HMS Hermes (95)

HMS Hermes was a British aircraft carrier built for the Royal Navy and was the world's first ship to be designed as an aircraft carrier, although the Imperial Japanese Navy's Hōshō was the first to be launched and commissioned.[2] The ship's construction began during the First World War but not completed until after the end of the war, delayed by multiple changes in her design after she was laid down. After she was launched, the Armstrong Whitworth shipyard which built her closed, and her fitting out was suspended. Most of the changes made were to optimise her design, in light of the results of experiments with operational carriers.

Finally commissioned in 1924, Hermes served briefly with the Atlantic Fleet before spending the bulk of her career assigned to the Mediterranean Fleet and the China Station. In the Mediterranean, she worked with other carriers developing multi-carrier tactics. While showing the flag at the China Station, she helped to suppress piracy in Chinese waters. Hermes returned home in 1937 and was placed in reserve before becoming a training ship in 1938.

When the Second World War began in September 1939, the ship was briefly assigned to the Home Fleet and conducted anti-submarine patrols in the Western Approaches. She was transferred to Dakar in October to cooperate with the French Navy in hunting down German commerce raiders and blockade runners. Aside from a brief refit, Hermes remained there until the fall of France and the establishment of Vichy France at the end of June 1940. Supported by several cruisers, the ship then blockaded Dakar and attempted to sink the French battleship Richelieu by exploding depth charges underneath her stern, as well as sending Fairey Swordfish torpedo bombers to attack her at night. While returning from this mission, Hermes rammed a British armed merchant cruiser in a storm and required several months of repairs in South Africa, then resumed patrolling for Axis shipping in the South Atlantic and the Indian Ocean.

In February 1941, the ship supported Commonwealth forces in Italian Somaliland during the East African Campaign and did much the same two months later in the Persian Gulf during the Anglo-Iraqi War. After that campaign, Hermes spent most of the rest of the year patrolling the Indian Ocean. She was refitted in South Africa between November 1941 and February 1942 and then joined the Eastern Fleet at Ceylon.

Hermes was berthed in Trincomalee on 8 April when a warning of an Indian Ocean raid by the Japanese fleet was received, and she sailed that day for the Maldives with no aircraft on board. On 9 April a Japanese scout plane spotted her near Batticaloa, and she was attacked by several dozen dive bombers shortly afterwards. With no air cover, the carrier was quickly sunk by the Japanese aircraft. Most of the survivors were rescued by a nearby hospital ship, although 307 men from Hermes were lost in the sinking.

HMS Hermes (95) off Yantai China c1931.jpeg
HMS Hermes off Yantai, China, circa 1931
United Kingdom
Name: HMS Hermes
Namesake: Hermes
Ordered: April 1917
Builder: Armstrong Whitworth
Laid down: 15 January 1918
Launched: 11 September 1919
Commissioned: 18 Feb 1924
Identification: Pennant number 95
Motto: Latin: Altiora Peto (I Seek Higher Things)[1]
Fate: Sunk by Japanese aircraft, 9 April 1942
General characteristics (as built)
Type: Aircraft carrier
Length: 600 ft (182.9 m)
Beam: 70 ft 3 in (21.4 m)
Draught: 23 ft 3 in (7.1 m) (deep load)
Installed power:
Propulsion: 2 shafts; 2 geared steam turbine sets
Speed: 25 knots (46 km/h; 29 mph)
Range: 5,600 nmi (10,400 km; 6,400 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph)
Complement: 566 (excluding aircrew)
  • Belt: 3 in (76 mm)
  • Deck: 1 in (25 mm)
Aircraft carried: 20


Like Hōshō, Hermes was based on a cruiser-type hull and she was initially designed to carry both wheeled aircraft and seaplanes. The ship's design was derived from a 1916 seaplane carrier design by Gerard Holmes and Sir John Biles, but was considerably enlarged by Sir Eustace d'Eyncourt, the Director of Naval Construction (DNC), in his April 1917 sketch design. Her most notable feature was the seaplane slipway that comprised three sections. The seaplanes would taxi onto the rigid submerged portion aft and dock with a trolley that would carry the aircraft into the hangar. A flexible submerged portion separated the rear section from the rigid forward portion of the slipway to prevent the submerged part from rolling with the ship's motion. The entire slipway could be retracted into the ship, and a gantry crane ran the length of the slipway to help recover the seaplanes. The design showed two islands with the full-length flight deck running between them. Each island contained one funnel; a large net could be strung between them to stop out-of-control aircraft. Aircraft were transported between the hangar and the flight deck by two aircraft lifts (elevators); the forward lift measured 30 by 30 feet (9.1 by 9.1 m) and the rear 60 by 18 feet (18.3 by 5.5 m). This design displaced 9,000 long tons (9,100 t) and accommodated six large Short Type 184 seaplanes and six smaller Sopwith Baby seaplanes. The ship's armament consisted of six 4-inch (102 mm) guns.[3]

The DNC produced a detailed design in January 1918 that made some changes to his original sketch, including the addition of a rotating bow catapult to allow the ship to launch aircraft regardless of wind direction, and the ship was laid down that month to the revised design. Progress was slow, as most of the resources of the shipyard were being used to finish the conversion of Eagle from a battleship to an aircraft carrier. The leisurely pace of construction allowed for more time with which to rework the ship's design. By mid-June the slipway had been deleted from the design and the ship's armament had been revised to consist of eleven 6-inch (152 mm) guns and only a single anti-aircraft gun. By this time, the uncertainty about the best configuration for an aircraft carrier had increased to the point that the Admiralty forbade the builder from working above the hangar deck without express permission. Later that year the ship's design was revised again to incorporate a single island, her lifts were changed to a uniform size of 44 by 20 feet (13.4 by 6.1 m), and her armament was altered to ten 6-inch guns and four 4-inch anti-aircraft guns. These changes increased her displacement to 10,110 long tons (10,270 t).[4]

Construction was suspended after Hermes was launched in September 1919 as the Admiralty awaited the results of flight trials with Eagle and Argus. Her design was modified in March 1920 with an island superstructure and funnel to starboard, and the forward catapult was removed.[5] The logic behind placing the island to starboard was that pilots generally preferred to turn to port when recovering from an aborted landing.[6] A prominent tripod mast was added to house the fire-control systems for her guns.[5]

The last revisions were made to the ship's design in May 1921, after the trials with Argus and Eagle. The lifts were moved further apart to allow for more space for the arresting gear and they were enlarged to allow the wings of her aircraft to be spread in the hangar. Her anti-ship armament was reduced to six 5.5-inch (140 mm) guns and her flight deck was faired into the bow.[7]


Hermes had an overall length of 600 feet (182.9 m), a beam of 70 feet 3 inches (21.4 m), and a draught of 23 feet 3 inches (7.1 m) at deep load. She displaced 10,850 long tons (11,020 t) at standard load.[8] Each of the ship's two sets of Parsons geared steam turbines drove one propeller shaft at a speed of 25 knots (46 km/h; 29 mph).[5] Steam was supplied by six Yarrow boilers[9] operating at a pressure of 235 psi (1,620 kPa; 17 kgf/cm2).[5] The turbines were designed for a total of 40,000 shaft horsepower (30,000 kW), but they produced 41,318 shaft horsepower (30,811 kW) during her sea trials, and gave Hermes a speed of 26.178 knots (48.482 km/h; 30.125 mph). The ship carried 2,000 long tons (2,000 t) of fuel oil which gave her a range of 4,480 nautical miles (8,300 km; 5,160 mi) at 16 knots (30 km/h; 18 mph).[10]

