alternative candidate for Prime Minister.[21]

Prime Minister (2014–2018)

Владимир Путин и Хайдар Абади 2
At a meeting with Russian president Vladimir Putin.
Donald Trump greets Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi, March 2017
President Donald Trump greets al-Abadi at the White House in Washington, D.C.

On 24 July 2014, Fuad Masum became the new president of Iraq. He, in turn, nominated al-Abadi for prime minister on 11 August.[22] For the appointment to take effect, al-Abadi was required to form a government to be confirmed by Parliament within 30 days.[23] Al-Maliki, however, refused to give up his post and referred the matter to the federal court claiming the president's nomination was a "constitutional violation." He said, "The insistence on this until the end is to protect the state."[24] On 14 August 2014, in the face of growing calls from world leaders and members of his own party, the embattled Prime Minister announced he was stepping down to make way for al-Abadi.

The Iraqi Parliament approved al-Abadi's new government and his presidential program on 8 September 2014.[25] In the months after assuming office in September 2014, Abadi made determined efforts to increase Sunni participation in the Iraqi government.[26][27] Abadi appointed Khaled al-Obaidi, a prominent Sunni politician from Mosul, as his Defense Minister, and the appointment was ratified by the Iraqi parliament after two months.[26] In mid-December 2014, Abadi forged a new revenue-sharing agreement with the Kurds, under which Baghdad agreed to pay the Kurdish Regional Government one half of all income from Kurdish-controlled oil fields.[26] To counter the widespread corruption in the army stemming from the Maliki years, Abadi announced that 50,000 "ghost soldiers" had been identified and would be removed from army payrolls.[26] "Ghost soldiers" were men on army payrolls who never showed up for duty, but paid their officers part of their salaries, thus institutionalizing corruption and hollowing out the armed forces.[28]

Iraqi President Fuad Masum paid a goodwill visit to Saudi Arabia in November 2014. In response, Saudi Arabia prepared to reopen its embassy in Baghdad, which had remained closed since the start of the Gulf War in 1990.[26] Abadi has also visited Egypt, Jordan, and Turkey to discuss regional strategies to combat militant Islamist forces.[26] Foreign Affairs magazine has written that after four months in power, Abadi's attempts to resolve Iraq's sectarian strife make his premiership "a welcome change from the schismatic style of his predecessor". As a result of Abadi's reforms, the United States pledged $1.5 billion to train Iraqi forces and announced the sale of F-16 fighter jets, suspended after the 2003 invasion of Iraq.[26]

Combating political corruption was an early priority of the al-Abadi administration. In August 2015, al-Abadi unveiled a plan to strengthen the government by, among other things, eliminating security details for senior officials and cutting benefits to specific high-level officials.[29]

Al-Abadi was forced to contend with the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant as Prime Minister; he was sometimes critical of Barack Obama and the United States military response to the threat of ISIL.[30] Furthermore, al-Abadi pivoted closer towards Russia and Iran in order to combat the threat of ISIL and encouraged cooperation between these nations on military operations in the region.[30][31]

In April, 2016, al-Abadi's difficulties in implementing political reforms led to the storming of the Iraqi parliament by supporters of Shia cleric Muqtada al-Sadr.[32] The protesters breaching the Green Zone and disrupting the parliament have been described as evidence of Iraq's increasingly dysfunctional political system and al-Abadi's problems in getting corruption under control.[33]

On 9 December 2017, Prime Minister Al-Abadi announced victory over ISIL and the end of the Iraqi Civil War (2014-2017).[34]

Abadi was succeeded by Adil Abdul-Mahdi on 25 October 2018. [35]


