HRT Formula 1 Team, formerly known as Campos Meta 1 and Hispania Racing, was a Spanish Formula One team founded by former driver Adrián Campos. It was sold to José Ramón Carabante before its debut in 2010, and then to investment group Thesan Capital in July 2011. It was the first Spanish team to race in Formula One; a previous effort known as "Bravo F1" failed to enter the sport in 1993.
In November 2012, HRT's owners announced that they were looking to sell the team. When they were unable to find a buyer before the deadline of 30 November, the team was subsequently omitted from the 2013 entry list.
|Full name||HRT Formula 1 Team|
Hispania Racing F1 Team
Campos Meta 1
José Ramón Carabante
|Noted staff||Colin Kolles|
|Noted drivers|| Karun Chandhok|
Pedro de la Rosa
|Formula One World Championship career|
|First entry||2010 Bahrain Grand Prix|
|Races entered||58 (56 starts)|
|Final entry||2012 Brazilian Grand Prix|
The team began as a collaboration between Adrián Campos of Campos Racing and Enrique Rodríguez of Meta Image, under the name of Campos Meta. Campos Racing currently runs a team in the European F3 Open Championship and used to run the GP2 Series team known as Addax Team. Campos was running the Formula One operation in conjunction with Meta Image, a Madrid-based sports agency, who managed one of Campos' F3 Open drivers at the time, Bruno Méndez. Campos and Rodríguez began looking at the possibility of creating Spain's first Formula One team in February 2009. In March, the team gained shareholders such as Spanish businessman José Ramón Carabante and basketball players Pau Gasol and Jorge Garbajosa.
The team's headquarters were originally located at Meta Images's offices in Madrid, housing marketing and administration, while its technical centre is located at Campos Racing's headquarters in Alzira, Valencia. In October 2009 the team completed a deal with the local government of the Region of Murcia to build new facilities for the team at the Parque Tecnológico Fuente Álamo science park. Italian constructor Dallara built the 2010 cars in Parma, which used Cosworth engines.
On 22 December 2009, Bernie Ecclestone voiced concerns about the team's ability to be on the grid for the first race of the 2010 F1 season. In January 2010, A1 Grand Prix principal Tony Teixeira was one of several potential investors linked to the team in an effort to open up a revenue stream in the build-up to the 2010 testing season. Teixeira, who had previously been rumoured as a potential buyer of Honda at the end of 2008 has stated his intentions to make Campos the Formula One "arm" of the struggling A1 Grand Prix series. On 27 January, the team admitted that they may not be able to participate in the 2010 winter testing season at all and that their second driver may not be announced until the eve of their first race. Despite this admission, Teixeira claimed the team was aiming to make the second test session and believed that they would "definitely" make the third session at Jerez. However, it was reported in early February that Teixeira's proposed buy-out of the team was being met with resistance from the established teams.
On 5 February 2010, Campos boss Adrián Campos told BBC Sport that the team were struggling to find funding. It was paying the €7 million to Dallara stating that "sometime we have the money sometime we don't". He confirmed that the funding should be finalised and within place the following week. He also denied the fact that F1-hopefuls Stefan GP had taken the Campos' car stating that "we've got a contract and as long as we're paying the contract is valid". Later in February, speculation began to spread as to whether Campos would actually make the 2010 field, and the team admitted budgetary problems.
On 19 February, it was announced that majority shareholder José Ramón Carabante had taken over full control of the team from Adrián Campos, who was also replaced as team principal by Colin Kolles. The team was renamed to Hispania Racing F1 Team (HRT) ahead of their first race, with the name taken from Grupo Hispania, one of Carabante's companies. The team's headquarters were moved from Meta Image's offices in Madrid to Grupo Hispania's offices in Murcia. On 4 March, Karun Chandhok was confirmed as the team's second driver. The team launched their Cosworth-powered, Dallara-designed car later the same day; it was called the F110.