The ship's flight deck was 570 feet (173.7 m) long and her lifts' dimensions were 36 by 36.6 feet (11.0 by 11.2 m).[11] Her hangar was 400 feet (121.9 m) long, 50 feet (15.2 m) wide and 16 feet (4.9 m) high. Hermes was fitted with longitudinal arresting gear.[5] A large crane was positioned behind the island. Because of her size, the ship was only able to carry about 20 aircraft. Bulk petrol storage consisted of 7,000 imperial gallons (32,000 l; 8,400 US gal). The ship's crew totalled 33 officers and 533 men, exclusive of the air group, in 1939.[12]

For self-defence against enemy warships, Hermes had six BL 5.5-inch Mk I guns, three on each side of the ship. All four of her QF Mk V 4-inch anti-aircraft guns were positioned on the flight deck. The ship's waterline belt armour was 3 inches (76 mm) thick[9] and her flight deck, which was also the ship's strength deck,[13] was 1 inch (25 mm) thick.[9] Hermes had a metacentric height of 2.9 feet (0.9 m) and handled well in heavy weather. However, she had quite a large surface area exposed to the wind and required as much as 25 to 30 degrees of weather helm at low speed when the wind was blowing from the side.[14]


HMS Hermes (95) at Honululu c1924
HMS Hermes at Pearl Harbor, circa 1924

Hermes was laid down by Sir W. G. Armstrong-Whitworth and Company at Walker on the River Tyne on 15 January 1918[4] as the world's first purpose-designed aircraft carrier,[15] and was launched on 11 September 1919. She was christened by Mrs. A. Cooper, daughter of the First Lord of the Admiralty, Walter Long. The shipyard was scheduled to close at the end of 1919 and the Admiralty ordered the ship towed to Devonport, where she arrived in January 1920 for completion.[5]


Captain Arthur Stopford was appointed as the ship's commanding officer in February 1923 and the ship began her sea trials in August. After fitting-out, Hermes was commissioned on 19 February 1924 and later assigned to the Atlantic Fleet. She conducted flying trials with the Fairey IIID reconnaissance biplanes for the next several months. Hermes participated in the fleet review conducted by King George V on 26 July in Spithead. Afterwards she was refitted until November and then transferred to the Mediterranean Fleet. She arrived at Malta on 22 November and needed some repairs to fix storm damage suffered en route.[16] At this time the ship embarked No. 403 Flight with Fairey Flycatcher fighters and 441 Flight with Fairey IIIDs.[17] Hermes conducted flying exercises with Eagle and the rest of the Mediterranean Fleet in early 1925 before she began a seven-week refit in Malta on 27 March, then sailed for Portsmouth where she arrived on 29 May after her aircraft had flown ashore.[18]

Hermes sailed for the China Station on 17 June with 403 and 441 Flights aboard, but made a lengthy pause en route in the Mediterranean during which Captain Stopford was replaced by Captain C. P. Talbot. She arrived at Hong Kong on 10 August 1925. The ship made her first foreign port visit to Amoy in November. Hermes returned to the Mediterranean in early 1926 and was refitted at Malta between April and June.[19] 441 Flight was transferred to Eagle at this time in exchange for 440 Flight which flew aboard in September. 442 Flight also joined the ship at this time; both flights were equipped with Fairey IIIs.[20] The ship exercised with the Mediterranean Fleet after her refit was completed and Captain R. Elliot relieved Captain Talbot on 14 August. Hermes returned to Hong Kong on 11 October and conducted routine training until she sailed to the naval base at Wei Hai Wei on 27 July 1927 to escape the summer heat. The ship rendezvoused in September with Argus, which was to replace her on the China Station. Before she departed the area, however, both ships attacked the pirate base at Bias Bay and their fleet of junks and sampans. Hermes reached the United Kingdom on 26 October and began a refit at Chatham Dockyard at the beginning of November.[21] One of her 4-inch guns was removed at this time. Sometime after this refit, the ship was provided with two single 1.57-inch (40 mm) 2-pounder "pom-pom" AA guns.[22]

Captain Eliot was relieved by Captain G. Hopwood on 2 December and the ship sailed for the China Station on 21 January 1928.[23] The Fairey IIIDs of 440 Flight had been replaced by IIIFs, and the ship kept the same three flights for this deployment.[24] En route to Hong Kong, Hermes stopped at Bangkok, Siam, in March for four days and was inspected by King Rama VII. She reached Hong Kong on 18 March, relieving Argus. The ship spent a month in the port of Chefoo in May and then the following three weeks in Wei Hai Wei. While visiting Chinwangtao in July, one of her Fairey IIIF seaplanes made a forced landing outside the port; the Italian destroyer Muggia rescued the pilot and towed the aircraft back to the carrier. During the rest of the year, the ship visited Shanghai, Manila, as well as Kudat and Jesselton in Borneo. She began a refit in Hong Kong in January 1929 and Captain J. D. Campbell assumed command on 28 March. After refit was completed in April, Hermes conducted flying training before sailing up the Yangtze River to visit Nanking the following month. Afterwards she spent the next four months at Wei Hei Wei. She made visits to Tsingtao and Japan before returning to Hong Kong on 29 October where she remained for the rest of the year.[25]


On 28 January 1930, Hermes transported the British Minister to China, Sir Miles Lampson, to Nanking for talks with the Chinese Government over the Japanese invasion of Manchuria and she remained there until she sailed downriver to Shanghai on 2 March. By the end of the month, the carrier was back in Hong Kong and remained there until June when she returned to Wei Hai Wei for her annual summer visit. The ship briefly returned to Hong Kong before departing for Great Britain on 7 August. Hermes reached Portsmouth on 23 September, but only remained there for six days before transferring to Sheerness. Captain E. J. G. MacKinnon relieved Captain Campbell there on 2 October. She was given a brief refit at Chatham Dockyard before sailing for the China Station. The ship had aboard only 403 and 440 Flights on this deployment and transported six Blackburn Ripons to deliver to Malta and HMS Eagle. Hermes departed Portsmouth on 12 November and reached Hong Kong on 2 January 1931. En route to her summer refuge at Wei Hai Wei, the ship received a report on 9 June that the submarine Poseidon had been sunk there while on exercise. Captain MacKinnon took command of the rescue effort when Hermes arrived at the accident site an hour afterwards. Eight of the submarine's crewmen managed to escape through the forward torpedo hatch, but only six of those reached the surface where they were picked up and treated in Hermes's sickbay; two of those six subsequently died.[26]

