Haeinsa

Haeinsa is one of the Three Jewels Temples, and represents Dharma or the Buddha’s teachings. It is still an active Seon (선, 禪) practice center in modern times, and was the home temple of the influential Seon master Seongcheol (성철, 性徹), who died in 1993.

Haeinsa Temple Janggyeong Panjeon, the Depositories for the Tripitaka Koreana Woodblocks
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Korea-Haeinsa-07
LocationSouth Gyeongsang Province, South Korea
CriteriaCultural: iv, vi
Reference737
Inscription1995 (19th Session)
Coordinates35°48′N 128°06′E / 35.800°N 128.100°E
Haeinsa is located in South Korea
Haeinsa
Location of Haeinsa in South Korea
Korean name
Revised RomanizationHaeinsa
McCune–ReischauerHaeinsa

Coordinates: 35°48′N 128°6′E / 35.800°N 128.100°E Haeinsa (해인사, 海印寺: Temple of the Ocean Mudra) is a head temple of the Jogye Order (대한불교조계종, 大韓佛敎 曹溪宗) of Korean Seon Buddhism in Gayasan National Park (가야산, 伽倻山), South Gyeongsang Province, South Korea. Haeinsa is most notable for being the home of the Tripitaka Koreana, the whole of the Buddhist Scriptures carved onto 81,350 wooden printing blocks, which it has housed since 1398.[1]

History

The temple was first built in 802. Legend says that two Korean monks Suneung and Ijeong, returned from China and healed Aejang of Silla's wife of her illness. In gratitude for Gautama Buddha's mercy, the king ordered the construction of the temple.[1] Another account, by Choe Chi-Won in 900 states that Suneung and his disciple Ijeong, gained the support of a queen dowager who converted to Buddhism and then helped to finance the construction of the temple.

The temple complex was renovated in the 10th century, 1488, 1622, and 1644. Huirang, the temple abbot enjoyed the patronage of Taejo of Goryeo during that king’s reign. Haeinsa was burned down in a fire in 1817 and was rebuilt in 1818.[1] Another renovation in 1964 uncovered a royal robe of Gwanghaegun of Joseon, who was responsible for the 1622 renovation, and an inscription on a ridge beam.

The main hall, Daejeokkwangjeon (대적광전, 大寂光殿: Hall of Great Silence and Light), is unusual because it is dedicated to Vairocana, whereas most other Korean temples house images of Gautama Buddha in their main halls.

The Temple of Haeinsa and the Depositories for the Tripiṭaka Koreana Woodblocks were made a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1995. The UNESCO committee noted that the buildings housing the Tripiṭaka Koreana are unique because no other historical structure was specifically dedicated to the preservation of artifacts and the techniques used were particularly ingenious.[2]

The temple also holds several official treasures including a realistic wooden carving of a monk and interesting Buddhist paintings, stone pagodas, and lanterns.

Crisis

Haeinsa inner sanctum 2013 03
A Buddha statue inside the temple's inner grounds

After independence, when the Korean War broke out, Haeinsa encountered a crisis. In September 1951, after the Battle of Inchon, South Korea turned the war around but then North Korea did not retreat so the remnants of one thousand North Korean soldiers around Haeinsa engaged in guerrilla warfare. UN forces were ordered to bomb Haeinsa with four bombers. However, at that time Kim Young Hwan, the leader of the Air Force's pilots, worried about the loss of the Haeinsa Tripiṭaka Koreana and did not obey the command. Due to his lack of action, Haeinsa weathered the crisis and did not experience the bombing. Haeinsa gongdeokbi honors him with the landscaped grounds of Haeinsa.

Janggyeong Panjeon (National Treasure No.32)

Korea-Haeinsa-Tripitaka Koreana-01
Tripiṭaka Koreana woodblocks at Haeinsa

The storage halls known as the Janggyeong Panjeon complex are the depository for the Tripiṭaka Koreana woodblocks at Haeinsa and were also designated by the Korean government as a National Treasure on December 20, 1962. They are some of the largest wooden storage facilities in the world.[3] Remarkably, the halls were untouched during the Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98) and were spared from the 1818 fire that burned most of the temple complex down. All told, the storage halls have survived seven serious fires and one near-bombing during the Korean War when a pilot disobeyed orders because he remembered that the temple held priceless treasures.

