HTML5

HTML 5 (formerly and commonly spelled HTML5[a]) is a software solution stack that defines the properties and behaviors of web page content by implementing a markup based pattern to it.

HTML 5 is the fifth and current major version of the HTML standard, and subsumes XHTML. It currently exists in two standardized forms: HTML 5.2 Recommendation[4] by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C, a broad coalition of organizations), intended primarily for Web content developers; and HTML Living Standard[5] by WHATWG (a small consortium of four browser vendors), intended primarily for browser developers, though it also exists in an abridged Web developer version.[6] There are minor conflicts between the two groups' specifications.

HTML 5 was first released in public-facing form on 22 January 2008,[7] with a major update and "W3C Recommendation" status in October 2014.[2][8] Its goals are to improve the language with support for the latest multimedia and other new features; to keep the language both easily readable by humans and consistently understood by computers and devices such as Web browsers, parsers, etc., without XHTML's rigidity; and to remain backward-compatible with older software. HTML 5 is intended to subsume not only HTML 4, but also XHTML 1 and DOM Level 2 HTML;[9] the HTML 4 and XHTML specs were announced as superseded by HTML 5.2 on 27 March 2018.[10]

HTML 5 includes detailed processing models to encourage more interoperable implementations; it extends, improves and rationalizes the markup available for documents, and introduces markup and application programming interfaces (APIs) for complex web applications.[11] For the same reasons, HTML 5 is also a candidate for cross-platform mobile applications, because it includes features designed with low-powered devices in mind.

Many new syntactic features are included. To natively include and handle multimedia and graphical content, the new <video>, <audio> and <canvas> elements were added, and support for scalable vector graphics (SVG) content and MathML for mathematical formulas. To enrich the semantic content of documents, new page structure elements such as <main>, <section>, <article>, <header>, <footer>, <aside>, <nav>, and <figure> are added. New attributes are introduced, some elements and attributes have been removed, and others such as <a />, <cite>, and <menu> have been changed, redefined, or standardized.

The APIs and Document Object Model (DOM) are now fundamental parts of the HTML 5 specification[11] and HTML 5 also better defines the processing for any invalid documents.[12]

HTML 5
(HyperText Markup Language)
HTML5 logo and wordmark
Filename extension.html, .htm
Internet media typetext/html
Type codeTEXT
Uniform Type Identifier (UTI)public.html[1]
Initial release28 October 2014[2]
Extended toXHTML 5 (XML-serialized HTML 5)
StandardHTML 5.2 Recommendation (W3C); HTML Living Standard (WHATWG)
Open format?Yes
XHTML 5
(XHTML Syntax of HTML 5)
Filename extension.xhtml, .html, .htm
Internet media typeapplication/xml, application/xhtml+xml
Developed byWorld Wide Web Consortium and WHATWG
Type of formatMarkup language
Extended fromXML, HTML 5
StandardHTML 5.2 Recommendation: "The XHTML Syntax"
Open format?Yes

History

The Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG) began work on the new standard in 2004. At that time, HTML 4.01 had not been updated since 2000,[13] and the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) was focusing future developments on XHTML 2.0. In 2009, the W3C allowed the XHTML 2.0 Working Group's charter to expire and decided not to renew it.[14]

The Mozilla Foundation and Opera Software presented a position paper at a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) workshop in June 2004,[15] focusing on developing technologies that are backward-compatible with existing browsers,[16] including an initial draft specification of Web Forms 2.0. The workshop concluded with a vote—8 for, 14 against—for continuing work on HTML.[17] Immediately after the workshop, WHATWG was formed to start work based upon that position paper, and a second draft, Web Applications 1.0, was also announced.[18] The two specifications were later merged to form HTML 5.[19] The HTML 5 specification was adopted as the starting point of the work of the new HTML working group of the W3C in 2007.

WHATWG's Ian Hickson (Google) and David Hyatt (Apple) produced W3C's first public working draft of the specification on 22 January 2008.[7]

"Thoughts on Flash"

While some features of HTML 5 are often compared to Adobe Flash, the two technologies are very different. Both include features for playing audio and video within web pages, and for using Scalable Vector Graphics. However, HTML 5 on its own cannot be used for animation or interactivity – it must be supplemented with CSS3 or JavaScript. There are many Flash capabilities that have no direct counterpart in HTML 5 (see Comparison of HTML5 and Flash). HTML 5's interactive capabilities became a topic of mainstream media attention around April 2010[20][21][22][23] after Apple Inc.'s then-CEO Steve Jobs issued a public letter titled "Thoughts on Flash" in which he concluded that "Flash is no longer necessary to watch video or consume any kind of web content" and that "new open standards created in the mobile era, such as HTML5, will win".[24] This sparked a debate in web development circles suggesting that, while HTML 5 provides enhanced functionality, developers must consider the varying browser support of the different parts of the standard as well as other functionality differences between HTML 5 and Flash.[25] In early November 2011, Adobe announced that it would discontinue development of Flash for mobile devices and reorient its efforts in developing tools using HTML 5.[26] On July 25, 2017, Adobe announced that both the distribution and support of Flash will cease by the end of 2020.[27]

Last call, candidacy, and recommendation stages

On 14 February 2011, the W3C extended the charter of its HTML Working Group with clear milestones for HTML 5. In May 2011, the working group advanced HTML 5 to "Last Call", an invitation to communities inside and outside W3C to confirm the technical soundness of the specification. The W3C developed a comprehensive test suite to achieve broad interoperability for the full specification by 2014, which was the target date for recommendation.[28] In January 2011, the WHATWG renamed its "HTML5" specification HTML Living Standard. The W3C nevertheless continued its project to release HTML 5.[29]

In July 2012, WHATWG and W3C decided on a degree of separation. W3C will continue the HTML 5 specification work, focusing on a single definitive standard, which is considered as a "snapshot" by WHATWG. The WHATWG organization continues its work with HTML 5 as a "living standard". The concept of a living standard is that it is never complete and is always being updated and improved. New features can be added but functionality will not be removed.[30]

In December 2012, W3C designated HTML 5 as a Candidate Recommendation.[31] The criterion for advancement to W3C Recommendation is "two 100% complete and fully interoperable implementations".[32]

On 16 September 2014, W3C moved HTML 5 to Proposed Recommendation.[33] On 28 October 2014, HTML 5 was released as a W3C Recommendation,[34] bringing the specification process to completion.[2] On 1 November 2016, HTML 5.1 was released as a W3C Recommendation.[35] On 14 December 2017, HTML 5.2 was released as a W3C Recommendation.[36]

Timeline

The combined timelines for HTML 5.0, HTML 5.1 and HTML 5.2:

Version First draft Candidate recommendation Recommendation
HTML 5.0 2007[37] 2012 2014
HTML 5.1 2012 2015 2016
HTML 5.2[38] 2015 2017 2017
HTML 5.3[39] 2017 N/A N/A

W3C and WHATWG conflict

W3C and WHATWG have been characterized as both working together on the development of HTML 5,[14] and yet also at cross purposes[30][2] ever since the July 2012 split of the W3C work into milestone-based static standards and WHATWG's into a continually updated "living standard". The relationship has been described as "fragile", even a "rift",[40] and characterized by "squabbling".[2]

In at least one case, namely the permissible content of the <cite> element, the two specifications directly contradict each other (as of July 2018), with the W3C definition being permissive and reflecting traditional use of the element since its introduction,[41] but WHATWG limiting it to a single defined type of content (the title of the work cited).[42] This is actually at odds with WHATWG's stated goals of ensuring backward compatibility[43] and not losing prior functionality.[30]

The "Introduction" section in the WHATWG spec (edited by Ian "Hixie" Hickson) is critical of W3C, e.g. "Note: Although we have asked them to stop doing so, the W3C also republishes some parts of this specification as separate documents." In its "History" subsection it portrays W3C as resistant to Hickson's and WHATWG's original HTML 5 plans, then jumping on the bandwagon belatedly (though Hickson was in control of the W3C HTML 5 spec, too). Regardless, it indicates a major philosophical divide between the organizations:[44]

For a number of years, both groups then worked together. In 2011, however, the groups came to the conclusion that they had different goals: the W3C wanted to publish a "finished" version of "HTML5", while the WHATWG wanted to continue working on a Living Standard for HTML, continuously maintaining the specification rather than freezing it in a state with known problems, and adding new features as needed to evolve the platform.