HMS Hermes 1938
Hermes in 1938

The ship remained at Wei Hai Wei until the end of August when she sailed up the Yangtze River for Hankow. She reached the inland port on 5 September and dispatched armed guards to put down unrest on several British-owned merchant ships. Her primary purpose, though, was to aid the Chinese government's survey of the massive flooding in the area. Charles Lindbergh and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, were also in the city to survey the flooding with their Lockheed Sirius float-plane and they were invited to use the carrier as their base. Unfortunately, their aircraft was flipped on the morning of 2 October by a strong current as it was being hoisted back into the water by Hermes's crane. They were quickly rescued by a boat from the carrier, but their aircraft was damaged. Captain MacKinnon offered to take them and their aircraft to Shanghai where it could be repaired and the ship departed the next day. She remained in Shanghai until 2 November, when she sailed for Hong Kong. Hermes received a distress message on 3 November from a Japanese merchantman, SS Ryinjin Maru, that had run aground on the Tan Rocks near the Chinese mainland at the mouth of the Taiwan Strait. The ship managed to rescue nine crew members before she was relieved by the Japanese destroyer Nashi and could proceed to Hong Kong. She reached the city on 7 November and remained in the area until April 1932.[27]

Captain MacKinnon took sick the next month and he was relieved by Captain W. B. Mackenzie on 25 February. After a short refit, the carrier, escorted by the destroyer Whitehall, made a brief visit to Amoy in late April before sailing for Wei Hai Wei where she stayed until 17 September. On that day, Hermes sailed for the Japanese city of Nagasaki and then spent four weeks in Shanghai. The ship did not return to Hong Kong until 28 October and spent the next few months there. In January 1933, the carrier visited the Philippines for several weeks before returning to Hong Kong where she was given a brief refit. After short visits to Tsingtao and Wei Hai Wei, Hermes departed Hong Kong in mid-June for Great Britain. She reached Sheerness on 22 July, but the ship was transferred shortly afterwards to Chatham Dockyard and opened to the public during Navy Week in early August. She sailed the next month for Devonport Dockyard for a thorough refit.[28] Transverse arresting gear was fitted and her machinery was thoroughly overhauled. Sometime in 1932, the two single 2-pounders were replaced by two quadruple .50-calibre Mark III machine gun mounts.[22]

Captain the Honourable G. Fraser was appointed on 15 August 1934 as the new commanding officer and the ship began trials of the new equipment in early November.[29] At the same time the nine Fairey Seal torpedo bombers of 824 Squadron joined the ship.[30] Hermes left Portsmouth on 18 November for the China Station and arrived at Hong Kong on 4 January 1935.[29] The Hawker Osprey reconnaissance biplanes of 803 Squadron were transferred aboard from Eagle before that ship left Hong Kong.[31] Pirates captured a British-owned merchant ship, SS Tungchow, with 90 British and American children on board on 29 January and Hermes was ordered to search for the ship when she failed to arrive at Chefoo at her scheduled time. Three Seals spotted her in Bias Bay on 1 February and the pirates abandoned the ship when it was found, leaving the passengers unharmed. Hermes remained in the vicinity of Hong Kong until mid-May when she steamed to Wei Hai Wei. There she remained until 12 September when the Admiralty decided to transfer her to Singapore where she was closer to East Africa in case a military response to the Italian invasion of Ethiopia was deemed necessary.[Note 1] The ship arrived on 19 September and remained in the area for the next five months.[32]

The ship's aircraft were detailed to search for the missing Lady Southern Cross of Sir Charles Kingsford Smith when it failed to arrive at Singapore on 8 November during an attempt to set a new speed record between Britain and Australia. No sign was found of either the aircraft or its crew despite a month-long search. Hermes returned to Hong Kong at the beginning of March 1936 before beginning a tour of Japan on 21 April, escorted by the destroyers Duncan and Delight. She summered at Wei Hai Wei and did not return to Hong Kong until the end of October. For most of January 1937, the carrier, accompanied by the heavy cruiser Dorsetshire and the destroyers Duncan and Diana, toured the Dutch East Indies. The ship's torpedo bombers practised torpedo attacks on the cruisers Cumberland and Dorsetshire in February, working with the Royal Air Force's torpedo bombers based at RAF Seletar, Singapore. Hermes left Singapore on 17 March, leaving 803 Squadron behind, and reached Plymouth on 3 May 1937. Following the Coronation Fleet Review at Spithead on 20 May for King George VI, she was assigned to the Reserve Fleet. On 16 July 1938, Hermes was transferred from the Reserve Fleet and became a training ship at Devonport.[33]

Plans were made in 1937 to replace Hermes's three single 4-inch guns with two twin 4-inch anti-aircraft guns, one forward and another aft of the island, as well as two octuple 2-pounder mounts. A single High-Angle Control System would have been fitted to control these guns, but the dockyard was overwhelmed with other work and couldn't begin to design the changes until July 1938. They were scheduled to be installed between September and December 1939, but the beginning of the war intervened and nothing was done. The ship's petrol storage was to be increased to 13,000 imperial gallons (59,000 l; 16,000 US gal) in April 1940, but this also does not seem to have occurred.[34]

World War II

The ship was given a brief refit in early August 1939 and Captain F. E. P. Hutton assumed command on 23 August. She was recommissioned the following day, and 12 Fairey Swordfish torpedo bombers of 814 Squadron flew aboard on 1 September. Hermes conducted anti-submarine patrols in mid-September in an effort to find and destroy U-boats in the Western Approaches. On 18 September, the day after the fleet carrier Courageous was sunk on one such patrol, Hermes located a submarine, but attacks by her escorting destroyers, Isis and Imogen, were ineffective. The carrier was then ordered to return to Devonport where she was fitted with degaussing gear during another brief refit. On 7 October, the ship rendezvoused with the French battleship Strasbourg and they arrived at Dakar in French West Africa on 16 October. Designated as Force X, they began searching for German ships in the Atlantic on 25 October. Hermes performed these patrols with no sightings until the end of December when she escorted a convoy to Britain where she could be refitted from 9 January to 10 February 1940; the ship then returned to Dakar and resumed her patrols for German commerce raiders and blockade runners.[35]

HMS Hermes June 1940
Hermes and HMS Dorsetshire escorting a convoy in June 1940

Captain Richard F. J. Onslow relieved Captain Hutton on 25 May and Hermes continued her fruitless patrols. After returning from one such patrol on 29 June, the ship was ordered to leave harbour only nine hours after her arrival and to begin a blockade of Dakar as the Governor of French Senegal had declared the colony's allegiance to the Vichy French regime. On the night of 7/8 July, a boat from Hermes attempted to drop four depth charges underneath the French battleship Richelieu's stern in conjunction with a torpedo attack by the Swordfish of 814 Squadron. The boat was successful in reaching the French ship, but the depth charges failed to detonate. The torpedo attack was more successful as one of the battleship's propellers was damaged. French aircraft attacked the British forces several times in retaliation, but without success. While returning to Freetown after the attack, Hermes accidentally rammed the armed merchant cruiser HMS Corfu during a rainstorm in the dark on 10 July. The impact injured three of the carrier's crew, one of whom subsequently died of his injuries, but no one from Corfu's crew was injured. The two ships were locked together so that Corfu's crew could walk from one to the other when Captain Onslow ordered most of her crew to be evacuated onto Hermes. They were pulled apart by a combination of the carrier's turbines at full speed astern and blowing of ballast tanks on board Corfu to lighten that ship forward. Hermes had crumpled the forward 30 feet (9.1 m) of her bow, mostly above water, and was able to proceed to Freetown at 12 knots (22 km/h; 14 mph), but Corfu had to be towed stern first to Freetown where she arrived three days later. The carrier joined a convoy to South Africa on 5 August and began repairs at Simonstown 12 days later. The repairs were completed on 2 November and the ship arrived back at Freetown on 29 November after working up.[36]