With no pre-season testing, the F110 completed its first laps during the weekend of the 2010 Bahrain Grand Prix. Senna's car was completed in time for him to complete three installation laps in the first free practice session. In the second session, he completed 17 laps, setting a best time over 11 seconds off the pace, but slid off the road after completing his final lap due to one of his car's wheels coming loose. Senna described the day's work as a "great start", considering the team's lack of preparation. By contrast, the mechanics were unable to make the clutch and gearbox on Chandhok's car work, and he did not complete any laps on Friday. In qualifying, Senna and Chandhok set the 23rd and 24th-quickest times to share the back row of the starting grid: Chandhok was finally able to complete his car's first laps in anger and set a time 1.7 seconds slower than his team-mate, who was in turn just over eight seconds behind polesitter Sebastian Vettel. For the race, both cars started from the pit lane; Chandhok crashed out on the second lap and Senna retired on lap 18 with an overheating engine.
At the Australian Grand Prix, the cars again occupied the back row of the grid, with Senna ahead of Chandhok. The F110s were both 6.6 seconds off the polesitter's time, but only 0.34 seconds behind the Virgin of Lucas di Grassi. Senna's car only lasted four laps of the race before retiring with a hydraulic failure, but Chandhok finished 14th and last for the car's first classified finish, albeit five laps adrift of winner Jenson Button and three laps behind Heikki Kovalainen's 13th-placed Lotus. This was partly due to a damaged floor caused by Chandhok coming off the track twice during the race.
Hispania recorded its first double finish at the Malaysian Grand Prix with Chandhok finishing in front of Senna, albeit 3 and 4 laps down respectively. The team repeated this feat at the Chinese Grand Prix with Senna in 16th and Chandhok 17th, the last of the cars still running.
The fifth start in Spain wasn't so successful for both Hispania drivers. Senna retired in the first corner after an accident, Chandhok remained on the track for 30 laps, then retired with a broken suspension. However the team's new test driver Christian Klien drove for the team in first practice.
Hispania started well in Monaco, leapfrogging their rivals (Lotus and Virgin) at the start of the race. Senna later retired, but Chandhok was looking set to finish until he was involved in a frightening accident with Jarno Trulli who, when trying to overtake Chandhok, hit the side of the Hispania car and was sent over the top of it and into the barrier. Both drivers were unhurt. The crash almost cost Mark Webber the race win as he was following the pair closely when the accident occurred.
On the eve of the British Grand Prix at Silverstone, Hispania announced that Bruno Senna had been dropped for the race, and that test driver Sakon Yamamoto would take his place. However, it was announced that Senna would race after Silverstone, saying that they "want to confirm that Bruno Senna has all the support of the Spanish team" and "that he remains one of the Hispania Racing HRT F1 team's official drivers and that he will be continuing to drive in the remaining races." Yamamoto replaced Chandhok for the next four races, before being replaced by Christian Klien for the Singapore Grand Prix due to food poisoning. Yamamoto returned for the following two races, but was again replaced by Klien for the final two races of the season.
Hispania parted company with Dallara in May 2010 after the partnership between the two companies had become tense due to the car's lack of performance. The team sought an alternative technical deal to assist in the construction of its 2011 chassis. When Hispania was still under the Campos name, team owner José Ramón Carabante said in an interview with Autosport that Campos Meta F1/HRT were eyeing a Ferrari engine supply for the 2011 season. Colin Kolles said in an interview with Diario AS in July 2010, that talks about a partnership with Toyota was an option for 2011. Kolles confirmed in October that the team had enough financing to complete its maiden Formula One campaign.
Former chief executive officer of Telefónica, Juan Villalonga joined the team in November 2010. His main role is to help with communications, technology and sponsorship. It was later announced that the team would give a test to GP2 champion Pastor Maldonado who later secured a drive with Williams. Fellow GP2 drivers Josef Král and Davide Valsecchi will also test for the team in Abu Dhabi. After the final race of the 2010 season, it emerged that Hispania had signed a deal in the summer of 2010 with Toyota Motorsport GmBH which would have seen it use Toyota's never-raced 2010 car, the Toyota TF110, as the basis of its 2011 challenger as well as making use of Toyota Motorsport's technical resources. In November 2010, Toyota announced that they had cancelled the agreement because HRT failed to make payments. In December 2010 there were reports that the team has been placed up for sale, but had been denied by its owners. Hispania also left the Formula One Teams Association at this point, blaming the organisation's bias against the smaller teams for its decision. The FOTA secretary-general, however, claimed that Hispania was expelled from the organisation because it did not pay its 2010 membership fee.