Since then, the WHATWG has been working on this specification (amongst others), and the W3C has been copying fixes made by the WHATWG into their fork of the document (which also has other changes).

The "markets" for the two specifications are largely different. The W3C spec is the one that Web developers most often refer to, while the WHATWG version is used by the software development teams of the browser makers (though a version exists for Web content authors, trimmed of the material only of interest to browser coders[6]). New features are added to HTML and, often experimentally, to browsers long before they appear in a W3C spec, because they arise in the WHATWG one.[40] The technology journal Ars Technica observed that "both groups are likely to continue to exist, and both groups will continue to have broad-based industry backing".[2]

Differences between the two standards

In addition to the contradiction in the <cite> element mentioned above, other differences between the two standards include at least the following, as of September 2018:

Content or Features Unique to W3C or WHATWG Standard
W3C[45] WHATWG[46]
Site pagination Single page version[47] (allows global search of contents)
Chapters §5 Microdata[48]

§9 Communication[49]

§10 Web workers[50]

§11 Web storage[51]

Global attributes [52]: class, id [53]: autocapitalize, enterkeyhint, inputmode, is, itemid, itemprop, itemref, itemscope, itemtype, nonce
Chapter Elements of HTML §4.13 Custom elements[54]
Elements <rb>[55], <rtc>[56] (See compatibility notes below.)

<address>[57] is in section Grouping content.

<hgroup>[58], <menu>[59], <slot>[60] (See compatibility notes below.)

<address>[61] is in section Sections.

§ <meta> §4.2.5.4. Other pragma directives[62], based on deprecated WHATWG procedure[63].
§ Sections § 4.3.11.2 Sample outlines[64]

§ 4.3.11.3 Exposing outlines to users[65]

Structured data Recommends RDFa (code examples[66][57][67], separate specs[68][69], no special attributes[52]). Recommends Microdata (code examples[70][71][72][73], spec chapter[48], special attributes[53]).

The following table provides data from the Mozilla Development Network on compatibility with major browsers, as of September 2018, of HTML elements unique to one of the standards:

Element Standard Compatibility Note
<rb>[74] W3C All browsers, except Edge
<rtc>[75] W3C None, except Firefox
<hgroup>[76] WHATWG All browsers "[Since] the HTML outline algorithm is not implemented in any browsers ... the <hgroup> semantics are in practice only theoretical."
<menu>[77] WHATWG Full support only in Edge and Firefox desktop.

Partial support in Firefox mobile.

Supported in Opera with user opt-in.

Not supported in other browsers.

Experimental technology
<slot>[78] WHATWG All browsers, except Edge and IE Experimental technology

Features and APIs

The W3C proposed a greater reliance on modularity as a key part of the plan to make faster progress, meaning identifying specific features, either proposed or already existing in the spec, and advancing them as separate specifications. Some technologies that were originally defined in HTML 5 itself are now defined in separate specifications:

  • HTML Working Group – HTML Canvas 2D Context;
  • Web Apps Working Group – Web Messaging, Web workers, Web storage, WebSocket, Server-sent events, Web Components[79] (this was not part of HTML 5, though); the Web Applications Working Group was closed in October 2015 and its deliverables transferred to the Web Platform Working Group (WPWG).
  • IETF HyBi Working Group – WebSocket Protocol;
  • WebRTC Working Group – WebRTC;
  • Web Media Text Tracks Community Group – WebVTT.

After the standardization of the HTML 5 specification in October 2014,[80] the core vocabulary and features are being extended in four ways.[81] Likewise, some features that were removed from the original HTML 5 specification have been standardized separately as modules, such as Microdata and Canvas. Technical specifications introduced as HTML 5 extensions such as Polyglot Markup have also been standardized as modules. Some W3C specifications that were originally separate specifications have been adapted as HTML 5 extensions or features, such as SVG. Some features that might have slowed down the standardization of HTML 5 will be standardized as upcoming specifications, instead. HTML 5.1 is expected to be finalized in 2016, and it is currently on the standardization track at the W3C.

Features

Markup

HTML 5 introduces elements and attributes that reflect typical usage on modern websites. Some of them are semantic replacements for common uses of generic block (<div>) and inline (<span>) elements, for example <nav> (website navigation block), <footer> (usually referring to bottom of web page or to last lines of HTML code), or <audio> and <video> instead of <object>.[82][83][84] Some deprecated elements from HTML 4.01 have been dropped, including purely presentational elements such as <font> and <center>, whose effects have long been superseded by the more capable Cascading Style Sheets.[85] There is also a renewed emphasis on the importance of DOM scripting in Web behavior.

The HTML 5 syntax is no longer based on SGML[86][87] despite the similarity of its markup. It has, however, been designed to be backward-compatible with common parsing of older versions of HTML. It comes with a new introductory line that looks like an SGML document type declaration, <!DOCTYPE html>, which triggers the standards-compliant rendering mode.[88] Since 5 January 2009, HTML 5 also includes Web Forms 2.0, a previously separate WHATWG specification.[89][90]

New APIs

HTML5 APIs and related technologies taxonomy and status
HTML5 related APIs[91]

In addition to specifying markup, HTML 5 specifies scripting application programming interfaces (APIs) that can be used with JavaScript.[92] Existing Document Object Model (DOM) interfaces are extended and de facto features documented. There are also new APIs, such as:

Not all of the above technologies are included in the W3C HTML 5 specification, though they are in the WHATWG HTML specification.[104] Some related technologies, which are not part of either the W3C HTML 5 or the WHATWG HTML specification, are as follows. The W3C publishes specifications for these separately:

HTML 5 cannot provide animation within web pages. Additional JavaScript or CSS3 is necessary for animating HTML elements. Animation is also possible using JavaScript and HTML 4[115], and within SVG elements through SMIL, although browser support of the latter remains uneven as of 2011.

XHTML 5 (XML-serialized HTML 5)

XML documents must be served with an XML Internet media type (often called "MIME type") such as application/xhtml+xml or application/xml,[92] and must conform to strict, well-formed syntax of XML. XHTML 5 is simply XML-serialized HTML 5 data (that is, HTML 5 constrained to XHTML's strict requirements, e.g., not having any unclosed tags), sent with one of XML media types. HTML that has been written to conform to both the HTML and XHTML specifications  and which will therefore produce the same DOM tree whether parsed as HTML or XML is known as Polyglot markup[116]

Error handling

HTML 5 is designed so that old browsers can safely ignore new HTML 5 constructs.[11] In contrast to HTML 4.01, the HTML 5 specification gives detailed rules for lexing and parsing, with the intent that compliant browsers will produce the same results when parsing incorrect syntax.[117] Although HTML 5 now defines a consistent behavior for "tag soup" documents, those documents are not regarded as conforming to the HTML 5 standard.[117]

Popularity

According to a report released on 30 September 2011, 34 of the world's top 100 Web sites were using HTML 5 – the adoption led by search engines and social networks.[118] Another report released in August 2013 has shown that 153 of the Fortune 500 U.S. companies implemented HTML5 on their corporate websites.[119]

Since 2014, HTML 5 is at least partially supported by most popular layout engines.