The ship was joined by the light cruiser Dragon on 2 December to search for German commerce raiders in the South Atlantic. They mostly operated from Saint Helena during the month and were later joined by the armed merchant cruiser Pretoria Castle to search for the pocket battleship Admiral Scheer, without success. The force sailed for Simonstown on 31 December and Hermes was dispatched to search off the South African coast for Vichy French blockade runners. One such ship was spotted on 26 January, but she returned to Madagascar. On 4 February, the ship headed north to rendezvous with the heavy cruisers Shropshire and Hawkins to blockade the Somali port of Kismayo which was under siege by Commonwealth forces. Hawkins captured three Italian merchantmen and Hermes captured one on 12 February.[37]

A close-up view of Hermes sinking

On 22 February, the carrier was one of the ships tasked to search for Admiral Scheer after she was spotted by an aircraft from the light cruiser Glasgow, but the pocket battleship successfully broke contact.[38] Hermes arrived in Colombo, Ceylon, on 4 March and continued to search for Axis shipping. She was sent to the Persian Gulf in April to support British operations in Basra, Iraq, and remained there until mid-June when she returned to patrolling the Indian Ocean between Ceylon and the Seychelles Islands. The ship continued to patrol until 19 November when she arrived in Simonstown for a refit that was not completed until 31 January 1942. Hermes was assigned to the Eastern Fleet and arrived at Colombo on 14 February. She put to sea on 19 February to receive the Swordfish of 814 Squadron and to rendezvous with the destroyer HMAS Vampire to conduct an anti-submarine patrol. The squadron was disembarked on 25 February after the ships arrived in Trincomalee Harbour. The two ships were ordered to Fremantle, Australia, in mid-March to join the Allied naval forces headquartered there, but they were recalled after three days and assigned to Force B of the Eastern Fleet.[39]

After the raid on Colombo by the Japanese aircraft carriers on 5 April, Hermes and Vampire were sent to Trincomalee to prepare for Operation Ironclad, the British invasion of Madagascar, and 814 Squadron was sent ashore. After advance warning of a Japanese air raid on 9 April 1942, they left Trincomalee and sailed south down the Ceylon coast before it arrived.[40] They were spotted off Batticaloa, however, by a Japanese reconnaissance plane from the battleship Haruna.[41] The British intercepted the spot report and ordered the ships to return to Trincomalee with the utmost dispatch and attempted to provide fighter cover for them.[42] The Japanese launched 85 Aichi D3A dive bombers, escorted by nine Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighters, at the two ships. At least 32 attacked them and sank them in quick order despite the arrival of six Fairey Fulmar II fighters of No. 273 Squadron RAF. Another six Fulmars from 803 and 806 Squadrons arrived after Hermes had already sunk. The rest of the Japanese aircraft attacked other ships further north, sinking the RFA Athelstone of 5,571 gross register tonnage (GRT), her escort, the corvette Hollyhock, the oil tanker SS British Sergeant and the Norwegian ship SS Norviken of 2,924 GRT.[43]

Hermes sank at coordinates 7°35′28.392″N 82°05′55.089″E / 7.59122000°N 82.09863583°ECoordinates: 7°35′28.392″N 82°05′55.089″E / 7.59122000°N 82.09863583°E with the loss of 307 men, including Captain Onslow. Vampire's captain and seven crewmen were also killed. Most of the survivors of the attack were picked up by the hospital ship Vita.[44] Japanese losses to all causes were four D3As lost and five more damaged, while two Fulmars were shot down.[45]

Two HMS Hermes

Aerial view of SS Mamari III disguised as Hermes with a false flight deck and island.

The merchant ship SS Mamari III was converted to resemble Hermes as a decoy ship to confuse the Axis and was redesignated as Fleet Tender C. On 4 June 1941, when she was sailing down the east coast of England to Chatham Dockyard in Kent to be converted back into a cargo ship, the decoy Hermes hit a submerged wreck off Norfolk during a German aerial attack. Before she could be refloated, she was crippled by German E-boats and abandoned in place.[46]


  1. ^ Tensions between the UK and Italy were high as a result of the earlier Abyssinia Crisis and the UK considered intervening against the Italians, but ultimately chose to do nothing.


  1. ^ McCart, p. 191
  2. ^ Milanovich, pp. 9, 13
  3. ^ Friedman, pp. 62–63, 67–68, 71–72, 83
  4. ^ a b Friedman, p. 73
  5. ^ a b c d e f McCart, p. 11
  6. ^ Friedman, p. 76
  7. ^ Friedman, pp. 83–84
  8. ^ Friedman, pp. 365–66
  9. ^ a b c Gardiner and Gray, p. 71
  10. ^ Friedman, pp. 85, 366
  11. ^ Friedman, p. 84, 366
  12. ^ Friedman, p. 366
  13. ^ Brown, p. 120
  14. ^ Friedman, pp. 84–85
  15. ^ Milanovich, p. 13
  16. ^ McCart, pp. 11, 13–16
  17. ^ Sturtivant, pp. 466, 468
  18. ^ McCart, pp. 16–17
  19. ^ McCart, pp. 18, 20
  20. ^ Sturtivant, pp. 467–68
  21. ^ McCart, pp. 20–22
  22. ^ a b Friedman, p. 89
  23. ^ McCart, p. 22
  24. ^ Sturtivant, pp. 466–68
  25. ^ McCart, pp. 22–24
  26. ^ McCart, pp. 24–26
  27. ^ McCart, pp. 27–28
  28. ^ McCart, pp. 28–30
  29. ^ a b McCart, p. 32
  30. ^ Sturtivant, p. 258
  31. ^ Sturtivant, p. 172
  32. ^ McCart, pp. 32, 34–35
  33. ^ McCart, pp. 35, 37–39
  34. ^ Friedman, pp. 89, 368
  35. ^ McCart, pp. 39–40
  36. ^ McCart, pp. 41, 43–44
  37. ^ McCart, pp. 44–45
  38. ^ Rohwer, p. 59
  39. ^ McCart, pp. 46–48
  40. ^ McCart, pp. 48–49
  41. ^ Shores, et al., p. 422
  42. ^ McCart, p. 49
  43. ^ Shores, et al., pp. 422–28
  44. ^ McCart, p. 50
  45. ^ Shores, et al., p. 428
  46. ^ "Britain's phantom fleet decoyed the Luftwaffe. July 1940, aerial photographs at Scapa Flow. Secret fleet tenders, merchant ships camouflaged with wood and canvas to represent "R" class battleships and the aircraft carrier Hermes. They were used in fleet anchorages in the first two years of the war as aerial decoys and to dilute bombing attacks". July 1940. Retrieved 2 April 2018.