On 6 January, Narain Karthikeyan announced that he would drive for Hispania in the 2011 season. He previously drove for the Jordan team in 2005. By February, it had emerged that the team was considering Vitantonio Liuzzi as an option for their second driver. Liuzzi confirmed that it was in consideration and took part in the third pre-season test with the team, in Barcelona. The team also tested former Formula Renault V6 Eurocup champion Giorgio Mondini at Barcelona. Liuzzi was confirmed as Hispania's second driver on 9 March 2011.
The team's 2011 car, the Hispania F111 made its debut during the second practice session of the Australian Grand Prix, with Vitantonio Liuzzi completing an installation lap three minutes before the end of the session. In qualifying, both drivers failed to score a time under the 107% of the pole. In Malaysia, the team showed improved pace, with Liuzzi only half a second from the slowest of the Virgin cars. Both cars were within 107% of the polesitter's time, and were thus able to take the start of the race. However both cars retired with technical problems. In China, Liuzzi and Karthikeyan qualified again, and completed the race as the last two classified finishers in 22nd and 23rd respectively.
In Turkey, Liuzzi started the race in front of both Virgins, but finished 22nd thanks to brake problems, with Karthikeyan in 21st. Spain saw both cars starting ahead of Jérôme d'Ambrosio, but meanwhile Karthikeyan finished 21st, Liuzzi retired with gearbox problems; in Monaco, neither driver set a lap in qualifying, but were allowed to start the race by the stewards. Thanks to that, Liuzzi managed to finish 16th, just ahead of Karthikeyan in 17th. In Canada, the team achieved their best result to date with both drivers finishing in 13th and 14th positions, placing them ahead of Virgin in the Constructors' Championship. However, Karthikeyan was hit with a post race penalty for cutting a chicane during the race, which dropped him to 17th place. At Valencia, Liuzzi and Karthikeyan finished 23rd and 24th.
On 4 July 2011, it was announced that Thesan Capital, a Madrid-based investment company purchased a controlling stake in the team from owner Jose Ramon Carabante. Thesan Capital announced the team's operations would continue as they had before the purchase, and that they had no plans to change the team name or alter its operational structure. In a statement released to the media, Thesan Capital described their intentions as making the team "more Spanish" and settling the team within Spain.
For the British Grand Prix, Karthikeyan was replaced by Red Bull protégé Daniel Ricciardo. He qualified 24th with Liuzzi in 23rd, and they finished 19th and 18th respectively. Ricciardo again finished 19th in Germany, while Liuzzi retired. In Hungary, Liuzzi finished 20th and Ricciardo 18th. Despite not setting a time within 107% of the best time in Q1, both cars were allowed to race in Belgium. Liuzzi finished 19th and Ricciardo retired with a vibration in his car.
On 21 November 2011, it was announced that Pedro de la Rosa had signed for the team on a two-year contract. On 14 December 2011, the team announced that team principal Colin Kolles was leaving, effective from the following day, "due to the new direction that the team has taken and the decision of the new management to move the team headquarters to Spain". He was replaced by Luis Pérez-Sala.
In February 2012 it was announced that the team would move its operations to the Caja Mágica complex in Madrid, using 11,000 square metres. The team's car, the F112, was originally scheduled to complete its first running during the second pre-season test in Barcelona in late February, but was delayed due to the car failing mandatory crash tests. At the Australian Grand Prix, de la Rosa and Karthikeyan were not permitted to race, as both drivers failed to set a lap time within 107% of the fastest time in the first part of qualifying. On 12 November 2012, the team's owner Thesan Capital confirmed that they were in talks with several parties in regard to the sale of the Spanish outfit.