Differences from HTML 4.01 and XHTML 1.x

The following is a cursory list of differences and some specific examples.

  • New parsing rules: oriented towards flexible parsing and compatibility; not based on SGML
  • Ability to use inline SVG and MathML in text/html
  • New elements: article, aside, audio, bdi, canvas, command, data, datalist, details, embed, figcaption, figure, footer, header, keygen, mark, meter, nav, output, progress, rp, rt, ruby, section, source, summary, time, track, video, wbr
  • New types of form controls: dates and times, email, url, search, number, range, tel, color[120]
  • New attributes: charset (on meta), async (on script)
  • Global attributes (that can be applied for every element): id, tabindex, hidden, data-* (custom data attributes)
  • Deprecated elements will be dropped altogether: acronym, applet, basefont, big, center, dir, font, frame, frameset, isindex, noframes, strike, tt

W3C Working Group publishes "HTML5 differences from HTML 4",[121] which provides a complete outline of additions, removals and changes between HTML 5 and HTML 4.

HTML5 logo and wordmark
The W3C HTML5 logo

On 18 January 2011, the W3C introduced a logo to represent the use of or interest in HTML 5. Unlike other badges previously issued by the W3C, it does not imply validity or conformance to a certain standard. As of 1 April 2011, this logo is official.[122]

When initially presenting it to the public, the W3C announced the HTML 5 logo as a "general-purpose visual identity for a broad set of open web technologies, including HTML 5, CSS, SVG, WOFF, and others".[123] Some web standard advocates, including The Web Standards Project, criticized that definition of "HTML5" as an umbrella term, pointing out the blurring of terminology and the potential for miscommunication.[123] Three days later, the W3C responded to community feedback and changed the logo's definition, dropping the enumeration of related technologies.[124] The W3C then said the logo "represents HTML5, the cornerstone for modern Web applications".[122]

Digital rights management

Industry players including the BBC, Google, Microsoft, Apple Inc. have been lobbying for the inclusion of Encrypted Media Extensions (EME),[125][126][127][128][129] a form of digital rights management (DRM), into the HTML 5 standard. As of the end of 2012 and the beginning of 2013, 27 organisations[130] including the Free Software Foundation[131] have started a campaign against including digital rights management in the HTML 5 standard.[132][133] However, in late September 2013, the W3C HTML Working Group decided that Encrypted Media Extensions, a form of DRM, was "in scope" and will potentially be included in the HTML 5.1 standard.[134][135] WHATWG's "HTML Living Standard" continued to be developed without DRM-enabled proposals.[135]

Manu Sporny, a member of the W3C, said that EME will not solve the problem it's supposed to address.[136] Opponents point out that EME itself is just an architecture for a DRM plug-in mechanism.[137]

The initial enablers for DRM in HTML 5 were Google[138] and Microsoft.[139] Supporters also include Adobe.[140] On 14 May 2014, Mozilla announced plans to support EME in Firefox, the last major browser to avoid DRM.[141][142] Calling it "a difficult and uncomfortable step", Andreas Gal of Mozilla explained that future versions of Firefox would remain open source but ship with a sandbox designed to run a content decryption module developed by Adobe.[141] While promising to "work on alternative solutions", Mozilla's Executive Chair Mitchell Baker stated that a refusal to implement EME would have accomplished little more than convincing many users to switch browsers.[142] This decision was condemned by Cory Doctorow and the Free Software Foundation.[143][144]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ In early W3C recommendations, there was no space between "HTML" and "5" in the name.[3] This has not been the case since HTML 5.1; the current specification is named HTML 5.2 W3C Recommendation, and "HTML5" does not appear in it.[4] WHATWG had also used the "HTML5" spelling, but their specification is now named HTML Living Standard, and they have abandoned version numbering.[5]

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External links

Adobe Flash

Adobe Flash is a deprecated multimedia software platform used for production of animations, rich Internet applications, desktop applications, mobile applications, mobile games and embedded web browser video players. Flash displays text, vector graphics and raster graphics to provide animations, video games and applications. It allows streaming of audio and video, and can capture mouse, keyboard, microphone and camera input. Related development platform Adobe AIR continues to be supported.

Artists may produce Flash graphics and animations using Adobe Animate. Software developers may produce applications and video games using Adobe Flash Builder, FlashDevelop, Flash Catalyst, or any text editor when used with the Apache Flex SDK.

End-users can view Flash content via Flash Player (for web browsers), AIR (for desktop or mobile apps) or third-party players such as Scaleform (for video games). Adobe Flash Player (supported on Microsoft Windows, macOS and Linux) enables end-users to view Flash content using web browsers. Adobe Flash Lite enabled viewing Flash content on older smartphones, but has been discontinued and superseded by Adobe AIR.

The ActionScript programming language allows the development of interactive animations, video games, web applications, desktop applications and mobile applications. Programmers can implement Flash software using an IDE such as Adobe Animate, Adobe Flash Builder, Adobe Director, FlashDevelop and Powerflasher FDT. Adobe AIR enables full-featured desktop and mobile applications to be developed with Flash and published for Windows, macOS, Android, iOS, Xbox One, PlayStation 4, Nintendo Wii U, and Switch.

Although Flash was previously a dominant platform for online multimedia content, it is slowly being abandoned as Adobe favors a transition to HTML5. Flash Player has been deprecated and has an official end-of-life at the end of 2020. However, Adobe will continue to develop Adobe AIR, a related technology for building stand-alone applications and games.

Canvas element

The canvas element is part of HTML5 and allows for dynamic, scriptable rendering of 2D shapes and bitmap images. It is a low level, procedural model that updates a bitmap and does not have a built-in scene graph; however through WebGL allows 3D shapes and images and so-on.

Comparison of browser engines (HTML support)

This article compares HTML support for several browser engines.

Support for the many new additions of the current HTML5 standard is in its own section after the items that preceded it in the history of HTML.

Encrypted Media Extensions

Encrypted Media Extensions (EME) is a W3C specification for providing a communication channel between web browsers and digital rights management (DRM) agent software. This allows the use of HTML5 video to play back DRM-wrapped content such as streaming video services without the use of heavy third-party media plugins like Adobe Flash or Microsoft Silverlight. The use of a third-party key management system may be required, depending on whether the publisher chooses to scramble the keys.

EME is based on the HTML5 Media Source Extensions specification, which enables adaptive bitrate streaming in HTML5 using e.g. MPEG-DASH with MPEG-CENC protected content.EME has been highly controversial because it places a necessarily proprietary, closed component into what might otherwise be an entirely open and free software ecosystem. On July 6th, 2017, W3C publicly announced its intention to publish EME web standard, and did so on September 18th. On the same day, the Electronic Frontier Foundation published an open letter resigning from W3C.

Google Chrome Experiments

Google Chrome Experiments is an online showroom of web browser based experiments, interactive programs, and artistic projects. Launched in March 2009, Chrome Experiments is an official Google website that was originally meant to test the limits of JavaScript and the Google Chrome browser's performance and abilities. As the project progressed, it took the role of showcasing and experimenting latest open-source web-based technologies, such as JavaScript, HTML5, WebGL, Canvas, SVG, CSS, and some others. All the projects on Chrome experiments are user submitted and are made using open source technologies. As of February 24, 2015, there were 1000 different Chrome projects posted on the website.