Janggyeong Panjeon complex is the oldest part of the temple and houses the 81,258 wooden printing blocks from the Tripiṭaka Koreana. Although the exact construction date of the hall that houses the Tripiṭaka Koreana is uncertain, it is believed that Sejo of Joseon expanded and renovated it in 1457. The complex is made up of four halls arranged in a rectangle and the style is very plain because of its use as a storage facility. The northern hall is called Beopbojeon (Hall of Dharma) and the southern hall is called the Sudara-jang ("Hall of Sutras"). These two main halls are 60.44 meters in length, 8.73 meters in width, and 7.8 meters in height. Both have fifteen rooms with two adjoining rooms. Additionally, there are two small halls on the east and west which house two small libraries.

Korea-Haeinsa Tripitaka Koreana woodblock 2770-06a
Copy of a Tripiṭaka Koreana woodblock used to allow visitors to make an inked print of the woodblock on the Haeinsa complex grounds. See here for an image of the woodblock print.
Haeinsa Rice Terraces, South Korea
Rice terraces in farmland surrounding Haeinsa

Several ingenious preservation techniques are utilized to preserve the wooden printing blocks. The architects also utilized nature to help preserve the Tripitaka. The storage complex was built at the highest point of the temple and is 655 meters above sea level. Janggyeong Panjeon faces southwest to avoid damp southeasterly winds from the valley below and is blocked from the cold north wind by mountain peaks. Different sized windows on the north and south sides of both main halls are used for ventilation, utilizing principles of hydrodynamics. The windows were installed in every hall to maximize ventilation and regulate temperature. The clay floors were filled with charcoal, calcium oxide, salt, lime, and sand, which reduce humidity when it rains by absorbing excess moisture which is then retained during the dry winter months. The roof is also made with clay and the bracketing and wood rafters prevent sudden changes in temperature. Additionally, no part of the complex is exposed to sun. Apparently, animals, insects, and birds avoid the complex but the reason for this is unknown. These sophisticated preservation measures are widely credited as the reason the woodblocks have survived in such fantastic condition to this day.

In 1970, a modern storage complex was built utilizing modern preservation techniques but when test woodblocks were found to have mildewed, the intended move was canceled and the woodblocks remained at Haeinsa.

Tourism

It also offers Temple Stay programs where visitors can experience Buddhist culture.[4]

Gallery

Korea-Haeinsa-02
Korea-Haeinsa-04
Korea-Haeinsa-12
Korea-Haeinsa-08
Haeinsa-monastery-pond-of-reflection

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c orientalarchitecture.com. "Asian Historical Architecture: A Photographic Survey". www.orientalarchitecture.com.
  2. ^ "WH Committee: Report of 19th Session, Berlin 1995". whc.unesco.org.
  3. ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Haeinsa Temple Janggyeong Panjeon, the Depositories for the Tripitaka Koreana Woodblocks" (PDF). whc.unesco.org.
  4. ^ "Templestay | A joyful journey to Find the True Happiness within Myself". eng.templestay.com.

External links

Aejang of Silla

Aejang of Silla (788–809) (r. 800–809) was the 40th ruler of the Korean kingdom of Silla. He was the eldest son of King Soseong and Queen Gyehwa. He married a lady of the Pak clan.

In 802, Aejang had the great temple of Haeinsa built on Gayasan. In 803, he formed an alliance with Wa. In 806, he forbade the building of new temples. In 809, he was slain along with his brother Chemyeong by his uncle Kim Eon-seung, who had been regent and took the throne for himself.

Anthology of the Patriarchal Hall

The Anthology of the Patriarchal Hall (Chinese: 祖堂集; pinyin: Zǔtángjí; Japanese: Sodōshū) is a Chinese text compiled by two Chinese Buddhist monks in 952 during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. It is the oldest existing collection of Chan (or Zen) encounter dialogues, dating from about half a century before the much more well known Transmission of the Lamp. After being lost for centuries, it was rediscovered by Japanese scholars in the 20th century at the Haeinsa temple in Korea, in a complete form with all twenty chapters. The text survived in the form of printing plates made during the 13th century, and not as a printed book. Much like other Chan Buddhist texts, it is written in the form of daily conversations between masters and students or between students themselves.

The Anthology is particularly important for the study of the history of Chinese, as it contains what is believed to be a good record of what vernacular northern Chinese speech was like in the 10th century. An example of a grammatical phenomenon in the text is the use of 也 yě as a marker of the perfect, showing a coalescence of the Classical Chinese particles 也 yě and 矣 yǐ.

僧問居此多少年也。

sēng wèn jū cǐ duōshǎo nián yě

monk ask live PROX more-less year PRF

'The monk asked how many years you've lived here.' (book 4 86.5)

Chinese Buddhist canon

The Chinese Buddhist canon refers to the total body of Buddhist literature deemed canonical in Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese Buddhism. The traditional term for the canon (traditional Chinese: 大藏經; simplified Chinese: 大藏经; pinyin: Dàzàngjīng; Japanese: 大蔵経; rōmaji: Daizōkyō; Korean: 대장경; romaja: Daejanggyeong; Vietnamese: Đại tạng kinh)."