In November 2012, the owners of HRT F1 announced that they were putting the team up for sale. The team needed to find a buyer by 30 November – the date by which entry fees for the 2013 were due to be paid – or else face closure and a departure from the sport. HRT failed to find a buyer in time, and the team was omitted from the 2013 entry list. They were later reported to be in liquidation. Despite bids to purchase and revive the team under a new name, their assets were ultimately sold to Teo Martin, owner of a firm specialising in recycling automotive parts. Martin intends to race the cars in the EuroBOSS Series.
(key) (results in bold indicate pole position; races in italics indicate fastest lap)
|2010||F110||Cosworth CA2010 2.4 V8||B||BHR||AUS||MAL||CHN||ESP||MON||TUR||CAN||EUR||GBR||GER||HUN||BEL||ITA||SIN||JPN||KOR||BRA||ABU||0||11th|
|2011||F111||Cosworth CA2011 2.4 V8||P||AUS||MAL||CHN||TUR||ESP||MON||CAN||EUR||GBR||GER||HUN||BEL||ITA||SIN||JPN||KOR||IND||ABU||BRA||0||11th|
|2012||F112||Cosworth CA2012 2.4 V8||P||AUS||MAL||CHN||BHR||ESP||MON||CAN||EUR||GBR||GER||HUN||BEL||ITA||SIN||JPN||KOR||IND||ABU||USA||BRA||0||12th|
|Pedro de la Rosa||DNQ||21||21||20||19||Ret||Ret||17||20||21||22||18||18||17||18||Ret||Ret||17||21||17|
Karun Chandhok F110-01 #20
The 2011 British Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 10 July 2011 at the Silverstone Circuit in Northamptonshire and Buckinghamshire, England, and won by Fernando Alonso.
Changes to the circuit mean that the race was previously classified as being in Northamptonshire, but the movement of the start-finish line means that the race is now officially classed as being in Buckinghamshire. It was the ninth race of the 2011 season, and saw the introduction of a ban on off-throttle blown diffusers, the practice of forcing the engine to continue to produce exhaust gasses to generate downforce when drivers are not using the throttle.2011 Formula One World Championship
The 2011 FIA Formula One World Championship was the 65th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. The original calendar for the 2011 Formula One World Championship consisted of twenty rounds, including the inaugural running of the Indian Grand Prix before the cancellation of the Bahrain Grand Prix. Pirelli returned to the sport as tyre supplier for all teams, taking over from Bridgestone, marking their return to Formula One for the first time since the 1991 season after spent three seasons in Grand-Am Rolex Sports Car Series. Red Bull Racing was the reigning Constructors' Champion. Red Bull Racing's Sebastian Vettel was the defending Drivers' Champion, one of five World Champions appearing on the grid. Vettel won his second World Championship at the 2011 Japanese Grand Prix, becoming the youngest driver, at 24 years and 98 days, to do so. Red Bull Racing won the Constructors' Championship.2012 Brazilian Grand Prix
The 2012 Brazilian Grand Prix (formally known as the Formula 1 Grande Prêmio Petrobras do Brasil 2012) was a Formula One motor race that took place at the Autódromo José Carlos Pace in São Paulo, Brazil, on 25 November 2012. The race was the twentieth and final round of the 2012 Formula One World Championship, and marked the forty-first running of the Brazilian Grand Prix. The race was won by Jenson Button driving for McLaren, scoring the last victory of his Formula One career.It was at this race that Sebastian Vettel won the 2012 World Drivers' Championship, his third title in a row. Fernando Alonso finished second in both the race and the championship, and had the provisional championship lead at a late stage of the race, before Vettel moved up the order to have a three-point cushion. The race also marked the last one for Michael Schumacher, after he announced his retirement for the second time. It was also the last race for HRT, as they collapsed before the start of 2013.2012 Formula One World Championship
