Haaretz

Haaretz (Hebrew: הארץ‎) (lit. "The Land [of Israel]", originally Ḥadashot Ha'aretzHebrew: חדשות הארץ‎, IPA: [χadaˈʃot haˈʔaʁets] – "News of the Land [of Israel]"[3]) is an Israeli newspaper. It was founded in 1918, making it the longest running newspaper currently in print in Israel, and is now published in both Hebrew and English in the Berliner format. The English edition is published and sold together with the International New York Times. Both Hebrew and English editions can be read on the Internet. In North America, it is published as a weekly newspaper, combining articles from the Friday edition with a roundup from the rest of the week.

It is known for its left-wing and liberal stances on domestic and foreign issues. As of 2016, the newspaper had a weekday exposure rate of 3.9% in Israel.[4][5] According to the Center for Research Libraries, among Israel's daily newspapers, "Haaretz is considered the most influential and respected for both its news coverage and its commentary."[6]

Haaretz
Haaretz en
Haaretz front page
TypeDaily Newspaper
FormatBerliner
Owner(s)Schocken Family (60%)
M. DuMont Schauberg (20%)
Leonid Nevzlin (20%)
PublisherAmos Schocken, M. DuMont Schauberg
EditorAluf Benn[1]
Founded1919
Political alignmentliberal, political left
LanguageHebrew and English editions
HeadquartersTel Aviv, Israel
CountryIsrael
Circulation72,000
(Weekends: 100,000)[2]
Website
HADASHOT HAARETZ (NATIONAL NEWS) DAILY OF THE EARLY 20S
Front page of Ḥadashot Ha'aretz, August 1919

History and ownership

Haaretz was first published in 1918 as a newspaper sponsored by the British military government in Palestine.[7] In 1919, it was taken over by a group of socialist-oriented Zionists, mainly from Russia.[8][9] The newspaper was established on 18 June 1919 by a group of businessmen including the philanthropist Isaac Leib Goldberg, and initially, it was called Hadashot Ha'aretz ("News of the Land"). Later, the name was shortened to Haaretz.[10] The literary section of the paper attracted leading Hebrew writers of the time.[11]

The newspaper was initially published in Jerusalem. From 1919 to 1922, the paper was headed by a succession of editors, among them Leib Yaffe. It was closed briefly due to a budgetary shortfall and reopened in Tel Aviv at the beginning of 1923 under the editorship of Moshe Glickson, who held the post for 15 years.[9] The Tel Aviv municipality granted the paper financial support by paying in advance for future advertisements.[12]

Salman Schocken, a Jewish businessman who left Germany in 1934 after the Nazis had come to power, bought the paper in December 1935. Schocken was active in Brit Shalom, also known as the Jewish–Palestinian Peace Alliance, a body supporting co-existence between Jews and Arabs which was sympathetic to a homeland for both peoples. His son, Gershom Schocken, became the chief editor in 1939 and held that position until his death in 1990.[13]

The Schocken family were the sole owners of the Haaretz Group until August 2006, when they sold a 25% stake to German publisher M. DuMont Schauberg.[14] The deal was negotiated with the help of the former Israeli ambassador to Germany, Avi Primor.[15] This deal was seen as controversial in Israel as DuMont Schauberg's father, Kurt Neven DuMont, was member of the Nazi party and his publishing house promoted Nazi ideology.[16]

On 12 June 2011, it was announced that Russian-Israeli businessman Leonid Nevzlin had purchased a 20% stake in the Haaretz Group, buying 15% from the family and 5% from M. DuMont Schauberg.[17]

In October 2012, a union strike mobilized to protest planned layoffs by the Haaretz management, causing a one-day interruption of Haaretz and its TheMarker business supplement. According to Israel Radio, it was the first time since 1965 that a newspaper did not go to press on account of a strike.[18][19]

Management

The newspaper's editorial policy was defined by Gershom Schocken, who was editor-in-chief from 1939 to 1990. Schocken was succeeded as editor-in-chief by Hanoch Marmari. In 2004 David Landau replaced Marmari and was succeeded by Dov Alfon in 2008.[20] The current editor-in-chief of the newspaper is Aluf Benn, who replaced Alfon in August 2011.[1] Charlotte Halle became editor of the English print edition in February 2008.

Editorial policy and viewpoints

Haaretz describes itself as having "a broadly liberal outlook both on domestic issues and on international affairs".[21] Others describe it alternatively as liberal,[22] centre-left,[23] or left-wing.[24] The newspaper opposes retaining control of the territories and consistently supports peace initiatives.[25] The Haaretz editorial line is supportive of weaker elements in Israeli society, such as sex workers, foreign laborers, Israeli Arabs, Ethiopian immigrants, and Russian immigrants.[8]