Choe Chiwon

Not to be confused with the South Korean singer, Choi Siwon.Choe Chiwon (Korean pronunciation: [tɕʰʷe tɕʰiwʌn]; 857–10th century) was a noted Korean Confucian official, philosopher, and poet of the late Unified Silla period (668-935). He studied for many years in Tang China, passed the Tang imperial examination, and rose to high office there before returning to Silla, where he made ultimately futile attempts to reform the governmental apparatus of a declining Silla state.

In his final years, Choe turned more towards Buddhism and became a hermit scholar residing in and around Korea's Haeinsa temple.

Choe Chiwon was also known by the literary names Haeun "Sea Cloud" ([hɛːun] hanja: 海雲), or, more commonly, Goun "Lonely Cloud" ([koun] hanja: 孤雲). He is recognized today as the progenitor of the Choe clan of Gyeongju.

Culture of Korea

The culture of Korea is the shared cultural and historical heritage of Korea and southern Manchuria. As one of the oldest continuous cultures in the world, Koreans have passed down their traditional narratives in a variety of ways.

Since the mid-20th century, Korea has been split between the North and South Korean states, resulting today in a number of cultural differences. Before the Joseon Dynasty, the practice of Korean shamanism was deeply rooted in Korean culture.

Gayasan National Park

Gayasan National Park, also known as Gaya Mountain National Park (Korean: 가야산국립공원), is a large national park in the eastern part of South Korea. The park is named in honor of Gaya Mountain and became a National Park in 1972.

The park includes Haeinsa, which is one of the main temples of the Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism.

Goryeo

Goryeo (고려; 高麗; Koryŏ; [ko.ɾjʌ]) was a Korean kingdom founded in 918, during a time of national division called the Later Three Kingdoms period, that unified and ruled the Korean Peninsula until 1392. Goryeo achieved what has been called a "true national unification" by Korean historians as it not only unified the Later Three Kingdoms but also incorporated much of the ruling class of the northern kingdom of Balhae, who had origins in Goguryeo of the earlier Three Kingdoms of Korea. The name "Korea" is derived from the name of Goryeo, also spelled Koryŏ, which was first used in the early 5th century by Goguryeo.The once prosperous kingdom of Later Silla, which had ruled much of the Korean Peninsula since the late 7th century, began crumbling by the late 9th century due to internal turmoil, leading to the revival of the ancient states of Baekje and Goguryeo, known in historiography as "Later Baekje" and "Later Goguryeo". Later Goguryeo, also known as Taebong, was overthrown from within in 918 by Wang Geon, a prominent general of noble Goguryeo descent, who established Goryeo in its place. Goryeo peacefully annexed Later Silla in 935 and militarily conquered Later Baekje in 936, successfully reunifying the Korean Peninsula. Beginning in 993, Goryeo faced multiple invasions by the Khitan Liao dynasty, a powerful nomadic empire to the north, but a decisive military victory in 1019 brought about a century of peace and prosperity as Goryeo entered its golden age. During this period, a balance of power was maintained in East Asia between Goryeo, Liao, and Song.The Goryeo period was the "golden age of Buddhism" in Korea, and as the national religion, Buddhism achieved its highest level of influence in Korean history, with 70 temples in the capital alone in the 11th century. Commerce flourished in Goryeo, with merchants coming from as far as the Middle East, and the capital in modern-day Kaesong, North Korea was a center of trade and industry, with merchants employing a system of double-entry bookkeeping since the 11th or 12th century. In addition, Goryeo was a period of great achievements in Korean art and culture, such as Koryŏ celadon, which was highly praised in the Song dynasty, and the Tripitaka Koreana, which was described by UNESCO as "one of the most important and most complete corpus of Buddhist doctrinal texts in the world", with the original 81,258 engraved printing blocks still preserved at Haeinsa Temple. In the early 13th century, Goryeo developed movable type made of metal to print books, 200 years before Johannes Gutenberg in Europe.Beginning in 1170, the government of Goryeo was de facto controlled by a succession of powerful families from the warrior class, most notably the Choe family, in a military dictatorship akin to a shogunate. During the military rule, Goryeo resisted invasions by the Mongol Empire for almost 30 years, until the ruling head of the Choe family was assassinated in 1258 by opponents in the court, after which authority was restored to the monarchy and peace was made with the Mongols; however, power struggles continued in the court and military rule did not end until 1270. From that point on, Goryeo became a semi-autonomous "son-in-law nation" of the Mongol Yuan dynasty through royal intermarriage and blood ties. Independence was regained during the reign of Gongmin in the mid 14th century, and afterward Generals Choe Yeong and Yi Seong-gye rose to prominence with victories over invading Red Turban armies from the north and Wokou marauders from the south. In 1388, Yi Seong-gye was sent to invade the Ming dynasty at Liaodong, but he turned his forces around and defeated Choe Yeong in a coup d'etat; in 1392, he replaced Goryeo with the new state of Joseon, bringing an end to 474 years of Goryeo rule on the Korean Peninsula.