  1. ^ Pearson, Mike; Yan, Holly; Coren, Anna. "Iraq's Nuri al-Maliki digs in as President nominates new Prime Minister". CNN. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
  2. ^ "Iraqi Parliament approves the new government of Abadi and the vice-presidents of Fuad Masum". 8 September 2014. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  3. ^ "نبذة عن حياة رئيس الوزراء المكلف حيدر العبادي" (in Arabic). AlSumaria TV. 13 August 2014.
  4. ^ a b c "CV of Haider Jawad al-Abadi". Facebook. 10 February 2010.
  5. ^ a b "Haider al-Abadi, the designated Prime Minister of Iraq". CNN Arabic. 11 August 2014.
  6. ^ "Iraq's new Prime Minister is graduate from University of Manchester". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 2014-08-14.
  7. ^ "Who is the new designated Prime Minister of Iraq, Haider al-Abadi?". BBC Arabic. 11 August 2014.
  8. ^ a b "CV of the new designated Iraqi Prime Minister, Haider al-Abadi". Euronews Arabic. 11 August 2014.
  9. ^ Iraq's post-war cabinet , [1], September 1, 2003, BBC
  10. ^ "Biography of New Prime Minister, Haider al-Abadi". Iraq Business News. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  11. ^ Klein, Naomi (September 2004). "Baghdad Year Zero". Information Clearing House. Harper's Magazine.
  12. ^ Dreazen, Yochi J.; Cooper, Christopher (May 13, 2004). "Behind the Scenes". Wall Street Journal – via Global Policy Forum.
  13. ^ "US probe fails to stop mobile licence awards". TeleGeography. PriMetrica, Inc. 20 December 2003.
  14. ^ Miller, T. Christian (29 April 2004). "Iraq Cellular Project Leads to U.S. Inquiry". Los Angeles Times.
  15. ^ a b "People to Watch 2009: Twelve Key Figures for the Region in the Coming Year". Middle East Economic Digest. 53 (1). January 2, 2009.
  16. ^ Omar al-Shaher (January 17, 2013). "Iraqi Parliament Struggles to Ratify Budget Amid Political Crisis". Al-Monitor Iraq Pulse.
  17. ^ Madi, Mohamed (2014-09-09). "Haider al-Abadi: A new era for Iraq?". BBC News. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  18. ^ "Crocker: No permanent bases will be set up in Iraq". USA Today. June 5, 2008.
  19. ^ Advisory Committee. "Iraq Petroleum Advisory Committee".
  20. ^ Webb, Susan (January 5, 2010). "Iraq sues Blackwater over killing spree". People's World.
  21. ^ "Iraq crisis: Turmoil over PM Nouri Maliki's status". BBC News. 11 August 2014.
  22. ^ Madi, Mohamed (11 August 2014). "Profile: Haider al-Abadi, Iraqi PM in waiting". BBC. Retrieved 2014-08-12.
  23. ^ Ashton, Adam (August 11, 2014). "Haider al Abadi named to replace Maliki as troops take to Baghdad's streets". McClatchyDC. Retrieved 2014-08-12.
  24. ^ "Iraq's Incumbent PM Nouri Al-Maliki Grows More Isolated As He Clings To Power". Huffington Post. 13 August 2014. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
  25. ^ Madi, Mohamed (September 9, 2014). "Haider al-Abadi: A new era for Iraq?". BBC News. Retrieved August 8, 2015.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g Almaliky, Muhamed (January 16, 2015). "Mending Iraq". Foreignaffairs.com. Retrieved August 8, 2015.
  27. ^ "The Robert and Joann Bendetson Public Diplomacy Award Recipients". Tufts Global Leadership. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  28. ^ Wvans, Dominic (December 1, 2014). "Iraq says it found 50,000 'ghost soldiers' on payroll". Reuters.com. Retrieved August 8, 2015.
  29. ^ Shinkman, Paul D. "Prime Minister Abadi Unveils a Bold Plan for Iraq". Retrieved 2015-10-07.
  30. ^ a b "Iraqi PM Abadi accused Obama of a lack of "will," and warned he might invite Russia to bomb ISIS — AEI". Retrieved 2015-10-07.
  31. ^ "Prime Minister Abadi: Iraq welcomes Russia in Islamic State fight". Retrieved 2015-10-07.
  32. ^ "Iraqi Shia protesters storm Baghdad parliament". BBC News. April 30, 2016. Retrieved May 17, 2016.
  33. ^ Jaffe, Greg (April 30, 2016). "Protests in Baghdad throw administration's Iraq plan into doubt". Washington Post. Retrieved May 17, 2016.
  34. ^ Mostafa, Nehal (9 December 2017). "Iraq announces end of war against IS, liberation of borders with Syria: Abadi". Iraqi News. Retrieved 9 December 2017.
  35. ^ https://www.sfchronicle.com/news/world/article/Iraq-delays-vote-on-president-due-to-dispute-13274903.php

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Muhammad Saeed al-Sahhaf
as Minister of Information
Minister of Communications
Succeeded by
Muhammad Ali Hakim
Preceded by
Nouri al-Maliki
Prime Minister of Iraq
Succeeded by
Adil Abdul-Mahdi
Party political offices
Preceded by
Nouri al-Maliki
Deputy Leader of Islamic Dawa Party
Succeeded by
Baha Araji
Baghdad Mall

Baghdad Mall (Arabic: بغداد مول‎) is a multi-purpose building consisting of a shopping mall, a hotel and a medical centre. Located in Harthiya, Baghdad at the intersection between Damascus street and Al-Kindi street, it is one of the largest shopping malls in Baghdad.The multi-level shopping mall currently features over one hundred retail outlets, a thousand parking spaces, and contains dozens of restaurants and cafés.