In 2006, the BBC said that Haaretz takes a moderate stance on foreign policy and security.[26] David Remnick in The New Yorker described Haaretz as "easily the most liberal newspaper in Israel", its ideology as left-wing and its temper as "insistently oppositional".[20] According to Ira Sharkansky, Haaretz's op-ed pages are open to a variety of opinions.[27] J. J. Goldberg, the editor of the American The Jewish Daily Forward, describes Haaretz as "Israel's most vehemently anti-settlement daily paper".[28] Stephen Glain of The Nation described Haaretz as "Israel's liberal beacon", citing its editorials voicing opposition to the occupation, the discriminatory treatment of Arab citizens, and the mindset that led to the Second Lebanon War.[29] A 2003 study in The International Journal of Press/Politics concluded that Haaretz's reporting of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict was more favorable to Israelis than to Palestinians, but less so than that of The New York Times.[30] In 2016, Jeffrey Goldberg, the editor-in-chief of The Atlantic, wrote "I like a lot of the people at Haaretz, and many of its positions, but the cartoonish anti-Israelism and anti-Semitism can be grating".[31][32]

Formatting, circulation and reputation

Newspapers
Front page of the Hebrew and English editions

Circulation

In 2016, the newspaper's readership fell to an all-time low of 3.9% on weekdays,[4][5] far behind other national newspapers in Israel: Israel Hayom had an exposure rate of 39.7%, Yedioth Ahronoth 34.9%, Israel Post 7.2%, and Globes 4.6%.[33]

Formatting and image

Haaretz uses smaller headlines and print than other mass circulation papers in Israel. Less space is devoted to pictures, and more to political analysis. Opinion columns are generally written by regular commentators rather than guest writers.[8] Its editorial pages are considered influential among government leaders.[34] Apart from the news, Haaretz publishes feature articles on social and environmental issues, as well as book reviews, investigative reporting, and political commentary. In 2008, the newspaper itself reported a paid subscribership of 65,000, daily sales of 72,000 copies, and 100,000 on weekends.[2] The English edition has a subscriber base of 15,000.[29] As of June 2011, readership was 5.8% of the public, down from 6.4% the prior year.[35] In 2012, amid falling circulation, Haaretz was undergoing severe cuts (reportedly firing around 20% of its total workforce, and lowering salaries by between 15 and 35%), and cuts continued through 2013.[36]

Despite its historically relatively low circulation in Israel, Haaretz has for many years been described as Israel's most influential daily newspaper.[37] Its readership includes members of Israel's intelligentsia and members of its political and economic elites.[38] In 1999, surveys show that Haaretz readership has a higher-than-average education, income, and wealth and that most are Ashkenazim.[29][39] Some have said that it functions for Israel much as The New York Times does for the United States, as a newspaper of record,[40]. In 2007, Shmuel Rosner, the newspaper's former U.S. correspondent, told The Nation that "people who read it are better educated and more sophisticated than most, but the rest of the country doesn't know it exists."[29] According to former editor of the paper, Hanoch Marmari, the newspaper has lost its political influence in Israel, because it became "detached" from the country's political life.[41]

Criticism

Andrea Levin, executive director of the American pro-Israel Committee for Accuracy in Middle East Reporting (CAMERA), said the newspaper was doing "damage to the truth" and sometimes making serious factual errors but not often correcting them.[42]

According to The Jerusalem Post, Haaretz editor-in-chief David Landau said at the 2007 Limmud conference in Moscow that he had told his staff not to report about criminal investigations against Prime Minister Ariel Sharon in order to promote Sharon's 2004–2005 Gaza disengagement plan.[43]

In April 2017, Haaretz published an op-ed by a staff writer that said the religious right is worse than Hezbollah.[44][45] Condemnation followed, including from Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, President Reuven Rivlin, and other government ministers and MPs, as well as from Opposition Leader Isaac Herzog.[46]

Internet editions

Haaretz operates both Hebrew[47] and English[48] language websites. The two sites offer up-to-the-minute breaking news, live Q&A sessions with newsmakers from Israel, the Palestinian territories and elsewhere, and blogs covering a range of political standpoints and opinions. As of 5 October 2014, the English online edition has an Alexa rank of 2,683 worldwide and 2,861 in the United States.[49] The two sites fall under the supervision of Lior Kodner, the head of digital media for the Haaretz Group. Individually, Simon Spungin is the editor of Haaretz.com (English) and Avi Scharf is the editor of Haaretz.co.il (Hebrew).

Offices

The Haaretz building is located on Schocken Street in south Tel Aviv.[20]