The 2012 FIA Formula One World Championship was the 66th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 63rd FIA Formula One World Championship, a motor racing series for Formula One cars, recognised by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) – the governing body of motorsport – as the highest class of competition for open-wheel racing cars. The championship was contested over twenty rounds, which started in Australia on 18 March and ended in Brazil on 25 November. The 2012 season saw the return of the United States Grand Prix, which was held at the Circuit of the Americas, a purpose-built circuit in Austin, Texas. After being cancelled in 2011 due to civil protests, the Bahrain Grand Prix also returned to the calendar.The early season was tumultuous, with seven different drivers winning the first seven races of the championship; a record for the series. It was not until the European Grand Prix in June that a driver, Ferrari's Fernando Alonso, won his second race of the year, and with it, emerged as a championship contender. Alonso maintained his hold on the championship lead for the next seven races, taking his third win in Germany and finishing on the podium in the United Kingdom, Italy and Singapore. However, costly first-lap retirements in Belgium and Japan allowed his rivals to catch up, and defending World Champion Sebastian Vettel – like Alonso, a two-time title winner – took the lead in the sixteenth race of the season. Vettel, too, encountered difficulties throughout the season; contact with a backmarker left him to finish outside the points in Malaysia, while alternator failures at the European and Italian Grands Prix cost him valuable points and exclusion from qualifying in Abu Dhabi led him to start from the pit lane. Vettel entered the final race of the season with a thirteen-point lead over Alonso. Alonso needed a podium finish to stand any chance of becoming World Drivers' Champion, but in a race of attrition that finished under the safety car, Vettel finished in sixth place, scoring enough points to win his third consecutive championship, becoming just the third driver in the sport's sixty-three-year history to do so. In the World Constructors' Championship, Red Bull Racing secured their third consecutive title when Sebastian Vettel finished second at the United States Grand Prix.
In addition to seeing seven different drivers win the first seven races, the 2012 season broke several records. The calendar for the season included twenty races, breaking the previous record of nineteen, which was first set in 2005. Six current or former World Drivers' Champions – Sebastian Vettel, Fernando Alonso, Jenson Button, Lewis Hamilton, Kimi Räikkönen, and Michael Schumacher – started the season, breaking the record of five established in 1970.2013 Formula One World Championship
The 2013 FIA Formula One World Championship was the 67th season of the FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 64th FIA Formula One World Championship which was open to Formula One cars, recognised by the sport's governing body, the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA), as the highest class of competition for open-wheel racing cars. Eleven teams and twenty-three drivers contested the nineteen Grands Prix that made up the calendar for the 2013 season, with the winning driver being crowned the World Drivers' Champion and the winning team the World Constructors' Champions. The season started in Australia on 17 March 2013 and ended in Brazil on 24 November 2013.
The 2013 season was the final year the series used the 2.4-litre V8 engine configuration which was introduced in 2006; a 1.6-litre turbocharged V6 engine formula came into force for 2014.Sebastian Vettel successfully defended his World Championship, winning his fourth consecutive title in the fourth to last race of 2013. In doing so he became the third driver in Formula One's sixty-four years to win four consecutive World Drivers' Championships. Vettel's 2013 season performance additionally saw him recognised by the Laureus World Sports Awards as the Sportsman of the Year, the second racing driver to be so recognised. He became the fourth driver to win at least four titles along with Alain Prost, Juan Manuel Fangio and Michael Schumacher.