Baghdad Mall opened on August 28, 2017, taking 3 years to complete. The event was of symbolic value as part of the reconstruction efforts by the government of Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi, who personally attended the opening ceremony. The ceremony was co-hosted by Iraqi poet Shahad al-Shamary, and the ceremony featured musical guests such as Dalli, Hussam al-Rassam, Diana Karazon, and Hussein el-Deik.

Battle of Tal Afar (2017)

The Battle of Tal Afar (2017) was an offensive announced on 20 August 2017 by Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi in order to liberate the Tal Afar region from the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). Victory in the battle was declared by the Prime Minister al-Abadi following the capture of the last ISIL-held area in Tal Afar district.The offensive was concurrent with the Raqqa campaign conducted by the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) against ISIL's capital city and stronghold in Syria, as well as the Central Syria Campaign, by the Syrian Army to capture ISIL territory towards Deir ez-Zor.

Capital punishment in Iraq

Capital punishment is a legal penalty in Iraq.

It was commonly used by the government of Saddam Hussein; and has been since his removal from office. After the invasion of Iraq in 2003, U.S. administrator, L. Paul Bremer, suspended capital punishment on June 10, declaring that "the former regime used certain provisions of the penal code as a means of oppression, in violation of internationally acknowledged human rights."On August 8, 2004, capital punishment was reinstated in Iraq. Iraqi law states that no person over the age of 70 can be executed, despite people like Tariq Aziz, sentenced to death at the age of 74. There is an automatic right to appeal on all such sentences. Iraqi Law requires execution within 30 days of all legal avenues being exhausted. The last legal step, before the execution proceeds, is for the condemned to be handed a red card. This is completed by an official of the court with details of the judgment and a notice that execution is imminent.In September 2005, three murderers were the first people to be executed since the restoration. Then on March 9, 2006, an official of Iraq's Supreme Judicial Council confirmed that Iraqi authorities had executed the first insurgents by hanging.27 people, including one woman, were executed by the Iraqi government on September 6, 2006, for high crimes against civilians.On January 19, 2012, 34 people were executed in a single day. Early in October 2013, 42 people convicted of terrorism charges were hanged over the course of two days. By that date a total of 132 people had been executed in 2013.In July 2016, Iraqi Prime Minister Haider Al-Abadi ordered the execution of all terrorists condemned in the country following the Baghdad suicide truck bombing which killed over 250 people at a mall in Karrada, Baghdad.Iraq carried out at least 88 executions in 2016, and at least 125 in 2017.After the defeat of ISIS in Mosul in 2017, Iraq tried and sentenced captured terrorists to death in large numbers.

Dhuluiya offensive

Dhuluiya offensive was launched on 28 December 2014 by Iraqi forces backed by Sunni tribesmen and Shia militiamen on the strategic town of Dhuluiya (Arabic: الضلوعية‎), which had been held by ISIL for months. On 30 December, the area was recaptured and the ISIL siege on the Sunni al-Juburi tribe was broken.

It was part of a bigger campaign to fully clear the Saladin Governorate.

Erfan al-Hiyali

Erfan al-Hiyali (Arabic: عرفان الحيالي‎) is the Secretary of Defense of Iraq, serving in the Cabinet of Haider al-Abadi. The Iraqi parliament voted on al-Hiyali as defense minister on January 30, 2017.

Fuad Masum

Muhammad Fuad Masum (Arabic: محمد فؤاد معصوم‎, translit. Muḥammad Fū’ād Ma‘ṣūm; Kurdish: محەممەد فوئاد مەعسووم, born 1 January 1938) is an Iraqi Kurdish politician who served as President of Iraq from 24 July 2014 to 2 October 2018. He was elected as President following the 2014 parliamentary election. Masum is the second non-Arab president of Iraq, succeeding Jalal Talabani, also Kurdish, and was a confidant of Talabani.

Great Mosque of al-Nuri (Mosul)

The Great Mosque of al-Nuri (Arabic: جامع النوري‎, translit. Jāmiʿ an-Nūrī) was a mosque in Mosul, Iraq. It was famous for its leaning minaret, which gave the city its nickname "the hunchback" (الحدباء al-Ḥadbāˈ). Tradition holds that the mosque was first built in the late 12th century, although it underwent many renovations over the years. The mosque withstood various hostile invading forces over its 850-year history until it was destroyed with its distinctive minaret in the Battle of Mosul in 2017.