Journalists and writers

Present

Past

PASSENGERS SEATED IN ONE OF THE PALESTINE AIRWAYS "SCION" PLANES DURING FLIGHT. נוסעים במהלך טיסה של חברת "נתיבי אויר ארץ ישראל".D2-055
Passengers on board a Palestine Airways Short Scion, 1939. The second passenger on the left is reading Haaretz.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Aluf Benn named new editor-in-chief of Haaretz". Haaretz. 1 August 2011. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
  2. ^ a b "Dov Alfon named as new Haaretz editor-in-chief". Haaretz. 12 February 2008. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
  3. ^ "Israel". Press Reference. Retrieved 5 March 2010.
  4. ^ a b Sigan, Lilac (5 August 2016). "I'm Going to Take a Break, Sorry". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  5. ^ a b "Once again, media survey puts Israel Hayom at No. 1 in Israel". Israel Hayom. 26 July 2016. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  6. ^ The Center for Research Libraries (CRL). "CRL Obtains Haaretz". www.crl.edu. Retrieved 2018-05-05.
  7. ^ "TAU – Institute of Jewish Press and Communications – The Andrea and Charles Bronfman Center". Tel Aviv University. Archived from the original on 25 September 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
  8. ^ a b c "Israel — Hebrew- and English-Language Media Guide" (PDF). Open Source Center. 16 September 2008. Retrieved 13 February 2014.
  9. ^ a b Marmari, Hanoch (16 April 2004). "A fine and fragile balance". Haaretz. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
  10. ^ Cohen, Yoel. "Israel Society and Culture: Haaretz". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
    "Goldberg, Isaac Leib (1860-1935) Papers". Yivo Institute for Jewish Research. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
  11. ^ "Newspapers, Hebrew". Encyclopedia Judaica. 12. Jerusalem: Keter Books. 1978.
  12. ^ Tom Segev (18 March 2010). "Haaretz history". Haaretz. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  13. ^ Amos Schocken (18 September 2002). "A newspaper's mission". Haaretz. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  14. ^ "M. DuMont Schauberg. Press-release". Dumont.eu. Archived from the original on 26 February 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
  15. ^ Koren, Ronny (13 August 2006). "Germany's DuMont invests 25m euros in Haaretz". Haaretz. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  16. ^ "Haaretz's 'Nazi problem'". Ynetnews. 20 June 1995. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
  17. ^ Li-or Averbach (12 June 2011). "Russian immigrant billionaire buys 20% of "Haaretz"". Globes. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  18. ^ Koopmans, Ofira (4 October 2012). "Journalists at Israel's Haaretz newspaper strike over job cuts". Europe Online. Archived from the original on 27 May 2013. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
  19. ^ "'Haaretz' daily not printed today". Globes. 4 October 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  20. ^ a b c Remnick, David (28 February 2011). "The Dissenters". The New Yorker. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
  21. ^ "About Haaretz". Haaretz. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  22. ^
  23. ^ Mya Guarnieri (6 February 2011). "The death of Israeli democracy" (English ed.). Al Jazeera. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  24. ^
  25. ^ Israel — Hebrew- and English-Language Media Guide, p. 14
  26. ^ "The press in Israel". BBC News. 8 May 2006. Retrieved 13 February 2014.
  27. ^ Sharkansky, Ira (2005). Governing Israel: Chosen People, Promised Land, & Prophetic Tradition. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-7658-0277-4.
  28. ^ Goldberg, J. J. (3 April 2009). "Are Religious Soldiers To Blame for Alleged Abuse?". The Forward. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  29. ^ a b c d Stephen Glain (24 September 2007). "Ha'aretz, Israel's Liberal Beacon". The Nation. Retrieved 13 February 2014.
  30. ^ Matt Viser (September 2003). "Attempted Objectivity: An Analysis of the New York Times and Ha'aretz and their Portrayals of the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict". The International Journal of Press/Politics. 8 (4): 114–120. doi:10.1177/1081180X03256999. This study explores the biases, pro-Israeli and pro-Palestinian, by looking at quantitative indicators of news coverage in the New York Times and Ha'aretz. Several time periods were examined (1987-88, 2000-01, and post-September 11, 2001), using multiple indicators. By these measures, The New York Times is more favorable toward the Israelis than the Palestinians, and the partiality has become more pronounced with time.Haaretz is also more favorable toward the Israelis, but less so than the Times.
  31. ^ Journalist Jeffrey Goldberg stirs storm after tweeting he might stop reading Haaretz, JTA, 2 August 2016
  32. ^ Amos Schocken, third-generation proprietor of Ha’aretz, Financial Times, John Reed, 3 October 2016
  33. ^ פרייס, נועה (25 July 2016). "סקר TGI מחצית 2016: "ישראל היום" מגדיל את הפער; "הארץ" קורס" [TGI survey for half of 2016: Israel Hayom increases the gap; Haaretz collapsing] (in Hebrew). Walla!. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
  34. ^ Beckerman, Gal (September–October 2005). "Disengaged". Columbia Journalism Review. Archived from the original on 7 October 2007. Retrieved 21 June 2007.
  35. ^ "Israel Hayom Surpasses Yedioth Ahronoth to Become Country's Most-Read Newspaper". Israel Hayom Newsletter. 20 July 2011. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  36. ^ Averbach, Li-or (5 December 2013). "'Haaretz' to lay off 5% of workforce". Globes. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  37. ^
  38. ^
  39. ^ Caspi, Dan; Limor, Yehiel (1999). The IN/Outsiders: Mass Media in Israel. Hampton Press. p. 79.
  40. ^ Slater, Jerome (Fall 2007). "Muting the Alarm over the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: "The New York Times" versus "Haaretz", 2000-06". International Security. 32 (2). doi:10.1162/isec.2007.32.2.84. JSTOR 30133876. There is a widespread consensus in Israel and elsewhere that Haaretz is Israel's best and most prestigious newspaper—in effect, the Israeli equivalent of the New York Times.(subscription required)
  41. ^ עורך 'הארץ' לשעבר: 'הארץ' איבד את מעמדו הציבורי [Former Haaretz editor: Haaretz has lost its public standing] (in Hebrew). nrg Maariv. 8 January 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  42. ^ Ross, Oakland (5 October 2008). "News and views that inspire love or kindle hatred". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 4 February 2013. Retrieved 13 February 2014.
  43. ^ Haviv Rettig Gur (25 October 2007). "Limmud diary: Creme de la Kremlin?". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  44. ^ "Paper draws fire for op-ed calling national religious worse than Hezbollah", Times of Israel, 13 April 2017.
  45. ^ "Haaretz slammed for article calling national religious 'worse than Hezbollah'", Ynetnews, 13 April 2017.
  46. ^ "Haaretz op-ed draws condemnations across the political spectrum", Israel Hayom, 13 April 2017.
  47. ^ "הארץ" [Haaretz] (in Hebrew).
  48. ^ "Haaretz Daily Newspaper Israel". Retrieved 10 February 2013.
  49. ^ "Haaretz.com Site Info". Alexa Internet. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  50. ^ "Haaretz.com's Bradley Burston wins award for Mideast writing". Haaretz. 15 September 2006. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  51. ^ Zur Glozman, Masha (4 January 2013). "The million Russians that Changed Israel to its core". Haaretz. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
  52. ^ a b Asaf Carmel (28 October 2009). "Haaretz reporters Klein, Reznick win Sokolov Award for Journalism". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 2 August 2007.
  53. ^ Carmel, Asaf (9 November 2007). "Fellow journalists to honor Haaretz commentator Yoel Marcus in Eilat". Haaretz. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  54. ^ Ari Shavit (9 December 2002). "No Man's Land: The idea of a city disappears". The New Yorker. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  55. ^ Elan Ezrachi, Ph.D. (c. 2000). "Jewish Renaissance and Renewal in Israel". Dorot and Nathan Cummings Foundations. Archived from the original on 26 April 2004.
  56. ^ Carmel, Asaf (3 March 2008). "Haaretz journalist Ehud Asheri dies of cancer at 57". Haaretz. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  57. ^ Orna Coussin (21 September 2007). "A compelling lesson". Haaretz. Retrieved 5 October 2014. Review of Arie Caspi. Hazakim al halashim (Strong Over the Weak). Xargol/Am Oved.
  58. ^ Aviva Lori (3 July 2008). "The long goodbye". Haaretz. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  59. ^ Ben Simon, Daniel (13 June 2008). "Daniel Ben-Simon: Why I'm leaving journalism for politics". Haaretz. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  60. ^ Avivi, Gidi (18 July 2001). "Irresistible look at a master". Haaretz. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
  61. ^ "News in Brief". Haaretz. 5 October 2007. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  62. ^ Ofer Aderet (9 October 2013). "Aviva Lori, veteran writer for Haaretz Magazine, passes away". Haaretz. Retrieved 5 October 2014.