Google Swiffy

Google Swiffy was a web-based tool developed by Google that converted SWF files to HTML5. Its main goal was to display Flash contents on devices that do not support Flash, such as iPhone, iPad, and Android Tablets. Swiffy was shut down July 1, 2016.

HTML

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the standard markup language for creating web pages and web applications. With Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) and JavaScript, it forms a triad of cornerstone technologies for the World Wide Web.Web browsers receive HTML documents from a web server or from local storage and render the documents into multimedia web pages. HTML describes the structure of a web page semantically and originally included cues for the appearance of the document.

HTML elements are the building blocks of HTML pages. With HTML constructs, images and other objects such as interactive forms may be embedded into the rendered page. HTML provides a means to create structured documents by denoting structural semantics for text such as headings, paragraphs, lists, links, quotes and other items. HTML elements are delineated by tags, written using angle brackets. Tags such as and directly introduce content into the page. Other tags such as

surround and provide information about document text and may include other tags as sub-elements. Browsers do not display the HTML tags, but use them to interpret the content of the page.

HTML can embed programs written in a scripting language such as JavaScript, which affects the behavior and content of web pages. Inclusion of CSS defines the look and layout of content. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), maintainer of both the HTML and the CSS standards, has encouraged the use of CSS over explicit presentational HTML since 1997.

HTML5 audio

HTML5 Audio is a subject of the HTML5 specification, incorporating audio input, playback, and synthesis, as well as speech to text, in the browser.

HTML5 in mobile devices

In mobile devices, HTML5 is often used for mobile websites and mobile applications on mobile operating systems such as Firefox OS, Sailfish OS, Tizen and Ubuntu Touch.

HTML5 video

The HTML5 specification introduced the video element for the purpose of playing videos, partially replacing the object element. HTML5 video is intended by its creators to become the new standard way to show video on the web, instead of the previous de facto standard of using the proprietary Adobe Flash plugin, though early adoption was hampered by lack of agreement as to which video coding formats and audio coding formats should be supported in web browsers.