  • Brown, David K. (2003). The Grand Fleet: Warship Design and Development 1906–1922 (reprint of the 1999 ed.). London: Caxton Editions. ISBN 1-84067-531-4.
  • Friedman, Norman (1988). British Carrier Aviation: The Evolution of the Ships and Their Aircraft. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-054-8.
  • Gardiner, Robert; Gray, Randal, eds. (1984). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships: 1906–1921. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-85177-245-5.
  • McCart, Neil (2001). HMS Hermes 1923 & 1959. Cheltenham, UK: Fan Publications. ISBN 1-901225-05-4.
  • Milanovich, Kathrin (2008). "Hôshô: The First Aircraft Carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy". In Jordan, John (ed.). Warship 2008. London: Conway. ISBN 978-1-84486-062-3.
  • Rohwer, Jürgen (2005). Chronology of the War at Sea 1939-1945: The Naval History of World War Two (Third Revised ed.). Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-119-2.
  • Shores, Christopher; Cull, Brian; Izawa, Yasuho (1993). Bloody Shambles: The Defence of Sumatra to the Fall of Burma. II. London: Grub Street. ISBN 0-948817-67-4.
  • Silverstone, Paul H. (1984). Directory of the World's Capital Ships. New York: Hippocrene Books. ISBN 0-88254-979-0.
  • Sturtivant, Ray (1984). The Squadrons of the Fleet Air Arm. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air-Britain (Historians). ISBN 0-85130-120-7.

External links

1918 in the United Kingdom

Events from the year 1918 in the United Kingdom. This year sees the end of the First World War after four years, which Britain and its allies won (beginning the Interwar period), and a major advance in women's suffrage.

1924 in the United Kingdom

Events from the year 1924 in the United Kingdom.


1942 (MCMXLII)

was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1942nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 942nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 42nd year of the 20th century, and the 3rd year of the 1940s decade.

HMS Hermes

Ten ships of the Royal Navy have been named HMS Hermes, after Hermes, the messenger god of Greek mythology, while another was planned:

HMS Hermes (1796) was a 12-gun brig-sloop, originally the Dutch Mercurius, captured in 1796 by HMS Sylph. She foundered in 1797.

HMS Hermes (1798) was a 22-gun ship purchased in 1798 and sold in 1802.

HMS Hermes (1803) was a 16-gun sloop, originally the civilian Majestic. She was purchased in 1803 and sold in 1810.

HMS Hermes (1811) was a 20-gun sixth rate launched in 1811 and burned in 1814 during a highly unsuccessful attack on Fort Bowyer at Mobile Point, Alabama.

HMS Hermes was a wooden paddle packet, originally in civilian service as George IV. She was purchased in 1830 as HMS Courier (1830), renamed HMS Hermes in 1832, became a coal hulk and was renamed HMS Charger in 1835, and was broken up in 1854.

HMS Hermes (1835) was a wooden paddle sloop launched in 1835, rebuilt in 1842 and broken up in 1864.

HMS Hermes was a 74-gun third rate launched in 1816 as HMS Minotaur (1816), renamed HMS Hermes in 1866, and broken up in 1869.

HMS Hermes (1898) was a Highflyer-class cruiser launched in 1898, converted into an experimental seaplane tender in 1913 and sunk by a German U-boat in 1914.

HMS Hermes (95) was the first purpose built aircraft carrier in the world to be launched, in 1919. She was sunk in a Japanese air attack in 1942.

HMS Hermes was to have been a Centaur-class aircraft carrier, but was cancelled in 1945.

HMS Hermes (R12) was a Centaur-class aircraft carrier, originally planned as HMS Elephant, but renamed in 1945. She was launched in 1953 and served in the Falklands War. She was sold to the Indian Navy in 1986, who recommissioned her as INS Viraat until finally decommissioned in 2017

HMS Hermes is the name given to the Queen Elizabeth-class aircraft carrier Ship Control Centre Training Simulator situated in the Defence School of Marine Engineering, HMS Sultan, Gosport. It was opened by Flag Officer Sea Training Rear Admiral WJ Warrinder on 28 October 2018. The simulator was built by L3 and is a representation of the Ship Control Centre of the class and is used to train ship staff in machinery operation principles.

History of the aircraft carrier

Aircraft carriers are warships that evolved from balloon-carrying wooden vessels into nuclear-powered vessels carrying scores of fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft. Since their introduction they have allowed naval forces to project air power great distances without having to depend on local bases for staging aircraft operations.

Balloon carriers were the first ships to deploy manned aircraft, used during the 19th and early 20th century, mainly for observation purposes. The advent of fixed-wing aircraft in 1903 was followed in 1910 by the first flight from the deck of a US Navy cruiser. Seaplanes and seaplane tender support ships, such as HMS Engadine, followed. The development of flat top vessels produced the first large fleet ships. This evolution was well underway by the early to mid-1920s, resulting in the commissioning of ships such as Hōshō (1922), HMS Hermes (1924), Béarn (1927), and the Lexington-class aircraft carriers (1927).

Most early aircraft carriers were conversions of ships that were laid down (or had even served) as different ship types: cargo ships, cruisers, battlecruisers, or battleships. During the 1920s, several navies started ordering and building aircraft carriers that were specifically designed as such. This allowed the design to be specialized to their future role, and resulted in superior ships. During the Second World War, these ships would become the backbone of the carrier forces of the US, British, and Japanese navies, known as fleet carriers.

World War II saw the first large-scale use of aircraft carriers and induced further refinement of their launch and recovery cycle leading to several design variants. The USA built small escort carriers, such as USS Bogue, as a stop-gap measure to provide air support for convoys and amphibious invasions. Subsequent light aircraft carriers, such as USS Independence, represented a larger, more "militarized" version of the escort carrier concept. Although the light carriers usually carried the same size air groups as escort carriers, they had the advantage of higher speed as they had been converted from cruisers under construction.

Index of World War II articles (H)

H-hour (D-day)

H. A. Sinclair de Rochemont

H. E. Bates

H. Emory Widener Jr.

H. H. Kung

H. Keith Thompson

H. L. N. Salmon

H. Montgomery Hyde

H. Ryan Price

H. Stuart Hughes

H. W. Whillock

Höcker Album

Höfle Telegram

Hôtel-Dieu de Paris

Hôtel Biron

Hôtel Carnavalet

Hôtel Continental

Hôtel Costes

Hôtel d'Evreux

Hôtel de Castries

Hôtel de Cluny

Hôtel de Crillon

Hôtel de Lauzun

Hôtel de Rambouillet

Hôtel de Salm

Hôtel de Sens

Hôtel de Soubise

Hôtel de Toulouse

Hôtel de Ville (Paris Métro)

Hôtel de Ville, Paris

Hôtel des Invalides

Hôtel Grimod de La Reynière

Hôtel Lambert

Hôtel Lutetia

Hôtel Matignon

Hôtel Méridien Montparnasse

Hôtel particulier

Hôtel Ritz Paris

Hôtel Salomon de Rothschild

H2S radar

H2X radar

Ha'avara Agreement

HA. 19 (Japanese Midget Submarine)

Haakon Hansen (boxer)

Haakon VII of Norway

Haane Manahi

Haavara Agreement

Habib Bamogo

Raja Habib ur Rahman Khan

Hachirō Arita

Hadamar Clinic

Hadrien Feraud



Hai (midget submarine)

Haig Acterian


Haijiu-class submarine chaser

Haika Grossman

Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia

Hailstorm Over Truk Lagoon

Hainan Island Operation

Hainewalde concentration camp

Hainichen concentration camp

Haiqing-class submarine chaser


Hajime Sugiyama

Hajo Herrmann

Hajo Holborn

Hakim Saci

Hakko ichiu

Hal Clement

Hal Far Fighter Flight

Hal Gould

Hal Holbrook

Hal Lahar

Hal Turner

Hal Van Every

Hala Gorani

Halberstadt C.V

Halberstadt CL.II

Halberstadt CL.IV

Halberstadt D.I

Halberstadt D.II

Halcyon-class minesweeper

Hale Boggs

Halina Birenbaum

Halina Szymańska

Hall Overton

Halle concentration camp

Halls of Montezuma (film)

Halswell House

Hamazasp Babadzhanian

Hamburg Ravensbrück Trials

Hamilton Air Force Base

Hamilton H. Howze

Hamish Forbes


Hammond Innes

Hampshire County Division

Han Deqin

Han Xianchu

Hana Brady

Hana Greenfield

Hana Mašková

Handan Campaign

Handley Page Heyford

Hanford MacNider

Hanford Site

Hangmen Also Die!