Further reading

External links

Amira Hass

Amira Hass (Hebrew: עמירה הס; born 28 June 1956) is an Israeli journalist and author, mostly known for her columns in the daily newspaper Haaretz. She is particularly recognized for her reporting on Palestinian affairs in the West Bank and Gaza, where she has also lived for a number of years.

Arab citizens of Israel

Arab citizens of Israel, or Arab Israelis, are Israeli citizens who are Arab. Many Arab citizens of Israel self-identify as Palestinian and commonly self-designate themselves as Palestinian citizens of Israel or Israeli Palestinians, According to a 2017 survey, only 16% of the Arab population prefers the term "Israeli Arab", while the largest and fastest growing proportion prefers "Palestinian in Israel". A notable percentage prefers Palestinian Arab, rejecting entirely the identity of "Israeli". The traditional vernacular of most Arab citizens, irrespective of religion, is Levantine Arabic, including Lebanese Arabic in the North of Israel, Palestinian dialect of Arabic in Central Israel and Bedouin dialects across the Negev desert; having absorbed much Hebrew loanwords and phrases, the modern dialect of Arab citizens of Israel is defined by some as the Israeli Arabic dialect. Most Arab citizens of Israel are functionally bilingual, their second language being Modern Hebrew. By religious affiliation, most are Muslim, particularly of the Sunni branch of Islam. There is a significant Arab Christian minority from various denominations as well as the Druze, among other religious communities.According to Israel's Central Bureau of Statistics, the Arab population in 2013 was estimated at 1,658,000, representing 21% of the country's population. The majority of these identify themselves as Arab or Palestinian by nationality and Israeli by citizenship. Arab citizens of Israel mostly live in Arab-majority towns and cities; with eight of Israel's ten poorest cities being Arab. The vast majority attend separate schools to Jewish Israelis, and Arab political parties have never joined a government coalition. Many have family ties to Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip as well as to Palestinian refugees in Jordan, Syria and Lebanon. Galilee Bedouins, Negev Bedouins and the Druze tend to identify more as Israelis than other Arab citizens of Israel.The Arabs living in East Jerusalem and the Druze in the Golan Heights, occupied by Israel in the Six-Day War of 1967 and later annexed, were offered Israeli citizenship, but most have refused, not wanting to recognize Israel's claim to sovereignty. They became permanent residents instead. They have the right to apply for citizenship, are entitled to municipal services and have municipal voting rights.