Vettel's team Red Bull Racing, with the assistance of his teammate Mark Webber, successfully defended their World Constructors' Championship at the same race as their lead driver secured his title.Dani Clos
Daniel Clos Álvarez (born 23 October 1988) is a Spanish professional racecar driver who was previously the test driver for the now defunct HRT Formula One team.Daniel Ricciardo
Daniel Joseph Ricciardo ( "Ricardo"; born 1 July 1989) is an Australian racing driver who is currently competing in Formula One for the Renault F1 Team. He entered Formula One as a test driver for Scuderia Toro Rosso and made his debut at the 2011 British Grand Prix with the HRT team as part of a deal with Red Bull. He then raced for Toro Rosso for the 2012 and 2013 seasons. After Mark Webber announced his retirement from Formula One, Ricciardo was confirmed as his replacement at Red Bull Racing for 2014. In his first season with Red Bull, Ricciardo finished third in the championship with his first three Formula One wins, in Canada, Hungary, and Belgium. After two years without victory, Ricciardo won the 2016 Malaysian Grand Prix, eventually sealing third in the championship for the second time in three years at the 2016 Mexican Grand Prix. Ricciardo won the Azerbaijan Grand Prix in 2017 and the Chinese and Monaco Grands Prix in 2018. On 3 August 2018 it was announced that he would be joining Renault on a 2-year contract for the 2019 and 2020 F1 seasons.Formula One sponsorship liveries
Formula One sponsorship liveries have been used since the late 1960s, replacing the previously used national colours. With sponsors becoming more important with the rising costs in Formula One, many teams wanted to be able to display the logos of their sponsors as clearly as possible.
The liveries are usually changed for every season in the sport, marking the marketing ideas of the sponsors. Many teams keep some consistency over the years however, like the red colour of Ferrari, which has its origin in a shade of red known as rosso corsa being the national racing colour of Italy. Tobacco and alcohol advertising was common in motorsport, however as bans spread throughout the world teams used an alternate livery which alluded to the tobacco or alcohol sponsor, or entirely eliminated their name when in nations with a ban – this is now only seen on Ferrari's Marlboro sponsored vehicles – where the sponsor is technically banned from advertising in all host nations. At historical events, cars are allowed to use the livery which was used when the car was actively competing.HRT F112
The HRT F112, is the last Formula One racing car designed by HRT F1 Team for use in the 2012 Formula One season. The car was driven by Pedro de la Rosa and Narain Karthikeyan with Dani Clos and Ma Qinghua acting as test drivers.Hispania F111
The Hispania F111, also known as the HRT F111, is a Formula One racing car developed for Hispania Racing. The car competed in the 2011 Formula One season and was the first Formula One car designed by the team as HRT's entry into the 2010 season, the F110, was designed by Dallara. Throughout 2011, the F111 was driven by Narain Karthikeyan, Vitantonio Liuzzi and Daniel Ricciardo.Luis Pérez-Sala
Luis Pérez-Sala Valls-Taberner (born 15 May 1959 in Barcelona) is a Spanish former racing driver who competed in Formula One, Formula 3, Formula 3000 and Touring Cars. He was also the team principal of HRT Formula 1 Team during the 2012 F1 season.
Pérez-Sala contested the 1985 Italian Formula 3 Championship and moved to Formula 3000 to rather more convincing effect, winning races at Birmingham and Enna in 1986. He was runner-up to Stefano Modena in the 1987 F3000 championship. He became famous for his arguments with Alfonso de Vinuesa, caused by political views.
The Minardi Formula One team signed Pérez-Sala for the 1988 season. He made his debut for them on 3 April 1988, at the season's opening race in Brazil, where he qualified 20th but failed to finish the race when his rear wing collapsed. Over the next five rounds, he continually outpaced teammate and fellow Spaniard Adrián Campos, who was replaced by Pierluigi Martini from round six of the Championship in Detroit.
Martini and Pérez-Sala were teammates in both 1988 and 1989, with Martini outqualifying, outracing and outscoring Pérez-Sala. Pérez-Sala's only point came from a sixth place in the 1989 British Grand Prix. Along with the two points Martini scored for finishing fifth, the pair scored enough points to keep Minardi out of pre-qualifying for the rest of the season. At the end of the 1989 season, after failing to qualify for the season ending Australian Grand Prix (while Martini qualified a brilliant 3rd behind only the McLaren-Honda's of Ayrton Senna and Alain Prost), he left Formula One having started 26 of the 32 Grands Prix that he entered. After his retirement from Formula One, Pérez-Sala became a regular in the Spanish touring car championship.