Hapcheon County

Hapcheon County (Hapcheon-gun) is a county in South Gyeongsang Province, South Korea.

Located in northwestern Gyeongsangnam-do, the county is surrounded by Changnyeong as well as Euiryeong to the Southeast, Geochang as well as Sancheong-gun to the West. High and precipitous hills are densely situated and the eastern part is flatter by the flowing streams of the Nakdong River.Famous people born in the county include former South Korean president Chun Doo-hwan.

Index of Korea-related articles (H)

This is a partial list of Korea-related topics beginning with H.

Jogye Order

The Jogye Order, officially the Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism (대한불교조계종, 大韓佛敎 曹溪宗) is the representative order of traditional Korean Buddhism with roots that date back 1200 years to the Later Silla National Master Doui, who brought Seon (known as Zen in the West) and the practice taught by the Sixth Patriarch, Huineng, from China about 820 CE. The name of the Order, Jogye, was adopted from the name of the village where Patriarch Huineng's home temple, Nanhua Temple, is located, (Chinese: 曹溪; pinyin: cáo xī; Korean: 조계종; romaja: Jogeongjung).The Jogye as a distinct school arose in the late 11th century when Jinul sought to combine the direct practices of Korean Seon with the theological underpinnings of sutra-based Buddhist schools as well as with Pure Land Buddhism.In 1994, the Jogye order managed 1725 temples, 10,056 clerics and had 9,125,991 adherents.The international Kwan Um School of Zen is a Jogye school founded by Seon Master Seungsahn, 78th Patriarch, who received Dharma transmission from Seon Master Gobong.

Korean Buddhist temples

Buddhist temples are an important part of the Korean landscape. This article gives a brief overview of Korean Buddhism, then describes some of the more important temples in Korea. Most Korean temples have names ending in -sa (사, 寺), which means "temple" in Sino-Korean.

Many temples, like Sudeoksa, offer visitors a Temple Stay program.

List of World Heritage Sites in South Korea

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Sites are places of importance to cultural or natural heritage as described in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, established in 1972. The Republic of Korea accepted the convention on 14 September 1988, making its historical sites eligible for inclusion on the list. As of 2019, there are fourteen World Heritage Sites in South Korea, including thirteen cultural sites and one natural site.The first three sites of South Korea, Haeinsa Temple Janggyeong Panjeon, the Depositories for the Tripitaka Koreana Woodblocks, Jongmyo Shrine and Seokguram Grotto and Bulguksa Temple, were inscribed on the list at the 19th Session of the World Heritage Committee, held in Berlin, Germany in 1995. In 2007, Jeju Volcanic Island and Lava Tubes became the first site selected for its natural significance. South Korea's latest inscription, Seowon, Korean Neo-Confucian Academies, was added to the list in 2019.In addition to its inscribed sites, South Korea also maintains fourteen properties on its tentative list.

National Treasure (South Korea)

A National Treasure (Korean: 국보; Hanja: 國寶; RR: gukbo) is a tangible treasure, artifact, site, or building which is recognized by the South Korean government as having exceptional artistic, cultural and historical value to the country. The title is one of the eight State-designated heritage classifications assigned by the administrator of the Cultural Heritage Administration (CHA) in accordance with the Cultural Heritage Protection Act after deliberation by the Cultural Heritage Committee.Many of the national treasures are popular tourist destinations such as Jongmyo royal ancestral shrine, Bulguksa, Seokguram, and Tripitaka Koreana at Haeinsa. As of January 2017, there are 319 distinct entries on the list, some composed of a large number of sub-entries.[1] The treasures are numbered according to the order in which they were designated, not according to their individual value.

The National Treasures are designated within the heritage preservation system of the country.