Avigdor Lieberman

Avigdor Lieberman (Hebrew: אביגדור ליברמן‎, IPA: [aviɡˈdor ˈliberman], (audio) ; born Evet Lvovich Liberman, Russian: Эве́т Льво́вич Ли́берман, 5 July 1958) is a Soviet-born Israeli politician who served as the Defense Minister of Israel; on 14 November 2018 Lieberman announced he was handing in his resignation due to a ceasefire versus Gaza which Lieberman said was "surrendering to terror". He served as Israel's Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2009 to 2012, and again from 2013 to 2015. He has also served as member of the Knesset and as Deputy Prime Minister of Israel.

He is the founder and leader of the secular-nationalist Yisrael Beiteinu party, whose electoral base are overwhelmingly Russian-speaking immigrants from the former Soviet Union. As a result of the arrival in Israel during the 1990s of more than one million Russian-speaking immigrants, Yisrael Beiteinu has regularly played the 'king-maker' role in Israel's coalition governments.Lieberman first entered the Knesset in 1999, and has since served in numerous roles in the government, including as Minister of National Infrastructure, Minister of Transportation, Minister of Strategic Affairs, Deputy Prime Minister, Foreign Affairs Minister, and Minister of Defense.

Benjamin Netanyahu

Benjamin Netanyahu (Hebrew: בִּנְיָמִין נְתַנְיָהוּ ; born 21 October 1949) is an Israeli politician serving as the 9th and current Prime Minister of Israel since 2009, previously holding the position from 1996 to 1999. Netanyahu is also currently a member of the Knesset and the Chairman of the Likud party. He is the first Israeli Prime Minister born in Israel after the establishment of the state.

Born in Tel Aviv to secular Jewish parents, Netanyahu joined the Israel Defense Forces shortly after the Six-Day War in 1967, and became a team leader in the Sayeret Matkal special forces unit. Netanyahu took part in many missions, including Operation Inferno (1968), Operation Gift (1968) and Operation Isotope (1972), during which he was shot in the shoulder. Netanyahu fought on the front lines in the War of Attrition and the Yom Kippur War in 1973, taking part in special forces raids along the Suez Canal, and then leading a commando assault deep into Syrian territory. Netanyahu achieved the rank of captain before being discharged. After graduating from MIT with Bachelor of Science (SB) and Master of Science (SM) degrees, Netanyahu was recruited as an economic consultant for the Boston Consulting Group. Netanyahu returned to Israel in 1978 to found the Yonatan Netanyahu Anti-Terror Institute, named after his brother Yonatan Netanyahu, who died leading Operation Entebbe. Netanyahu served as the Israeli ambassador to the United Nations from 1984 to 1988.

He became the leader of Likud in 1993 and won the 1996 elections, becoming Israel's youngest-ever Prime Minister, serving his first term from June 1996 to July 1999. Netanyahu moved from the political arena to the private sector after being defeated in the 1999 election for prime minister by Ehud Barak. Netanyahu returned to politics in 2002 as Foreign Affairs Minister (2002–2003) and Finance Minister (2003–2005) in Ariel Sharon's governments, but he departed the government over disagreements regarding the Gaza disengagement plan. As Minister of Finance, Netanyahu engaged in a major reform of the Israeli economy, which was credited by commentators as having significantly improved Israel's subsequent economic performance. Netanyahu retook the Likud leadership in December 2005, after Sharon left to form a new party, Kadima. In December 2006, Netanyahu became the official Leader of the Opposition in the Knesset and Chairman of Likud. Following the 2009 parliamentary election, in which Likud placed second and right-wing parties won a majority, Netanyahu formed a coalition government. He won electoral victory in the 2013 elections for the third time, and in the 2015 elections for a fourth time.

Netanyahu has been elected Prime Minister of Israel four times, matching David Ben-Gurion for most premierships, and he is the only prime minister in Israel's history to have been elected three times in a row. Netanyahu is currently the second longest-serving Prime Minister in Israel's history after David Ben-Gurion. Since December 2016 Netanyahu had been under investigation by police and prosecutors for a number of alleged corruption scandals, culminating in the Israeli attorney general announcing his intent to file indictments in 2019.

Gideon Levy

Gideon Levy (Hebrew: גדעון לוי; born 1953) is an Israeli journalist and author. Levy writes opinion pieces and a weekly column for the newspaper Haaretz that often focus on the Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories. Levy has won prizes for his articles on human rights in the Israeli-occupied territories, and has been hailed as a "heroic journalist". His critics characterize him as left-wing and accuse him of being a propagandist for Hamas.

Hatnuah

Hatnuah (Hebrew: הַתְּנוּעָה, lit. The Movement) is a liberal political party in Israel formed by former Israeli Foreign Minister Tzipi Livni to present an alternative to voters frustrated by the stalemate in the Israeli–Palestinian peace process.The party was formed by dissidents in Kadima, which Livni, who had led the party's progressive wing, headed until March 2012 when she lost a leadership primary election to rival Shaul Mofaz, who was part of the party's more conservative wing. Although the establishment of the party was announced in late 2012, it is actually based on the infrastructure of Hetz, a faction that broke away from Shinui in 2006. Relatively close in ideology to Yesh Atid and the Labor Party, which focused mostly on domestic and socioeconomic issues in their 2013 campaigns, Hatnuah stands out for its aggressive push for a pragmatic peace settlement with the Palestinians.In the 2013 legislative election, Hatnuah ran on a joint list with the Green Movement, and incorporated many of its core ideals into the party's platform. Hatnuah's 2013 platform emphasized Arab–Israeli peace, social justice, environmental protection, the integration of all citizens into the military and workforce, and religious pluralism.In the 2015 legislative election, it ran on a joint electoral list with the Labor Party called the Zionist Union, which became the second-largest parliamentary group. In January 2019 Avi Gabay announced that Labor would not run with Hatnuah in the 2019 Israeli legislative election. Following several weeks of poor poll results, Livni announced on 18 February 2019 that Hatnuah would drop out of the election and that she was retiring from politics.