Hank Bauer

Hank Gowdy

Hank Greenberg

Hank Ketcham

Hank Soar

Hank Stram

Hank Thompson (baseball)

Hank Thompson (musician)

Hanna Reitsch

Hanna Yablonka

Hannah Arendt

Hannah Billig

Hannah Szenes

Hannes Messemer

Hannes Trautloft

Hannie Schaft

Hannover CL.II

Hannover CL.III

Hannover CL.IV

Hannover CL.V

Hanns-Martin Schleyer

Hanns Albin Rauter

Hanns Eisler

Hanns Johst

Hanns Kerrl

Hanns Ludin

Hanns Scharff

Hanover Street (film)

Hans-Adolf Prützmann

Hans-Arnold Stahlschmidt

Hans-Dieter Weihs

Hans-Dietrich Genscher

Hans-Erich Voss

Hans-Georg von Friedeburg

Hans-Hartwig Trojer

Hans-Heinz Augenstein

Hans-Jürgen Stumpff

Hans-Jürgen von Arnim

Hans-Jürgen von Blumenthal

Hans-Joachim Jabs

Hans-Joachim Marseille

Hans-Jochen Vogel

Hans-Karl Freiherr von Esebeck

Hans-Karl Stepp

Hans-Oscar Wöhlermann

Hans-Rudolf Rösing

Hans-Ulrich Rudel

Hans-Ulrich Wehler

Hans-Valentin Hube

Hans "Assi" Hahn

Hans Adolf Krebs

Hans Aumeier

Hans Baur

Hans Beißwenger

Hans Bernd Gisevius

Hans Bernd von Haeften

Hans Bethe

Hans Biebow

Hans Bühler

Hans Candrian

Hans Conrad Leipelt

Hans Coppi

Hans Dammers

Hans Dorr

Hans Egon Holthusen

Hans Ekkehard Bob

Hans F. K. Günther

Hans Felber

Hans Frank

Hans Frankenthal

Hans Fritzsche

Hans Götz

Hans Georg Calmeyer

Hans Georg Dehmelt

Hans Georg Klamroth

Hans Globke

Hans Gollnick

Hans Graf von Sponeck

Hans Grünberg

Hans Grundig

Hans Gruneberg

Hans Gál

Hans Guido Mutke

Hans Hartung

Hans Heilbronn

Hans Heinrich von Twardowski

Hans Hinkel

Hans Howaldt

Hans Jacob Nielsen

Hans Jeschonnek

Hans Jüttner

Hans John

Hans Jordan

Hans Josephsohn

Hans Kammler

Hans Kempin

Hans Koning

Hans Krebs (SS general)

Hans Krebs (Wehrmacht general)

Hans Kreysing

Hans Krüger

Hans Kroh

Hans Krása

Hans Källner

Hans Lammers

Hans Langsdorff

Hans Larive

Hans Litten

Hans Loritz

Hans Münch

Hans Modrow

Hans Mommsen

Hans Multhopp

Hans Nieland

Hans Nordvik

Hans Oster

Hans P. Kraus

Hans Philipp

Hans Plenk

Hans Pulver

Hans Röhrig

Hans Refior

Hans Reidar Holtermann

Hans Reiter

Hans Ritter von Seisser

Hans Rose

Hans Rothfels

Hans Schemm

Hans Schleef

Hans Scholl

Hans Seidemann

Hans Speidel

Hans Thomsen

Hans Ulrich Klintzsch

Hans van den Broek

Hans von Adam

Hans von Dohnanyi

Hans von Halban

Hans von Herwarth

Hans von Luck

Hans von Obstfelder

Hans von Ohain

Hans von Salmuth

Hans von Tschammer und Osten

Hans Waldmann (fighter pilot)

Hans Walter

Hans Weik

Hans Wind

Hans Ziegler (physicist)

Hansa-Brandenburg B.I

Hansa-Brandenburg C.I

Hansa-Brandenburg CC

Hansa-Brandenburg D.I

Hansa-Brandenburg G.I

Hansa-Brandenburg GW

Hansa-Brandenburg KDW

Hansa-Brandenburg W.11

Hansa-Brandenburg W.12

Hansa-Brandenburg W.13

Hansa-Brandenburg W.19

Hansa-Brandenburg W.27

Hansa-Brandenburg W.29

Hansa-Brandenburg W.33

Hansa-Brandenburg W

Hansa (Swedish ship)

Hansa Bay

Hanson Victor Turner

Hanyang 88

Hanyang Arsenal

Hao Mengling

Happy Sam Sawyer

Happy Valley, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Harald Edelstam

Harald Feller

Harald Grønningen

Harald Hagen

Harald Langhelle

Harald Mors

Harald Natvig

Harald Quandt

Harald Riipalu

Harald Weinrich

Harbaville Triptych

Harbin SH-5

Harbin Z-5

Harbin Z-9

Harbor Defenses of Manila and Subic Bays

Harbour Defence Motor Launch

Hardy Brown

Harl Pease

Harlan Lane

Harlem Désir

Harley-Davidson WLA

Harlo Jones

Harlon Block

Harm's Way (novel)

Harold "Barehands" Bates

Harold A. Garman

Harold Abrahams

Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis

Harold Annison

Harold Augustus Wernher

Harold Auten

Harold Ball

Harold Brownlow Martin

Harold Burrough

Harold C. Agerholm

Harold Chester Thomas

Harold Clarke

Harold Comte

Harold Covington

Harold E. Martin

Harold E. Wilson

Harold Eric Barrowclough

Harold Farncomb

Harold G. Epperson

Harold G. Hoffman

Harold G. Kiner

Harold G. Schrier

Harold Gonsalves

Harold Gould

Harold H. Moon Jr.