HTML element

An HTML element is an individual component of an HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) document or web page. HTML is composed of a tree of HTML nodes, such as text nodes. Each node can have HTML attributes specified. Nodes can also have content, including other nodes and text. Many HTML nodes represent semantics, or meaning. For example, the node represents the title of the document.</p> <a class="hlinks" href="/i-en/Media_Source_Extensions">Media Source Extensions</a> <p>Media Source Extensions (MSE) is a W3C specification that allows JavaScript to send byte streams to media codecs within Web browsers that support HTML 5 video and audio. Among other possible uses, this allows the implementation of client-side prefetching and buffering code for streaming media entirely in JavaScript. It is compatible with, but should not be confused with, the Encrypted Media Extensions specification, and neither requires the use of the other.</p><p>Netflix announced experimental support in June 2014 for the use of MSE playback on the Safari browser on the OS X Yosemite beta release.YouTube started using MSE with its HTML 5 player in September 2013.</p> <a class="hlinks" href="/i-en/Microdata_(HTML)">Microdata (HTML)</a> <p>Microdata is a WHATWG HTML specification used to nest metadata within existing content on web pages. Search engines, web crawlers, and browsers can extract and process Microdata from a web page and use it to provide a richer browsing experience for users. Search engines benefit greatly from direct access to this structured data because it allows them to understand the information on web pages and provide more relevant results to users. Microdata uses a supporting vocabulary to describe an item and name-value pairs to assign values to its properties. Microdata is an attempt to provide a simpler way of annotating HTML elements with machine-readable tags than the similar approaches of using RDFa and microformats.</p><p>In 2013, because the W3C HTML Working Group failed to find someone to serve as an editor for the Microdata HTML specification, its development was terminated with a 'Note'. However, since that time, two new editors were selected, and five newer versions of the working draft have been published, the most recent being W3C Working Draft 26 April 2018.</p> <a class="hlinks" href="/i-en/Rich_web_application">Rich web application</a> <p>A rich web application (originally called a Rich Internet Application RIA or Installable Internet Application) is a Web application that has many of the characteristics of desktop application software, typically delivered by way of a site-specific browser, a browser plug-in, an independent sandbox, extensive use of JavaScript, or a virtual machine. The concept is closely related to a single-page application, and may allow the user interactive features such as drag and drop, background menu, WYSIWYG editing, etc. HTML5 is a current standard for delivering rich web applications, supported by all major browsers.</p> <a class="hlinks" href="/i-en/WHATWG">WHATWG</a> <p>The Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG) is a community of people interested in evolving HTML and related technologies. The WHATWG was founded by individuals from Apple Inc., the Mozilla Foundation and Opera Software, leading Web browser vendors, in 2004. Since then, the editor of the WHATWG specifications, Ian Hickson (originally with Opera), has moved to Google.</p><p>The central organizational membership and control of WHATWG today – its "Steering Group" – consists of Apple, Mozilla, Google, and Microsoft. WHATWG has a small, invitation-only oversight committee called "Members", which has the power to impeach the editor of the specifications. Anyone can participate as a "Contributor" by joining the WHATWG mailing list.</p> <a class="hlinks" href="/i-en/WebM">WebM</a> <p>WebM is an audiovisual media file format.</p><p>It is primarily intended to offer a royalty-free alternative to use in the HTML5 video and the HTML5 audio elements. It has a sister project WebP for images. The development of the format is sponsored by Google, and the corresponding software is distributed under a BSD license.</p><p>The WebM container is based on a profile of Matroska. WebM initially supported VP8 video and Vorbis audio streams. In 2013, it was updated to accommodate VP9 video and Opus audio.</p> <a class="hlinks" href="/i-en/WebSocket">WebSocket</a> <p>WebSocket is a computer communications protocol, providing full-duplex communication channels over a single TCP connection. The WebSocket protocol was standardized by the IETF as RFC 6455 in 2011, and the WebSocket API in Web IDL is being standardized by the W3C.</p><p>WebSocket is distinct from HTTP. Both protocols are located at layer 7 in the OSI model and depend on TCP at layer 4. Although they are different, RFC 6455 states that WebSocket "is designed to work over HTTP ports 80 and 443 as well as to support HTTP proxies and intermediaries," thus making it compatible with the HTTP protocol. To achieve compatibility, the WebSocket handshake uses the HTTP Upgrade header to change from the HTTP protocol to the WebSocket protocol.</p><p>The WebSocket protocol enables interaction between a web browser (or other client application) and a web server with lower overhead than half-duplex alternatives such as HTTP polling, facilitating real-time data transfer from and to the server. This is made possible by providing a standardized way for the server to send content to the client without being first requested by the client, and allowing messages to be passed back and forth while keeping the connection open. In this way, a two-way ongoing conversation can take place between the client and the server. The communications are done over TCP port number 80 (or 443 in the case of TLS-encrypted connections), which is of benefit for those environments which block non-web Internet connections using a firewall. Similar two-way browser-server communications have been achieved in non-standardized ways using stopgap technologies such as Comet.</p><p>Most browsers support the protocol, including Google Chrome, Microsoft Edge, Internet Explorer, Firefox, Safari and Opera.</p> <a class="hlinks" href="/i-en/Web_storage">Web storage</a> <p>Web storage, sometimes known as DOM storage (Document Object Model storage), provides web application software methods and protocols used for storing data in a web browser. Web storage supports persistent data storage, similar to cookies but with a greatly enhanced capacity and no information stored in the HTTP request header. There are two main web storage types: local storage and session storage, behaving similarly to persistent cookies and session cookies respectively.</p><p>All major browsers support Web storage, which is standardized by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).</p> <a class="hlinks" href="/i-en/XHTML">XHTML</a> <p>eXtensible HyperText Markup Language (XHTML) is part of the family of XML markup languages. It mirrors or extends versions of the widely used HyperText Markup Language (HTML), the language in which Web pages are formulated.</p><p>While HTML, prior to HTML5, was defined as an application of Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), a flexible markup language framework, XHTML is an application of XML, a more restrictive subset of SGML. XHTML documents are well-formed and may therefore be parsed using standard XML parsers, unlike HTML, which requires a lenient HTML-specific parser.XHTML 1.0 became a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) recommendation on January 26, 2000. XHTML 1.1 became a W3C recommendation on May 31, 2001. The standard known as XHTML5 is being developed as an XML adaptation of the HTML5 specification.</p><table class='howl-table'><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><div id="Web_browsers" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em"><a href="/i-en/Web_browser" title="Web browser" class="hlinks">Web browsers</a></div></th></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="fit"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><div id="Features_·_standards_·_protocols" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em">Features <b>·</b> standards <b>·</b> protocols</div></th></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="fit"><tbody><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:10em">Features</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <ul><li><a href="/i-en/Bookmark_(digital)" title="Bookmark (digital)" class="hlinks">Bookmarks</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Browser_extension" title="Browser extension" class="hlinks">Extensions</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Private_browsing" title="Private browsing" class="hlinks">Privacy mode</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Browser_synchronization" title="Browser synchronization" class="hlinks">Sync</a></li></ul> </div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:10em">Web standards</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <ul><li><a href="/i-en/HTML" title="HTML" class="hlinks">HTML</a> <ul><li>v5</li></ul></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Cascading_Style_Sheets" title="Cascading Style Sheets" class="hlinks">CSS</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Document_Object_Model" title="Document Object Model" class="hlinks">DOM</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/JavaScript" title="JavaScript" class="hlinks">JavaScript</a> <ul><li><a href="/i-en/Indexed_Database_API" title="Indexed Database API" class="hlinks">IndexedDB</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Web_storage" title="Web storage" class="hlinks">Web storage</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/WebAssembly" title="WebAssembly" class="hlinks">WebAssembly</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/WebGL" title="WebGL" class="hlinks">WebGL</a></li></ul></li></ul> </div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:10em">Protocols</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <ul><li><a href="/i-en/Hypertext_Transfer_Protocol" title="Hypertext Transfer Protocol" class="hlinks">HTTP</a> <ul><li><a href="/i-en/HTTP/2" title="HTTP/2" class="hlinks">v2</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/HTTP/3" title="HTTP/3" class="hlinks">v3</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/HTTP_cookie" title="HTTP cookie" class="hlinks">Cookies</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/HTTPS" title="HTTPS" class="hlinks">Encryption</a></li></ul></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Online_Certificate_Status_Protocol" title="Online Certificate Status Protocol" class="hlinks">OCSP</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/WebRTC" title="WebRTC" class="hlinks">WebRTC</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/WebSocket" title="WebSocket" class="hlinks">WebSocket</a></li></ul> </div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="fit"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><div id="Active" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em">Active</div></th></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="fit"><tbody><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:10em"><a href="/i-en/Blink_(browser_engine)" title="Blink (browser engine)" class="hlinks">Blink</a>-based</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <ul><li><a href="/i-en/Avast_Secure_Browser" title="Avast Secure Browser" class="hlinks">Avast Secure Browser</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Brave_(web_browser)" title="Brave (web browser)" class="hlinks">Brave</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Blisk_(browser)" title="Blisk (browser)" class="hlinks">Blisk</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Google_Chrome" title="Google Chrome" class="hlinks">Chrome</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Chromium_(web_browser)" title="Chromium (web browser)" class="hlinks">Chromium</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/C%E1%BB%91c_C%E1%BB%91c" title="Cốc Cốc" class="hlinks">Coc