Holyland Case

The Holyland Case, named for the Holyland Park building complex in Jerusalem, Israel, was a high-profile corruption case in which top Israeli officials were charged with bribery and money laundering, among them former Israel Prime Minister Ehud Olmert and former Mayor of Jerusalem Uri Lupolianski. Of the 13 defendants, three were acquitted and ten, including Olmert, were found guilty.

Israeli settlement

Israeli settlements are civilian communities inhabited by Israeli citizens, almost exclusively of Jewish ethnicity, built predominantly on lands within the Palestinian territories, which Israel has militarily occupied since the 1967 Six-Day War, and partly on lands considered Syrian territory also militarily occupied by Israel since the 1967 war. Such settlements within Palestinian territories currently exist in Area C of the West Bank and in East Jerusalem, and within Syrian territory in the Golan Heights.

Following the 1967 war, Israeli settlements also existed within Egyptian territory in the Sinai Peninsula, and within the Palestinian territory of the Gaza Strip; however, Israel evacuated the Sinai settlements following the 1979 Egypt–Israel peace agreement and from the Gaza Strip in 2005 under Israel's unilateral disengagement plan. Israel dismantled 18 settlements in the Sinai Peninsula in 1982, while in 2005 all 21 settlements in the Gaza Strip were dismantled, but only four in the West Bank. In the West Bank, however, Israel continues to expand its remaining settlements as well as settling new areas, despite pressure from the international community to desist. According to the Israeli investigative reporter Uri Blau, settlements received funding by private tax-exempt U.S. NGOs of $220 million for 2009–2013, suggesting that the U.S. is indirectly subsidizing their creation.The international community considers the settlements in occupied territory to be illegal, and the United Nations has repeatedly upheld the view that Israel's construction of settlements constitutes a violation of the Fourth Geneva Convention.The Israeli-occupied area known as East Jerusalem and the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights are also considered settlements by the international community, though Israel has applied its civil law to both territories and does not consider its developments there to be settlements. The International Court of Justice also says these purportedly annexed settlements are illegal in a 2004 advisory opinion.In April 2012, UN secretary general Ban Ki-Moon, in response to moves by Israel to legalise Israeli outposts, reiterated that all settlement activity is illegal, and "runs contrary to Israel's obligations under the Road Map and repeated Quartet calls for the parties to refrain from provocations." Similar criticism was advanced by the EU and the US. Israel disputes the position of the international community and the legal arguments that were used to declare the settlements illegal. In December 2016 United Nations Security Council Resolution 2334 confirmed the illegality of the settlement enterprise and renders Israeli citizens involved with settling the West Bank vulnerable to lawsuits throughout the world.The presence and ongoing expansion of existing settlements by Israel and the construction of settlement outposts is frequently criticized as an obstacle to the Israeli–Palestinian peace process by the Palestinians, and third parties such as the OIC, the United Nations, Russia, the United Kingdom, France, the European Union, and the United States have echoed those criticisms.Settlement has an economic dimension, much of it driven by the significantly lower costs of housing for Israeli citizens living in Israeli settlements compared to the cost of housing and living in Israel proper. Government spending per citizen in the settlements is double that spent per Israeli citizen in Tel Aviv and Jerusalem, while government spending for settlers in isolated Israeli settlements is three times the Israeli national average. Most of the spending goes to the security of the Israeli citizens living there.On 30 June 2014, according to the Yesha Council, 382,031 Israeli citizens lived in the 121 officially recognised Israeli settlements in the West Bank. A number of Palestinian non-Israeli citizens (as opposed to Arab citizens of Israel) also reside in Israeli settlements in East Jerusalem, however, over 300,000 Israeli citizens (both Jewish citizens of Israel and Arab citizens of Israel) lived in settlements in East Jerusalem, and over 20,000 Israeli citizens lived in settlements in the Golan Heights. In January 2015 the Israeli Interior Ministry gave figures of 389,250 Israeli citizens living in the West Bank and a further 375,000 Israeli citizens living in East Jerusalem.Settlements range in character from farming communities and frontier villages to urban suburbs and neighborhoods. The four largest settlements, Modi'in Illit, Ma'ale Adumim, Beitar Illit and Ariel, have achieved city status. Ariel has 18,000 residents, while the rest have around 37,000 to 55,500 each.

Israel–Russia relations

Israel–Russia relations refers to the bilateral foreign relations between the two countries, Israel and Russia. Russia has an embassy in Tel Aviv and a consulate in Haifa. Israel has an embassy in Moscow and a consulate-general (to open) in Yekaterinburg.