Iraqi troops attributed the destruction of the Great Mosque to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) in a vandalistic move to destroy it rather than let it go from their hold. The mosque had held symbolic importance to ISIL and its leader, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, as it was used in 2014 by the militants to self-declare their "caliphate". ISIL's black flag had been flying on the 45-metre minaret after their militants surged across Iraq and Syria seizing territory, and they had promised to never let their flag be lowered from it. Contrary to official accounts and local eyewitnesses, ISIL alleged that U.S. forces destroyed it. ISIL's claim was not substantiated. The BBC reported that "IS accused the United States-led coalition aircraft of bombing the site, but experts said a video circulated online appeared to show charges inside the structures exploding."Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi stated that the destruction of the mosque by ISIL was a "declaration of defeat", and that "[b]lowing up the al-Hadba minaret and the al-Nuri mosque amounts to an official acknowledgment of defeat [by ISIS]."

History of Iraq (2011–present)

The departure of US troops from Iraq in 2011 ended the period of occupation that had begun with the U.S.-led invasion in March 2003. The time since U.S. withdrawal has been marked by a renewed Iraqi insurgency and by a spillover of the Syrian civil war into Iraq. By 2013, the insurgency escalated into a renewed civil war, the central government of Iraq being opposed by various factions, primarily radical Sunni forces.

ISIS forces have seized the majority of Anbar province, including the cities of Fallujah, Al Qaim, Abu Ghraib and (in May 2015) Ramadi, leaving them in control of 90% of Anbar.Tikrit, Mosul and most of the Nineveh province, along with parts of Salahuddin, Kirkuk and Diyala provinces, were seized by insurgent forces in the June 2014 offensive. ISIS captured Sinjar and a number of other towns in the August 2014 offensive, but Sinjar became a contested city in December 2014.

Iraqi Islamic Party

The Iraqi Islamic Party is the largest Sunni Islamist political party in Iraq as well as the most prominent member of the Iraqi Accord Front political coalition. It was part of the government of Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki and is part of the current government of Haider al-Abadi since 2014. Osama Tawfiq al-Tikriti succeeded Vice-President Tariq al-Hashimi as the party's secretary-general on 24 May 2009, who was succeeded in July 2011 by Ayad al-Samarrai.The IIP evolved out of the Muslim Brotherhood movement, and was banned from 1961 during Iraqi nationalist rule, something which continued throughout the reign of the Pan-Arab Ba'ath Party right up to the invasion of Iraq in 2003. Like the Muslim Brotherhood, the IIP's religious rather than ethno-political ideology made the party systematically incompatible under the Iraqi governments between 1961 and 2003.During the 1970s, the IIP began operating in exile in Great Britain and published a newspaper called Dar as-Salam. Iyad al-Samara'i was elected to serve as secretary-general.

January 2, 2017 Baghdad bombings

On January 2, 2017, at least three suicide car bombings took place in a Shia Muslim eastern district of Sadr City, as well as behind the Kindi and Imam Ali hospitals, killing 56 people and injuring more than 120 others. Haider al-Abadi, Iraq's prime minister, had informed in a news conference that the suicide bombing, in Sadr City's busy market, was operated by the suicide bomber who detonated a vehicle with explosives. The bomber had pretended to hire day labourers in the market; once labourers gathered near the vehicle, the vehicle was detonated by him. The French President François Hollande was in the city during the attacks.

Malas Abdulkarim al-Kasnazani

Malas Mohammad Abdulkarim al-Husseini al-Kasnazani is an Iraqi politician who was the Trade Minister from September 2014 until December 2015 under Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi.

Mosul liberation

Mosul liberation refers to the victory of a major military campaign launched by the Iraqi Army and the Iraqi Popular Mobilization Forces in October 2016 to liberate the city of Mosul from the control of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. Iraqi Prime Minister, Haider al-Abadi officially announced the liberation of the city on 10 July 2017, though heavy fighting and resistance persisted until 21 July. The Islamic State took control of the city in June 2014. During their three-year reign, they committed many atrocities.

Popular Mobilization Forces

The Popular Mobilization Forces (PMF), also known as the People's Mobilization Committee (PMC) and the Popular Mobilization Units (PMU) (Arabic: الحشد الشعبي‎ Al-Hashd Al-Sha'abi), is an Iraqi state-sponsored umbrella organization composed of some 40 militias that are mostly Shia Muslim groups, but also including Sunni Muslim, Christian, and Yazidi individuals as well. The popular mobilization units have fought in nearly every major battle against ISIL. It has been called the new Iraqi Republican Guard after it was fully reorganized in early 2018 by its Commander in Chief Haider al-Abadi. Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi issued "regulations to adapt the situation of the Popular Mobilization fighters," giving them ranks and salaries equivalent to other branches of the Iraqi military.