Harold Himmel Velde

Harold James (historian)

Harold Jensen Christopher

Harold John Ellison

Harold John Mack

Harold Keith Johnson

Harold Little

Harold MacMichael

Harold Maguire

Harold Mahony

Harold Marcus Ervine-Andrews

Harold Marshall (Canadian sniper)

Harold O. Messerschmidt

Harold Osborn

Harold P. Hamilton

Harold Rainsford Stark

Harold Rawdon Briggs

Harold Redman

Harold Reginald Newgass

Harold Robert Aaron

Harold Russell

Harold Sebring

Harold Soref

Harold Stassen

Harold Taft

Harold Turner (German SS commander)

Harold Urey

Harold W. Bauer

Harold Ware

Harold Washington

Harold Wilson (rower)

Harris-class attack transport

Harris George Rogers

Harris Hull

Harrison C. Summers

Harrison Glancy

Harrison Thyng

Harro Schulze-Boysen

Harry's New York Bar

Harry "Wings" Day

Harry A. "Paddy" Flint

Harry B. Liversedge

Harry Brinkley Bass

Harry Broos

Harry Carey Jr.

Harry Cator

Harry Corner

Harry Crerar

Harry D. Felt

Harry Daniels

Harry DeBaecke

Harry DeWolf

Harry Dénis

Harry E. Yarnell

Harry Edward de Robillard Wetherall

Harry Elmer Barnes

Harry F. Byrd Jr.

Harry Frank Guggenheim

Harry G. Haskell Jr.

Harry George Armstrong

Harry Gill (RAF officer)

Harry Gold

Harry Harrison

Harry Ice

Harry J. Collins

Harry J. Michael

Harry James Lowe Jr.

Harry Daghlian

Harry K. Fukuhara

Harry Kenneth Dimoline

Harry L. Martin

Harry Lee (athlete)

Harry Llewellyn

Harry Magdoff and espionage

Harry Mallin

Harry Mitchell (boxer)

Harry Newcombe

Harry Nicholls

Harry O'Neill (catcher)

Harry Pennell

Harry Pregerson

Harry R. Harr

Harry Reasoner

Harry Rée

Harry S. Truman

Harry Schell

Harry Schmidt (USMC)

Harry Secombe

Harry Steel

Harry Sundberg

Harry T. Mangurian Jr.

Harry T. Moore

Harry Thürk

Harry Turtledove's Darkness

Harry Wyld

Hart's War

Hartford-Brainard Airport

Hartland Molson

Hartley Shawcross, Baron Shawcross

Hartmann Lauterbacher

Harukichi Hyakutake

Haruko Okamoto

Harvard Army Airfield

Harvey C. Couch

Harvey Emerson Oswald

Harvey Lipschultz (TV character)

Harvey Lord

Harvey Parnell

Harvey Possinger

Harwood Harrison

Hasegawa Yoshimichi

Hashim al-Atassi


Haskell-class attack transport

Hassan Ahamada

Hasso von Boehmer

Hasso von Manteuffel

Hastings Ismay, 1st Baron Ismay

Hatazō Adachi

Hatbox Field


Hatsuharu-class destroyer

Hauptamt SS-Gericht

Hauptamt Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle




Haus der Kunst

Haussmann's renovation of Paris

Haussmann – Saint-Lazare (Paris RER)

Havana Conference of 1940

Haven-class hospital ship

Haviva Reik

Havre - Caumartin (Paris Métro)

Hawker Sea Fury

Hawker Sea Hawk

Hawker Tempest

Hawker Tornado

Hawker Typhoon

Hawkins grenade

Haxhi Lleshi

Haxo (Paris Métro)

Hayabusa-class torpedo boat

Hayao Kinugasa

Hayao Tada

Haydarpaşa Cemetery

Hayward Executive Airport

Hazel Hotchkiss Wightman

Hazel Ying Lee

He-Umezu Agreement

He Long

He Yingqin

He Zhuguo

Hełm wz. 31

Head in the Clouds

Headquarters Allied Command Europe Rapid Reaction Corps

Heart Mountain War Relocation Center

Hearts of Iron II: Armageddon

Hearts of Iron II: Doomsday

Hearts of Iron II

Hearts of Iron

Heathcote Howard Hammer

Heaven Knows, Mr. Allison (novel)

Heaven Knows, Mr. Allison

Hebei-Chahar Political Council

Hebei-Rehe-Chahar Campaign

Hec Kilrea

Hector Bertram Gray

Hector Bianciotti

Hector Boece

Hector MacLean

Hector Monro, Baron Monro of Langholm

Hector P. Garcia

Hector Waller

Hedgehog (weapon)

Hedley Hazelden

Hedley Verity

Hedwiga Rosenbaumová

Hedy Epstein

German Army (Wehrmacht)

Heeresgeschichtliches Museum


Heidemarie Steiner

Heidi Lee Morgan

Heikki Liimatainen (athlete)

Heiligenbeil concentration camp

Heiligenbeil Pocket

Heilungkiang National Salvation Army



Hein ter Poorten

Heinie Elder

Heinkel HD 17

Heinkel HD 23

Heinkel HD 25

Heinkel HD 26

Heinkel HD 28

Heinkel HD 32

Heinkel HD 36

Heinkel HD 37

Heinkel HD 38

Heinkel HD 55

Heinkel HE 1

Heinkel He 100

Heinkel He 111

Heinkel He 112 operational service

Heinkel He 112

Heinkel He 113

Heinkel He 114

Heinkel He 115

Heinkel He 118

Heinkel He 119

Heinkel He 162

Heinkel He 176

Heinkel He 177

Heinkel He 178

Heinkel HE 2

Heinkel He 219

Heinkel He 274

Heinkel He 277

Heinkel He 280

Heinkel He 343

Heinkel He 42

Heinkel He 45

Heinkel He 46

Heinkel HE 5

Heinkel He 50

Heinkel He 51

Heinkel He 59

Heinkel He 60

Heinkel He 62

Heinkel He 70

Heinkel He 72

Heinkel He 74

Heinkel HE 8

Heinkel Lerche

Heino von Heimburg

Heinrich Bartels

Heinrich Behmann

Heinrich Bleichrodt

Heinrich Blum

Heinrich Boere

Heinrich Bär

Heinrich Eberbach

Heinrich Ehrler

Heinrich Fehlis

Heinrich Freiherr von Lüttwitz

Heinrich Freiherr von Stackelberg

Heinrich George

Heinrich Graf von Einsiedel

Heinrich Graf von Lehndorff-Steinort

Heinrich Graf zu Dohna-Schlobitten

Heinrich Gross

Heinrich Höfemeier

Heinrich Harrer

Heinrich Himmler

Heinrich Hoffmann (photographer)

Heinrich Kreipe

Heinrich Lehmann-Willenbrock

Heinrich Liebe

Heinrich Messner

Heinrich Müller (Gestapo)

Heinrich Prinz zu Sayn-Wittgenstein

Heinrich Rau

Heinrich Rischtoff

Heinrich Schwarz

Heinrich Severloh

Heinrich Sturm

Heinrich Thoma

Heinrich Trettner

Heinrich von Vietinghoff

Heinz-Georg Lemm

Heinz-Gerhard Vogt

Heinz-Wilhelm Eck

Heinz-Wolfgang Schnaufer

Heinz Arnold

Heinz Auerswald

Heinz Barth

Heinz Brücher

Heinz Dörmer

Heinz Drossel

Heinz Ebeling

Heinz Galinski

Heinz Günther Guderian

Heinz Guderian

Heinz Harmel

Heinz Hellmich

Heinz Hitler

Heinz Kapelle

Heinz Lange

Heinz Linge

Heinz Lorenz

Heinz Macher

Heinz Marquardt

Heinz Müller (SS officer)