Seongcheol

Seongcheol (April 6, 1912 – November 4, 1993) is the dharma name of a Korean Seon (Zen) Master. He was a key figure in modern Korean Buddhism, being responsible for significant changes to it from the 1950s to 1990s.Seongcheol was widely recognized in Korea as having been a living Buddha, due to his extremely ascetic lifestyle, the duration and manner of his meditation training, his central role in reforming Korean Buddhism in the post-World War II era, and the quality of his oral and written teachings.

South Gyeongsang Province

South Gyeongsang Province (Korean: 경상남도, romanized: Gyeongsangnam-do, Korean pronunciation: [kjʌŋ.saŋ.nam.do]) is a province in the southeast of South Korea. The provincial capital is at Changwon. It is adjacent to the major metropolitan center and port of Busan. There is UNESCO World Heritage Site Haeinsa, a Buddhist temple that houses the Tripitaka Koreana and attracts many tourists. Automobile and petrochemical factories are largely concentrated along the southern part of the province, extending from Ulsan through Busan, Changwon, and Jinju.

Subitism

The term subitism points to sudden awakening, the idea that initial insight as a means to entering the Buddhist path be sudden. It may be posited as opposite to gradualism, the original Buddhist approach which says that following the dharma can be achieved only step by step, through an arduous practice. While the concept has catched the popular imagination when Zen was introduced to the west, in actual practice sudden insight may happen, but is only a part of the Buddhist path, which also includes gradual training.

Three Jewels Temples

The Three Jewels Temples (삼보사찰| Sambosachal) are the three principal Buddhist temples in Korea, each representing one of the Three Jewels of Buddhism, and all located in South Korea.

Tongdosa in South Gyeongsang Province represents the Buddha; Haeinsa, also in South Gyeongsang Province, represents the dharma or Buddhist teachings; and Songgwangsa in South Jeolla Province represents the sangha or Buddhist community.

In most Korean Buddhist temples, the highest, most important, and often largest building is the Mahavira Hall--the central hall containing statues of the historical Buddha and other important figures. In the Three Jewel Temples, however, the most important buildings are ones that emphasize each temple's particular jewel. Thus, the main hall in Tongdosa opens out onto a stupa which the faithful claim contains relics of the Buddha; Haeinsa has two large buildings holding the Tripitaka Koreana; and Songgwangsa has several prominent buildings dedicated to its monastic community (including the numerous Seon (Zen) Masters the temple has produced).

Tongdosa

Tongdosa ((in Korean), "Salvation of the World through Mastery of Truth") is a head temple of the Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism and in the southern part of Mt. Chiseosan near Yangsan, South Gyeongsang Province, South Korea.

Tongdosa is one of the Three Jewels Temples and represents Gautama Buddha. (Haeinsa, also in South Gyeongsang Province, represents the dharma or Buddhist teachings; and Songgwangsa in South Jeolla Province represents the sangha or Buddhist community.)

Tongdosa is famous because there are no statues outside of the Buddha at the temple because the "real shrines of the Buddha" (relics) are preserved at Tongdosa. Courtyards at the temple are arrayed around several pagodas that house the Buddha's relics.

Tripitaka Koreana

The Tripiṭaka Koreana (lit. Goryeo Tripiṭaka) or Palman Daejanggyeong ("Eighty-Thousand Tripiṭaka") is a Korean collection of the Tripiṭaka (Buddhist scriptures, and the Sanskrit word for "three baskets"), carved onto 81,258 wooden printing blocks in the 13th century. It is the world's most comprehensive and oldest intact version of Buddhist canon in Hanja script, with no known errors or errata in the 52,330,152 characters which are organized in over 1496 titles and 6568 volumes. Each wood block measures 24 centimeters in height and 70 centimeters in length. The thickness of the blocks ranges from 2.6 to 4 centimeters and each weighs about three to four kilograms. The woodblocks are almost as tall as Mount Baekdu at 2.74 km when stacked, measure 60 km long when lined up, and weigh 280 tons in total. The woodblocks are in pristine condition without warping or deformation despite being created more than 750 years ago. The Tripiṭaka Koreana is stored in Haeinsa, a Buddhist temple in South Gyeongsang Province, in South Korea.

There is a movement by scholars to change the English name of the Tripiṭaka Koreana. Professor Robert Buswell Jr., a leading scholar of Korean Buddhism, called for the renaming of the Tripiṭaka Koreana to the Korean Buddhist Canon, indicating that the current nomenclature is misleading because the Tripiṭaka Koreana is much greater in scale than the actual Tripiṭaka, and includes much additional content such as travelogues, Sanskrit and Chinese dictionaries, and biographies of monks and nuns.The Tripiṭaka Koreana was designated a National Treasure of South Korea in 1962, and inscribed in the UNESCO Memory of the World Register in 2007.

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