Coc</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Comodo_Dragon" title="Comodo Dragon" class="hlinks">Dragon</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Epic_(web_browser)" title="Epic (web browser)" class="hlinks">Epic</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Falkon" title="Falkon" class="hlinks">Falkon</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Maxthon" title="Maxthon" class="hlinks">Maxthon</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Opera_(web_browser)" title="Opera (web browser)" class="hlinks">Opera</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Otter_Browser" title="Otter Browser" class="hlinks">Otter</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Puffin_Browser" title="Puffin Browser" class="hlinks">Puffin </a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/SalamWeb" title="SalamWeb" class="hlinks">SalamWeb</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Samsung_Internet_for_Android" class="hlinks" title="Samsung Internet for Android">Samsung Internet</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Sleipnir_(web_browser)" title="Sleipnir (web browser)" class="hlinks">Sleipnir</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Amazon_Silk" title="Amazon Silk" class="hlinks">Silk</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Sputnik_(search_engine)" title="Sputnik (search engine)" class="hlinks">Sputnik</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/SRWare_Iron" title="SRWare Iron" class="hlinks">SRWare</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Torch_(browser)" title="Torch (browser)" class="hlinks">Torch</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/UC_Browser" title="UC Browser" class="hlinks">UC</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Vivaldi_(web_browser)" title="Vivaldi (web browser)" class="hlinks">Vivaldi</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Naver_Whale" title="Naver Whale" class="hlinks">Whale</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Yandex_Browser" title="Yandex Browser" class="hlinks">Yandex</a></li></ul> </div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:10em"><a href="/i-en/Gecko_(software)" title="Gecko (software)" class="hlinks">Gecko</a>-based</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <ul><li><a href="/i-en/Firefox" title="Firefox" class="hlinks">Firefox</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/GNU_IceCat" title="GNU IceCat" class="hlinks">GNU IceCat</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Comodo_IceDragon" title="Comodo IceDragon" class="hlinks">IceDragon</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/K-Meleon" title="K-Meleon" class="hlinks">K-Meleon</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/SeaMonkey" title="SeaMonkey" class="hlinks">SeaMonkey</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/TenFourFox" title="TenFourFox" class="hlinks">TenFourFox</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Tor_Browser" class="hlinks" title="Tor Browser">Tor</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Waterfox" title="Waterfox" class="hlinks">Waterfox</a></li></ul> </div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:10em"><a href="/i-en/WebKit" title="WebKit" class="hlinks">WebKit</a>-based</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <ul><li><a href="/i-en/Dooble" title="Dooble" class="hlinks">Dooble</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Dolphin_Browser" title="Dolphin Browser" class="hlinks">Dolphin</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/GNOME_Web" title="GNOME Web" class="hlinks">GNOME Web</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/ICab" title="ICab" class="hlinks">iCab</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Konqueror" title="Konqueror" class="hlinks">Konqueror</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Midori_(web_browser)" title="Midori (web browser)" class="hlinks">Midori</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/OmniWeb" title="OmniWeb" class="hlinks">OmniWeb</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Safari_(web_browser)" title="Safari (web browser)" class="hlinks">Safari</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Surf_(web_browser)" title="Surf (web browser)" class="hlinks">surf</a></li></ul> </div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:10em">Other</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <ul><li><a href="/i-en/360_Secure_Browser" title="360 Secure Browser" class="hlinks">360</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Avant_Browser" title="Avant Browser" class="hlinks">Avant</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Basilisk_(web_browser)" title="Basilisk (web browser)" class="hlinks">Basilisk</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Beaker_(web_browser)" title="Beaker (web browser)" class="hlinks">Beaker</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Cheetah_Security_Browser" title="Cheetah Security Browser" class="hlinks">Cheetah Security Browser</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Microsoft_Edge" title="Microsoft Edge" class="hlinks">Edge</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Eww_(web_browser)" title="Eww (web browser)" class="hlinks">eww</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Internet_Explorer" title="Internet Explorer" class="hlinks">Internet Explorer</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Links_(web_browser)" title="Links (web browser)" class="hlinks">Links</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Lunascape" title="Lunascape" class="hlinks">Lunascape</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Lynx_(web_browser)" title="Lynx (web browser)" class="hlinks">Lynx</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/NetFront" title="NetFront" class="hlinks">NetFront</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/NetSurf" title="NetSurf" class="hlinks">NetSurf</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Pale_Moon_(web_browser)" title="Pale Moon (web browser)" class="hlinks">Pale Moon</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/QQ_browser" title="QQ browser" class="hlinks">QQ browser</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Qutebrowser" title="Qutebrowser" class="hlinks">qutebrowser</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/PirateBrowser" title="PirateBrowser" class="hlinks">PirateBrowser</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/SlimBrowser" title="SlimBrowser" class="hlinks">SlimBrowser</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/W3m" title="W3m" class="hlinks">w3m</a></li></ul> </div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="fit"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><div id="Discontinued" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em">Discontinued</div></th></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="fit"><tbody><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:10em"><a href="/i-en/Gecko_(software)" title="Gecko (software)" class="hlinks">Gecko</a>-based</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <ul><li><a href="/i-en/Beonex_Communicator" title="Beonex Communicator" class="hlinks">Beonex Communicator</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Camino_(web_browser)" title="Camino (web browser)" class="hlinks">Camino</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Classilla" title="Classilla" class="hlinks">Classilla</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Conkeror" title="Conkeror" class="hlinks">Conkeror</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Galeon" title="Galeon" class="hlinks">Galeon</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Ghostzilla" title="Ghostzilla" class="hlinks">Ghostzilla</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Kazehakase" title="Kazehakase" class="hlinks">Kazehakase</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Kylo_(web_browser)" title="Kylo (web browser)" class="hlinks">Kylo</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/IBM_Lotus_Symphony" title="IBM Lotus Symphony" class="hlinks">Lotus</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/MicroB" title="MicroB" class="hlinks">MicroB</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Minimo" title="Minimo" class="hlinks">Minimo</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Mozilla_Application_Suite" title="Mozilla Application Suite" class="hlinks">Mozilla suite</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/AT%26T_Pogo" title="AT&T Pogo" class="hlinks">Pogo</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Kirix_Strata" title="Kirix Strata" class="hlinks">Strata</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Swiftfox" title="Swiftfox" class="hlinks">Swiftfox</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Swiftweasel" title="Swiftweasel" class="hlinks">Swiftweasel</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Timberwolf_(web_browser)" title="Timberwolf (web browser)" class="hlinks">Timberwolf</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/XB_Browser" title="XB Browser" class="hlinks">xB</a></li></ul> </div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:10em"><a href="/i-en/Trident_(software)" title="Trident (software)" class="hlinks">Trident</a>-based</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <ul><li><a href="/i-en/AOL_Explorer" title="AOL Explorer" class="hlinks">AOL</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Deepnet_Explorer" title="Deepnet Explorer" class="hlinks">Deepnet</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/GreenBrowser" title="GreenBrowser" class="hlinks">GreenBrowser</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/MediaBrowser" title="MediaBrowser" class="hlinks">MediaBrowser</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/MenuBox" title="MenuBox" class="hlinks">MenuBox</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/NeoPlanet" title="NeoPlanet" class="hlinks">NeoPlanet</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/NetCaptor" title="NetCaptor" class="hlinks">NetCaptor</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/SpaceTime_(software)#SpaceTime_Browser" title="SpaceTime (software)" class="hlinks">SpaceTime</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/UltraBrowser" title="UltraBrowser" class="hlinks">UltraBrowser</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/WebbIE" title="WebbIE" class="hlinks">WebbIE</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/ZAC_Browser" title="ZAC Browser" class="hlinks">ZAC</a></li></ul> </div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:10em"><a href="/i-en/WebKit" title="WebKit" class="hlinks">WebKit</a>-based</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <ul><li><a href="/i-en/Arora_(web_browser)" title="Arora (web browser)" class="hlinks">Arora</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Bolt_(web_browser)" title="Bolt (web browser)" class="hlinks">BOLT</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Opera_Coast" title="Opera Coast" class="hlinks">Opera Coast</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Flock_(web_browser)" title="Flock (web browser)" class="hlinks">Flock</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Fluid_(web_browser)" title="Fluid (web browser)" class="hlinks">Fluid</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Google_TV" title="Google TV" class="hlinks">Google TV</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Iris_Browser" title="Iris Browser" class="hlinks">Iris</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Mercury_Browser" title="Mercury Browser" class="hlinks">Mercury</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Origyn_Web_Browser" title="Origyn Web Browser" class="hlinks">Origyn</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/QtWeb" title="QtWeb" class="hlinks">QtWeb</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Rekonq" title="Rekonq" class="hlinks">rekonq</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Rockmelt" title="Rockmelt" class="hlinks">Rockmelt</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Shiira" title="Shiira" class="hlinks">Shiira</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Steel_(web_browser)" title="Steel (web browser)" class="hlinks">Steel</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Nokia_Browser_for_Symbian" title="Nokia Browser for Symbian" class="hlinks">Browser for Symbian</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Uzbl" title="Uzbl" class="hlinks">Uzbl</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/WebPositive" title="WebPositive" class="hlinks">WebPositive</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Xombrero" title="Xombrero" class="hlinks">xombrero</a></li></ul> </div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:10em">Other</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <ul><li><a href="/i-en/Abaco_(web_browser)" title="Abaco (web browser)" class="hlinks">abaco</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Amaya_(web_editor)" title="Amaya (web editor)" class="hlinks">Amaya</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Arachne_(web_browser)" title="Arachne (web browser)" class="hlinks">Arachne</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Arena_(web_browser)" title="Arena (web browser)" class="hlinks">Arena</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Blazer_(web_browser)" title="Blazer (web browser)" class="hlinks">Blazer</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Charon_(web_browser)" title="Charon (web browser)" class="hlinks">Charon</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Microsoft_Live_Labs_Deepfish" title="Microsoft Live Labs Deepfish" class="hlinks">Deepfish</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Dillo" title="Dillo" class="hlinks">Dillo</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/ELinks" title="ELinks" class="hlinks">ELinks</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Gazelle_(web_browser)" title="Gazelle (web browser)" class="hlinks">Gazelle</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/HotJava" title="HotJava" class="hlinks">HotJava</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/IBM_Home_Page_Reader" title="IBM Home Page Reader" class="hlinks">IBM</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/IBrowse" title="IBrowse" class="hlinks">IBrowse</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/KidZui" title="KidZui" class="hlinks">KidZui</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Line_Mode_Browser" title="Line Mode Browser" class="hlinks">Line Mode</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Mosaic_(web_browser)" title="Mosaic (web browser)" class="hlinks">Mosaic</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/MSN_TV" title="MSN TV" class="hlinks">MSN TV</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/NetPositive" title="NetPositive" class="hlinks">NetPositive</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Netscape_(web_browser)" title="Netscape (web browser)" class="hlinks">Netscape</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Skweezer" title="Skweezer" class="hlinks">Skweezer</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Skyfire_(company)" title="Skyfire (company)" class="hlinks">Skyfire</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Teashark" title="Teashark" class="hlinks">Teashark</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/The_world_browser" title="The world browser" class="hlinks">The world browser</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/ThunderHawk" title="ThunderHawk" class="hlinks">ThunderHawk</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Vision_Mobile_Browser" title="Vision Mobile Browser" class="hlinks">Vision</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/WinWAP" title="WinWAP" class="hlinks">WinWAP</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/WorldWideWeb" title="WorldWideWeb" class="hlinks">WorldWideWeb</a></li></ul> </div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr><tr><td class="navbox-abovebelow" colspan="2"><div> <ul><li>Category</li> <li><a href="/i-en/Comparison_of_web_browsers" title="Comparison of web browsers" class="hlinks">Comparisons</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/List_of_web_browsers" title="List of web browsers" class="hlinks">List</a></li></ul> </div></td></tr></tbody></table><table class='howl-table'><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><div id="Rich_Internet_applications" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em"><a href="/i-en/Rich_Internet_application" class="hlinks" title="Rich Internet application">Rich Internet applications</a></div></th></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Basic frameworks</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <ul><li><a href="/i-en/Adobe_Flash" title="Adobe Flash" class="hlinks">Adobe Flash</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Apache_Flex" title="Apache Flex" class="hlinks">Apache Flex</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Apache_Pivot" title="Apache Pivot" class="hlinks">Apache Pivot</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Cappuccino_(application_development_framework)" title="Cappuccino (application development framework)" class="hlinks">Cappuccino</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Curl_(programming_language)" title="Curl (programming language)" class="hlinks">Curl</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Google_Web_Toolkit" title="Google Web Toolkit" class="hlinks">Google Web Toolkit</a></li> <li>HTML5</li> <li><a href="/i-en/JavaFX" title="JavaFX" class="hlinks">JavaFX</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/JVx_(Framework)" title="JVx (Framework)" class="hlinks">JVx</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Lively_Kernel" title="Lively Kernel" class="hlinks">Lively Kernel</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Moonlight_(runtime)" title="Moonlight (runtime)" class="hlinks">Moonlight</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Microsoft_Silverlight" title="Microsoft Silverlight" class="hlinks">Silverlight</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/OpenLaszlo" title="OpenLaszlo" class="hlinks">OpenLaszlo</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Qt_Quick" title="Qt Quick" class="hlinks">Qt Quick</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/SproutCore" title="SproutCore" class="hlinks">SproutCore</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/XULRunner" title="XULRunner" class="hlinks">XULRunner</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Meteor_(web_framework)" title="Meteor (web framework)" class="hlinks">Meteor</a></li></ul> </div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/i-en/Site-specific_browser" title="Site-specific browser" class="hlinks">Site-specific browsers</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <ul><li><a href="/i-en/Adobe_Integrated_Runtime" class="hlinks" title="Adobe Integrated Runtime">Adobe AIR</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Curl_(programming_language)" title="Curl (programming language)" class="hlinks">Curl</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Fluid_(web_browser)" title="Fluid (web browser)" class="hlinks">Fluid</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Gollum_browser" title="Gollum browser" class="hlinks">Gollum</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Google_Chrome" title="Google Chrome" class="hlinks">Google Chrome</a> <ul><li><a href="/i-en/Gears_(software)" title="Gears (software)" class="hlinks">Gears</a></li></ul></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Mozilla_Prism" title="Mozilla Prism" class="hlinks">Mozilla Prism</a></li></ul> </div></td></tr><tr><td class="navbox-abovebelow" colspan="2"><div> <ul><li><b><img alt="Category" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg/16px-Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg.png" decoding="async" title="Category" width="16" height="14" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg/24px-Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg/32px-Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="36" data-file-height="31"> Category</b></li> <li><b><img alt="List-Class article" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/d/db/Symbol_list_class.svg/16px-Symbol_list_class.svg.png" decoding="async" title="List-Class article" width="16" height="16" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/d/db/Symbol_list_class.svg/23px-Symbol_list_class.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/d/db/Symbol_list_class.svg/31px-Symbol_list_class.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="180" data-file-height="185"> <a href="/i-en/List_of_rich_Internet_application_frameworks" title="List of rich Internet application frameworks" class="hlinks">List of frameworks</a></b></li></ul> </div></td></tr></tbody></table><table class='howl-table'><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><div id="World_Wide_Web_Consortium_(W3C)" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em"><a href="/i-en/World_Wide_Web_Consortium" title="World Wide Web Consortium" class="hlinks">World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)</a></div></th></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Products and<br>standards</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="fit"><tbody><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/i-en/World_Wide_Web_Consortium#Specification_maturation" title="World Wide Web Consortium" class="hlinks">Recommendations</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <ul><li><a href="/i-en/ActivityPub" title="ActivityPub" class="hlinks">ActivityPub</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/WAI-ARIA" title="WAI-ARIA" class="hlinks">ARIA</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Canonical_XML" title="Canonical XML" class="hlinks">Canonical XML</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Compound_Document_Format" title="Compound Document Format" class="hlinks">CDF</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Cascading_Style_Sheets" title="Cascading Style Sheets" class="hlinks">CSS</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Document_Object_Model" title="Document Object Model" class="hlinks">DOM</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/W3C_Geolocation_API" title="W3C Geolocation API" class="hlinks">Geolocation API</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/HTML" title="HTML" class="hlinks">HTML</a> (HTML5)</li> <li><a href="/i-en/Internationalization_Tag_Set" title="Internationalization Tag Set" class="hlinks">ITS</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/JSON-LD" title="JSON-LD" class="hlinks">JSON-LD</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Linked_Data_Notifications" title="Linked Data Notifications" class="hlinks">Linked Data Notifications</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/MathML" title="MathML" class="hlinks">MathML</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Micropub_(protocol)" title="Micropub (protocol)" class="hlinks">Micropub</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Web_Ontology_Language" title="Web Ontology Language" class="hlinks">OWL</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/P3P" title="P3P" class="hlinks">P3P</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Pronunciation_Lexicon_Specification" title="Pronunciation Lexicon Specification" class="hlinks">PLS</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Resource_Description_Framework" title="Resource Description Framework" class="hlinks">RDF</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/RDF_Schema" title="RDF Schema" class="hlinks">RDF Schema</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Semantic_Interpretation_for_Speech_Recognition" title="Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition" class="hlinks">SISR</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Simple_Knowledge_Organization_System" title="Simple Knowledge Organization