Russia is a member of the Quartet on the Middle East. For many years, Israel was a sanctuary for many Russian Jews. This was especially the case during the Aliyah in the 1970s and the

Aliyah in the 1990s. Israel and Russia were on opposing sides during the Cold War. However, the relationship between Israel and Russia began to improve significantly from the early 2000s onwards, with the election of the more pro-Israel Vladimir Putin, and in 2001 with election of the more pro-Russian Ariel Sharon.Israel is part Russophone and considered to be the world's only part Russophone country outside the former Soviet Union. Russian is the third most widely spoken first language in Israel, after Hebrew and Arabic, and has the third largest number of Russian speakers outside former Soviet countries, and the highest as a proportion of the total population.Over 100,000 Israeli citizens live in Russia, with 80,000 Israelis living in Moscow, while hundreds of thousands of Russian citizens reside in Israel, from around 1.5 million native Russian-speaking Israelis.

Kulanu

Kulanu (Hebrew: כולנו, lit. We All) is a centrist political party in Israel led by Moshe Kahlon that focuses on economic and cost-of-living issues.

Meron Benvenisti

Meron Benvenisti (Hebrew: מירון בנבנשתי, born April 21, 1934) is an Israeli political scientist who was Deputy Mayor of Jerusalem under Teddy Kollek from 1971 to 1978, during which he administered East Jerusalem and served as Jerusalem's Chief Planning Officer. Initially trained as a medievalist, he has published books and maps on the Crusaders period in the Holy Land. He later obtained a Harvard doctorate in conflict management. In 1984 he founded the West Bank Database Project, documenting social, economic, and political developments in the West Bank. Since 1992 he devotes his time to teaching as visiting lecturer (Ben-Gurion University 1994–1998, Johns Hopkins SAIS Washington DC 1982–2009), research and writing on Jerusalem, Northern Ireland conflict, Israeli- Palestinian relations, Palestinian vanished landscape, bi-nationalism and restaurant reviews. He was a fellow at The Wilson Center in Washington DC and a Visiting Fellow at Harvard's CFIA and a recipient of research grants from the Rockefeller Foundation, the Ford Foundation and the US institute of Peace. Between 1991 and 2009 he wrote a column for Haaretz, Israel's leading left-liberal newspaper. He holds a doctorate from Harvard's Kennedy School. He is the son of Israel Prize recipient David Benvenisti.He has long been a critic of Israel's policies towards Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip and is an advocate of the idea of a binational state. In 2004, he warned that plans to build a separation wall were actually plans for "bantustans" that would effectively imprison millions of Palestinians and exacerbate the conflict, rather than resolve it as many hoped. He said that "The day will come when believers in this illusion will realise that 'separation' is a means to oppress and dominate, and then they will mobilise to dismantle the apartheid apparatus." In 2012, he suggested claims that Israel is an apartheid state were "wrongheaded, simplistic and dangerous," but also said the situation in Israel proper is "no less grave". He suggested that Israel is a "Herrenvolk democracy" (master race democracy) in which Israel behaves 'like a full-blooded democracy' but has a group of serfs (the Arabs) for whom democracy is suspended, creating a situation of 'extreme inequality.' In the same interview, he stated that "The separation fence: that is truly apartheid. Separation is apartheid." According to Benvenisti, the only solution is to incorporate Palestinians into the state on conditions of equality.

Peter Beinart

Peter Alexander Beinart (; born 1971) is an American columnist, journalist, and liberal political commentator. A former editor of The New Republic, he has written for Time, The New York Times, The New York Review of Books among other periodicals, and is the author of three books. He is associate professor of journalism and political science at City University of New York. He is a senior columnist at Haaretz whose views on Israel evoke controversy. He also is a contributor to The Atlantic and National Journal, and programs on CNN.

Promised Land

The Promised Land (Hebrew: הארץ המובטחת‎, translit.: ha'aretz hamuvtakhat; Arabic: أرض الميعاد‎, translit.: ard al-mi'ad; also known as "The Land of Milk and Honey") is the land which, according to the Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible), was promised and subsequently given by God to Abraham and his descendants, and in modern contexts an image and idea related both to the restored Homeland for the Jewish people and to salvation and liberation is more generally understood.

The promise was first made to Abraham (Genesis 15:18-21), then confirmed to his son Isaac (Genesis 26:3), and then to Isaac's son Jacob (Genesis 28:13), Abraham's grandson. The Promised Land was described in terms of the territory from the River of Egypt to the Euphrates river (Exodus 23:31). A smaller area of former Canaanite land and land east of the Jordan River was conquered and occupied by their descendants, the Israelites, after Moses led the Exodus out of Egypt (Numbers 34:1-12), and this occupation was interpreted as God's fulfilment of the promise (Deuteronomy 1:8). Moses anticipated that God might subsequently give the Israelites land reflecting the boundaries of God's original promise, if they were obedient to the covenant (Deuteronomy 19:8-9).