Prime Minister of Iraq

The Prime Minister of Iraq is the head of government of Iraq. The Prime Minister was originally an appointed office, subsidiary to the head of state, and the nominal leader of the Iraqi parliament. Under the newly adopted constitution the Prime Minister is the country's active executive authority. Nouri al-Maliki (formerly Jawad al-Maliki) was selected to be Prime Minister on 21 April 2006. On 14 August 2014, al-Maliki agreed to step down as prime minister of Iraq to allow Haider al-Abadi to take his place. On 25 October 2018, Adil Abdul-Mahdi was sworn into office five months after the 2018 elections.


Qayyarah or Qayara (Arabic: القيارة‎) is an Iraqi town located in southern Nineveh Governorate on the west bank of the Tigris river, and about 60 km (35 miles) south of Mosul. It is located in the Mosul District, and it is the seat of Qayyarah subdistrict. It has a population of 15,000. The town is located near the Qayyarah oil field and has an oil refinery on its south-western outskirts. The Qayyarah Airfield West is 20 kilometers west of the town.The town and subdistrict fell to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant in June 2014. It was reported that its recapture was of strategic importance for the offensive to retake Mosul in 2016. In August 2016, Qayyarah was fully captured by Iraqi forces, with Lieutenant General Riyadh Jalal Tawfiq stating that they controlled all parts of the city and Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi hailing the capture of the city as a "key step in the fight" against ISIL. In July 2016, the Pentagon said they were sending another 560 troops to Iraq, mainly to develop the Qayyarah airfield and use it as support for the planned attack on Mosul.The town's name derives from the Arabic word for tar.

Rowsch Shaways

Rowsch Nuri Shaways (Kurdish رۆژ نووری شاوەیس; Arabic روز نوري شاويس) is a Kurdish politician who served as the first Prime Minister of the KDP-controlled part of Kurdistan. After the invasion of Iraq that overthrew the Saddam Hussein regime, he served as one of Iraq's two vice presidents in the interim government established in 2004. Subsequently, he was a Deputy Prime Minister in the government headed by Ibrahim al-Jaafari and later held the same post under Nouri al-Maliki. He also served as Depty Prime Minister under Haider Al-Abadi from 8 September 2014 to 9 August 2015.

Previously, he served as Parliament speaker in the Kurdish autonomous region and is a member of the Kurdistan Democratic Party.

Two-state solution (Iraqi–Kurdish negotiations)

The two-state solution or the 80% solution for the Iraqi–Kurdish conflict refers to the permanent separation of Iraqi Kurdistan from Iraq, as opposed to retaining Iraqi unity with Iraqi Kurdistan as an autonomous region. The two-state solution in Iraq would change the long-term status which has existed in the country following the formation of the Kurdish autonomy in Northern Iraq in 1991.

The former President of the Iraqi Kurdistan Region, Masoud Barzani, facilitated the Iraqi Kurdistan independence referendum in September 2017. This invoked the Prime Minister of Iraq Haider al-Abadi to demand that the referendum result be cancelled, and called on the KRG to initiate dialogue "in the framework of the constitution". In October, Iraq began to move its forces into areas seized by the KRG after the entry of ISIL, and all the disputed areas outside the Kurdish Region, including Kirkuk.

Victory Alliance

The Victory Alliance (Arabic: ائتلاف النصر‎, translit. iʾtilāf al-naṣr), is an Islamist Iraqi political alliance established by former Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi.

Zekra Alwach

Thikra or Zekra Muhammed Jaber Alwash Al-Abayachi (Arabic: ذكرى محمد جابر علوش العبايجي‎) is the current mayor of Baghdad since February 2015, replacing Naim Aboub al-Kaabi. Alwach has a Bachelor in engineering from Baghdad University of Technology, a Master in construction project management from University of Baghdad and a PhD in construction project management from Baghdad University of Technology. She started her career in 1993 as an engineer in construction projects and was responsible for administrative responsibilities until she was appointed director general of the Ministry of Higher Education, and is regarded as highly skilled technocrat. Alwach reports directly to the Prime Minister, Haider al-Abadi. In her only interview with an English-language publication Alwach talked about the challenges of governing a war-torn city, the weight of responsibility she feels to succeed and the struggle for women’s rights in Iraq. She was married to Major General Ali Araji.

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