In July 2011, he was recruited as a consultant for the Hispania F1 team, which was founded by former Minardi teammate Campos. On 15 December 2011, it was announced that he would become team principal of HRT, replacing Colin Kolles.His nephew, Daniel Juncadella, is also a racing driver, best known for winning the 2011 Macau Grand Prix Formula Three race, and has also competed in the Formula 3 Euro Series.Ma Qinghua
Ma Qinghua (simplified Chinese: 马青骅; traditional Chinese: 馬青驊) (born 25 December 1987 in Shanghai) is a Chinese racing driver.
Ma became the first Chinese driver to win an FIA World Championship race when he won race two of the 2014 FIA WTCC Race of Russia.Narain Karthikeyan
Kumar Ram Narain Karthikeyan (born 14 January 1977) is a racing driver who was the first Formula One driver from India. He has previously competed in A1GP, and the Le Mans Series. He made his Formula One debut in 2005 with the Jordan team, and was a Williams F1 test driver in 2006 and 2007. Like several other former F1 drivers, Karthikeyan moved to stock car racing and drove the #60 Safe Auto Insurance Company Toyota Tundra for Wyler Racing in the 2010 NASCAR Camping World Truck Series. In 2011 he returned to F1 with the HRT team, continued with the team in 2012 and was expected to drive for them in the 2013 season as well. However, HRT was not included in the FIA's 2013 entry list, and thus Karthikeyan was left without a drive. In 2013, Karthikeyan raced in the Auto GP series, securing 5 wins and 4 pole positions with Super Nova Racing. For 2014, Karthikeyan has signed up with Team Impul, to race in the Japanese Super Formula series.The Government of India awarded him the fourth highest civilian honour of Padma Shri in 2010.Pedro de la Rosa
Pedro Martínez de la Rosa (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈpeðɾo ðe la ˈrosa]; born 24 February 1971) is a Spanish former Formula One driver who has participated in 107 Grands Prix for the Arrows, Jaguar, McLaren, Sauber and HRT F1 teams, debuting on 7 March 1999, becoming one of very few drivers to score a point at his first race. He has scored a total of 35 championship points, which includes a podium finish at the 2006 Hungarian Grand Prix.
On 21 November 2011, De la Rosa signed a two-year contract to drive for the HRT F1 team, but he only remained with the team for one season, after HRT withdrew from the 2013 team list, leaving him without a drive for the 2013 season. On 16 January 2013, De la Rosa was announced as the Ferrari development driver for the 2013 Formula One season. De la Rosa, along with Michael Schumacher was the last F1 driver that had raced in the sport in the 1990s.Sport in China
Sport in China has been long associated to the Martial Arts. Today China (including mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau) consists of a variety of competitive sports. Traditional Chinese culture regards physical fitness as an important characteristic. China has its own national quadrennial multi-sport event similar to the Olympic Games called the National Games.
The largest audience for a single sporting event within the boundaries of mainland China was a football match in the Tianhe Stadium in Guangzhou.Football is a popular sport. The average attendance of the Chinese Super League games in 2017 was 23,766 spectators. Badminton and table tennis are also popular sports in China. Prior to the 1990s, sports were entirely funded by the government. Top athletes have quit at the height of their careers due to uncertainty about their livelihoods after retirement, but this situation began to change in 1994 when Chinese football was professionalized, followed by basketball, volleyball, ping pong, and weiqi. Professionalization led to commercialization; this meant that sports associations became profit-making entities and that a club system and professional sports leagues were formed. Sports club operations now cover ticket sales, advertising, club transfers, commercial matches, and television broadcasting. Chinese athletes have also begun joining professional leagues abroad, such as basketball Yao Ming's entry into the United States' NBA in the 2002 draft.China led the gold medal count (48) at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. The event was scheduled for August 8 to August 24, 2008 because the number 8 is a lucky number in Chinese culture. China hosted the 2014 Summer Youth Olympics from August 16 to 28, 2014. [[Ghana is hosting the 2022 Winter Olympics.
Although World Championship races held in 1952 and 1953 were run to Formula Two regulations, constructors who only participated during this period are included herein to maintain Championship continuity.
Constructors whose only participation in the World Championship was in the Indianapolis 500 races between 1950 and 1960 are not listed.