The concept of the Promised Land is the central tenet of Zionism, whose discourse suggests that modern Jews descend from the Israelites and Maccabees through whom they inherit the right to re-establish their "national homeland". Palestinians also claim partial descent from the Israelites and Maccabees, as well as all the other peoples who have lived in the region.The imagery of the "Promised Land" was invoked in African-American spirituals as heaven or paradise and as an escape from slavery, which can often only be reached by death. The imagery and term have also been used in popular culture (see Promised Land (disambiguation)), sermons and in speeches, such as the "I've Been to the Mountaintop" (1968) speech by Martin Luther King Jr.:

"I just want to do God's will. And He's allowed me to go up to the mountain. And I've looked over. And I've seen the Promised Land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight, that we, as a people, will get to the Promised Land. So I'm happy, tonight. I'm not worried about anything. I'm not fearing any man. Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord."

Reuven Rivlin

Reuven "Ruvi" Rivlin (Hebrew: רְאוּבֵן "רוּבִי" רִיבְלִין, [ʁeʔuˈven ʁivˈlin] (listen); born 9 September 1939) is an Israeli politician and lawyer serving as the 10th and current President of Israel since 2014. He is a member of the Likud party. Rivlin was Minister of Communications from 2001 to 2003, and subsequently served as Speaker of the Knesset from 2003 to 2006, and again from 2009 to 2013. On 10 June 2014, he was elected President of Israel.Rivlin argues for a Greater Israel that would embrace all people and give the Palestinians of the West Bank and Gaza full Israeli citizenship. He is also a strong supporter of minority rights, particularly for Arab Israelis. He supports the one-state solution to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. Rivlin is fluent in Arabic.

TheMarker

TheMarker (Hebrew: דה-מרקר‎) is a Hebrew-language daily business newspaper published by the Haaretz group in Israel.

TheMarker was founded in 1999 by journalist and entrepreneur Guy Rolnik along with Haaretz group and U.S.-based investors. 5 Years after TheMarker launched, Haaretz newspaper group decided to terminate its long-standing business section and relaunch it as a daily print newspapers called “TheMarker”, the brand that was created online.

The chief editor of TheMarker is Sami Peretz. The editor of the monthly magazine is Eytan Avriel. TheMarker alone has about 250 employees. It operates from Haaretz newspaper building in Tel Aviv.

In 2006 and 2007 TheMarker and Rolnik won the 2 most important awards in marketing and business strategy for creating TheMarker, turning it into the leading brand in financial media and using an internet brand to launch a print newspaper (see “Awards”).

Currently TheMarker produces a website, a daily print newspaper, a monthly print magazine and holds events on business-related issues. Some of TheMarker’s articles are translated to English and appear in the English version of Haaretz in cooperation with the International New York Times.

The Jerusalem Post

The Jerusalem Post is a broadsheet newspaper based in Jerusalem, founded in 1932 during the British Mandate of Palestine by Gershon Agron as The Palestine Post. In 1950, it changed its name to The Jerusalem Post. In 2004, the paper was bought by Mirkaei Tikshoret, a diversified Israeli media firm controlled by investor Eli Azur. In April 2014, Azur acquired the newspaper Maariv. The newspaper is published in English and French editions.

Formerly regarded as left-wing, the paper underwent a noticeable shift to the right in the late 1980s. From 2004, under then editor-in-chief David Horovitz, the paper took a more centrist position, competing against the staunchly left-liberal Haaretz. Its former editor Steve Linde aimed to provide balanced coverage of the news along with views from across the political spectrum. In April 2016, Linde stepped down as editor-in-chief and was replaced by Yaakov Katz, a former military reporter for the paper who previously served as an adviser to Education and Diaspora Affairs Minister Naftali Bennett.

Tom Segev

Tom Segev (Hebrew: תום שגב‎; born March 1, 1945) is an Israeli historian, author and journalist. He is associated with Israel's New Historians, a group challenging many of the country's traditional narratives.

Women in Israel

Women in Israel are women who live in or who are from the State of Israel, established in 1948. Israel does not have a constitution, but the Israeli Declaration of Independence states: “The State of Israel (…) will ensure complete equality of social and political rights to all its inhabitants irrespective of religion, race or sex.”

Israeli law prohibits discrimination based on gender in employment and wages, and provides for class action suits; nonetheless, there are complaints of significant wage disparities between men and women. In 2012, Israel ranked eleventh out of 59 developed nations for participation of women in the workplace. In the same survey, Israel was ranked 24th for the proportion of women serving in executive positions.

Yisrael Beiteinu

Yisrael Beiteinu (Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל בֵּיתֵנוּ, lit. Israel Our Home) is a secularist and right-wing nationalist political party in Israel. The party's base was originally secular, Russian-speaking Israelis although support from this demographic is in decline. The party describes itself as "a national movement with the clear vision to follow in the bold path of Zev Jabotinsky", the founder of Revisionist Zionism. It has primarily represented immigrants from the former Soviet Union. Although it has attempted to expand its appeal to more established Israelis, it has not been successful. It takes a strong line towards the peace process and the integration of Israeli Arabs, characterized by its 2009 election slogan "No loyalty, no citizenship". Its main platform includes a recognition of the two-state solution, the creation of a Palestinian state that would include an exchange of some largely Arab-inhabited parts of Israel for largely Jewish-inhabited parts of the West Bank. The party maintains an anti-clerical mantle and encourages socio-economic opportunities for new immigrants, in conjunction with efforts to increase Jewish immigration. In the 2009 election the party won 15 seats, its most to date, making it the third largest party in the previous Knesset. In the 2015 election, the party won six seats.

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