System" class="hlinks">SKOS</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Synchronized_Multimedia_Integration_Language" title="Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language" class="hlinks">SMIL</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/SOAP" title="SOAP" class="hlinks">SOAP</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Speech_Recognition_Grammar_Specification" title="Speech Recognition Grammar Specification" class="hlinks">SRGS</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Subresource_Integrity" title="Subresource Integrity" class="hlinks">SRI</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Speech_Synthesis_Markup_Language" title="Speech Synthesis Markup Language" class="hlinks">SSML</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Scalable_Vector_Graphics" title="Scalable Vector Graphics" class="hlinks">SVG</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/SCXML" title="SCXML" class="hlinks">SCXML</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/SHACL" title="SHACL" class="hlinks">SHACL</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/SPARQL" title="SPARQL" class="hlinks">SPARQL</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Timed_text" title="Timed text" class="hlinks">Timed text</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/VoiceXML" title="VoiceXML" class="hlinks">VoiceXML</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Web_storage" title="Web storage" class="hlinks">Web storage</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Web_Services_Description_Language" title="Web Services Description Language" class="hlinks">WSDL</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Webmention" title="Webmention" class="hlinks">Webmention</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/WebSub" title="WebSub" class="hlinks">WebSub</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/XForms" title="XForms" class="hlinks">XForms</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/XHTML" title="XHTML" class="hlinks">XHTML</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/XHTML%2BRDFa" title="XHTML+RDFa" class="hlinks">XHTML+RDFa</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/XInclude" title="XInclude" class="hlinks">XInclude</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/XLink" title="XLink" class="hlinks">XLink</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/XML" title="XML" class="hlinks">XML</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/XML_Base" title="XML Base" class="hlinks">XML Base</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/XML_Encryption" title="XML Encryption" class="hlinks">XML Encryption</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/XML_Events" title="XML Events" class="hlinks">XML Events</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/XML_Information_Set" title="XML Information Set" class="hlinks">XML Information Set</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/XML_namespace" title="XML namespace" class="hlinks">XML namespace</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/XML_Schema_(W3C)" title="XML Schema (W3C)" class="hlinks">XML Schema</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/XML_Signature" title="XML Signature" class="hlinks">XML Signature</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/XML-binary_Optimized_Packaging" title="XML-binary Optimized Packaging" class="hlinks">XOP</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/XPath" title="XPath" class="hlinks">XPath</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/XPath_2.0" title="XPath 2.0" class="hlinks">XPath 2.0</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/XPointer" title="XPointer" class="hlinks">XPointer</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/XProc" title="XProc" class="hlinks">XProc</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/XQuery" title="XQuery" class="hlinks">XQuery</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/XSL" title="XSL" class="hlinks">XSL</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/XSL_Formatting_Objects" title="XSL Formatting Objects" class="hlinks">XSL-FO</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/XSLT" title="XSLT" class="hlinks">XSLT</a> (<a href="/i-en/XSLT_elements" title="XSLT elements" class="hlinks">elements</a>)</li></ul> </div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Notes</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <ul><li><a href="/i-en/IndieAuth" title="IndieAuth" class="hlinks">IndieAuth</a></li> <li>JF2</li> <li>Post Type Discovery</li> <li><a href="/i-en/XAdES" title="XAdES" class="hlinks">XAdES</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/XHTML%2BSMIL" title="XHTML+SMIL" class="hlinks">XHTML+SMIL</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Extensible_User_Interface_Protocol" title="Extensible User Interface Protocol" class="hlinks">XUP</a></li></ul> </div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Working drafts</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <ul><li><a href="/i-en/Call_Control_eXtensible_Markup_Language" title="Call Control eXtensible Markup Language" class="hlinks">CCXML</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/CURIE" title="CURIE" class="hlinks">CURIE</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Encrypted_Media_Extensions" title="Encrypted Media Extensions" class="hlinks">EME</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/InkML" title="InkML" class="hlinks">InkML</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Media_Source_Extensions" title="Media Source Extensions" class="hlinks">MSE</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Rule_Interchange_Format" title="Rule Interchange Format" class="hlinks">RIF</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/SMIL_Timesheets" title="SMIL Timesheets" class="hlinks">SMIL Timesheets</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/SXBL" title="SXBL" class="hlinks">sXBL</a></li> <li>WICD</li> <li><a href="/i-en/Extensible_Forms_Description_Language" title="Extensible Forms Description Language" class="hlinks">XFDL</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/XFrames" title="XFrames" class="hlinks">XFrames</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/XBL" title="XBL" class="hlinks">XBL</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/XMLHttpRequest" title="XMLHttpRequest" class="hlinks">XMLHttpRequest</a></li></ul> </div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Guidelines</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <ul><li><a href="/i-en/Web_Content_Accessibility_Guidelines" title="Web Content Accessibility Guidelines" class="hlinks">Web Content Accessibility Guidelines</a></li></ul> </div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Initiative</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <ul><li><a href="/i-en/W3C_MMI" title="W3C MMI" class="hlinks">Multimodal Interaction Activity (MMI)</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/W3C_Markup_Validation_Service" title="W3C Markup Validation Service" class="hlinks">Markup Validation Service</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Web_Accessibility_Initiative" title="Web Accessibility Initiative" class="hlinks">Web Accessibility Initiative</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/WebPlatform" class="hlinks" title="WebPlatform">WebPlatform</a></li></ul> </div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Deprecated</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <ul><li><a href="/i-en/C-HTML" class="hlinks" title="C-HTML">C-HTML</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Handheld_Device_Markup_Language" title="Handheld Device Markup Language" class="hlinks">HDML</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/JavaScript_Style_Sheets" title="JavaScript Style Sheets" class="hlinks">JSSS</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Precision_Graphics_Markup_Language" title="Precision Graphics Markup Language" class="hlinks">PGML</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Vector_Markup_Language" title="Vector Markup Language" class="hlinks">VML</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/XHTML%2BMathML%2BSVG" title="XHTML+MathML+SVG" class="hlinks">XHTML+MathML+SVG</a></li></ul> </div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Obsoleted</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <ul><li><a href="/i-en/P3P" title="P3P" class="hlinks">P3P</a></li></ul> </div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Organizations</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="fit"><tbody><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <ul><li>Advisory Committee (AC)</li> <li><a href="/i-en/World_Wide_Web_Foundation" title="World Wide Web Foundation" class="hlinks">World Wide Web Foundation</a></li></ul> </div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Elected groups</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <ul><li>Advisory Board (AB)</li> <li>Technical Architecture Group (TAG)</li></ul> </div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Working groups</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <ul><li><a href="/i-en/CSS_Working_Group" title="CSS Working Group" class="hlinks">CSS</a></li> <li>Geolocation</li> <li>Social Web</li> <li><a href="/i-en/SVG_Working_Group" title="SVG Working Group" class="hlinks">SVG</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/WHATWG" title="WHATWG" class="hlinks">Web Hypertext Application Technology (WHATWG)</a></li> <li>Web Platform</li></ul> </div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Community groups</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <ul><li>Web Incubator Community Group (WICG)</li></ul> </div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Closed groups</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <ul><li><a href="/i-en/W3C_Device_Description_Working_Group" title="W3C Device Description Working Group" class="hlinks">Device Description (DDWG)</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/HTML_Working_Group" title="HTML Working Group" class="hlinks">HTML</a></li> <li>WebOnt (Semantic Web Activity)</li></ul> </div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Software</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="fit"><tbody><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <ul><li><a href="/i-en/CERN_httpd" title="CERN httpd" class="hlinks">CERN httpd</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Libwww" title="Libwww" class="hlinks">Libwww</a></li></ul> </div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/i-en/Web_browser" title="Web browser" class="hlinks">Browsers</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <ul><li><a href="/i-en/Line_Mode_Browser" title="Line Mode Browser" class="hlinks">Line Mode <span>(1990–)</span></a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Arena_(web_browser)" title="Arena (web browser)" class="hlinks">Arena <span>(1993–98)</span></a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Agora_(web_browser)" title="Agora (web browser)" class="hlinks">Agora <span>(1994–97)</span></a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Argo_(web_browser)" title="Argo (web browser)" class="hlinks">Argo <span>(1994–97)</span></a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/Amaya_(web_editor)" title="Amaya (web editor)" class="hlinks">Amaya <span>(browser/editor, 1996–2012)</span></a></li></ul> </div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Conferences</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <ul><li><a href="/i-en/International_World_Wide_Web_Conference" class="hlinks" title="International World Wide Web Conference">International World Wide Web Conference (IW3C)</a> <ul><li><a href="/i-en/International_World_Wide_Web_Conferences_Steering_Committee" class="hlinks" title="International World Wide Web Conferences Steering Committee">Steering Committee (IW3C2)</a></li> <li><a href="/i-en/First_International_Conference_on_the_World-Wide_Web" title="First International Conference on the World-Wide Web" class="hlinks">First conference ("WWW1", 1994)</a></li></ul></li></ul> 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