Heinz Nixdorf

Heinz Pernet

Heinz Rökker

Heinz Reinefarth

Heinz Sachsenberg

Heinz Schmidt

Heinz Spanknobel

Heinz Strüning

Heinz von Randow

Heinz Waaske

Heisuke Hironaka

Heisuke Yanagawa

Heitarō Kimura

Helen Duncan

Helen Gwynne-Vaughan

Helen L. Seaborg

Helen Meany

Helen of Greece and Denmark

Helen Wainwright

Helen Wills Moody

Helena Macher

Helena Nordheim

Helene Moszkiewiez

Helenio Herrera


Helga Deen

Helge Auleb

Hell in the Pacific

Hell Is for Heroes (film)

Hell ship

Hell to Eternity

Hellfire Pass

Hellmer Hermandsen

Hellmuth Heye

Hellmuth Mäder

Hellmuth Reymann

Helmbrechts concentration camp

Helmer Swenholt

Helmet for My Pillow

Helmut Baudach

Helmut Bennemann

Helmut Bruckner

Helmut Dörner

Helmut Gröttrup

Helmut Hamann

Helmut Kapp

Helmut Knochen

Helmut Kunz

Helmut Lennartz

Helmut Lent

Helmut Lipfert

Helmut Poppendick

Helmut Schmidt

Helmut Thumm

Helmut Vetter

Helmut Wick

Helmut Wirnsberger

Helmut Woltersdorf

Helmuth Ehrhardt

Helmuth Hübener

Helmuth James Graf von Moltke

Helmuth Stieff

Helmuth von Pannwitz

Helmuth von Ruckteschell

Helmuth Weidling

Heloise (abbess)

Hemp for Victory

Hendrik Elias

Hendrik Nicolaas Werkman

Hendrik Offerhaus

Hendrik Timmer (tennis)

Hendrik van Heuckelum

Hendrik van Riessen

Hendrikus Colijn

Henk de Best

Henk Feldmeijer

Henk Sneevliet

Henneicke Column

Henner Henkel

Henning von Tresckow

Henri-Cardin-Jean-Baptiste d'Aguesseau

Henri-Chapelle American Cemetery and Memorial

Henri-Jacques de Caumont, duc de La Force

Henri-Louis Duhamel du Monceau

Henri-Robert Petit

Henri Alekan

Henri Amouroux

Henri Auguste Barbier

Henri Barbusse

Henri Bergson

Henri Braquenié

Henri Béraud

Henri Caillavet

Henri Cartan

Henri Claude

Henri Cochet

Henri Curiel

Henri d'Astier de la Vigerie

Henri d'Orléans, duc d'Aumale

Henri Daniel-Rops

Henri de Man

Henri de Massue, 1st Earl of Galway

Henri de Régnier

Henri Deloge

Henri Dentz

Henri Dericourt

Henri Donnedieu de Vabres

Henri Dumat

Henri Duparc (composer)

Henri Désiré Landru

Henri Fantin-Latour

Henri Frenay

Henri Galau

Henri Giraud

Henri Gouhier

Henri Helle

Henri Honoré d'Estienne d'Orves

Henri Hérouin

Henri Krasucki

Henri Landwirth

Henri Laurent

Henri Lauvaux

Henri Lucien Doucet

Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville

Henri Martin (historian)

Henri Maspero

Henri Masson

Henri Meilhac

Henri Menier

Henri Michel

Henri Mineur

Henri Moissan

Henri Navarre

Henri Oreiller

Henri Pieck

Henri Pitot

Henri Poincaré

Henri Regnault

Henri Reynders

Henri Rol-Tanguy

Henri Tauzin

Henri Troyat

Henri Victor Regnault

Henri Wallon (psychologist)

Henri Wernli

Henri Winkelman

Henri, comte de Chambord

Henricus Tromp

Henrietta Maria of France

Henrik Agerbeck

Henrik Kauffmann

Henrik Robert

Henrik Sillem

Henry A. Commiskey Sr.

Henry A. Courtney Jr.

Henry A. Miley Jr.

Henry A. Schade

Henry Ashby Turner

Henry Bailey (sport shooter)

Henry Bellmon

Henry Bentinck, 11th Earl of Portland

Henry Blagrove

Henry Botterell

Henry Browne, Farmer

Henry Cabot Lodge Bohler

Henry Cabot Lodge Jr.

Henry Cattan

Henry Clausen

Henry Cohen (civil servant)

Henry Corbin

Henry Coston

Henry d'Avigdor-Goldsmid

Henry de Montherlant

Henry DeWolf Smyth

Henry E. Erwin

Henry Eric Harden

Henry Everard

Henry F. Warner

Henry Fancourt

Henry Fonda

Henry Friedlander

Henry Gurke

Henry Harwood

Henry Herbert Reed

Henry Houssaye

Henry Hugh Gordon Stoker

Henry Hurwitz Jr.

Henry Huttleston Rogers Coe

Henry Hyde

Henry I. Hodes

Henry Jamison Handy

Henry L. Stimson

Henry Leach

Henry Lerolle

Henry M. Britt

Henry M. Mullinnix

Henry Maitland Wilson, 1st Baron Wilson

Henry Mancini

Henry Margenau

Henry Millicer

Henry Morgentaler

Henry Morgenthau Jr.

Henry Mucci

Henry Oliver Hansen

Henry Oliver Rinnan

Henry Orenstein

Henry Percy, 9th Duke of Northumberland

Henry Poole MacKeen

Henry Ries

Henry Robert Bowreman Foote

Henry Rowland (actor)

Henry Royds Pownall

Henry Ruthven Moore

Henry Schauer

Henry Scrimgeour

H. B. Stallard

Henry Sydney, 1st Earl of Romney

Henry T. Elrod

Henry T. King

Henry Terry

Henry W. Hahn

Henry Wade

Henry Wallace McLeod

Henry Wascow

Henry Wellesley, 6th Duke of Wellington

Henry Wells (author)

Henry Welsford

Henry Wilhelm Kristiansen

Henry Wise Jr.

Henryk Breit

Henryk Chmielewski

Henryk Cybulski

Henryk de Kwiatkowski

Henryk Dobrzański

Henryk Iwański

Henryk Jabłoński

Henryk Leon Strasburger

Henryk Mandelbaum

Henryk Pietrzak

Henryk Sławik

Henryk Sucharski

Henryk Szatkowski

Henryk Woliński

Henryk Zygalski

Henschel Hs 123

Henschel Hs 124

Henschel Hs 126

Henschel Hs 127

Henschel Hs 129

Henschel Hs 130

Henschel Hs 132

Henschel Hs 293

Henschel Hs 294

Hera Borghese

Herb Sargent

Herb Siegert

Herb Trawick

Herbert A. Calcaterra

Herbert Annesley Packer

Herbert B. Powell

Herbert B. Warburton

Herbert Bachnick

Herbert Backe

Herbert Baum

Herbert Beckington

Herbert C. Jones

Herbert Cecil Duncan

Herbert Emery Schonland

Herbert F. Christian

Herbert Gerdes

Herbert Gruber

Herbert H. Burr

Herbert Hans Haupt

Herbert Hasler

Herbert Huber

Herbert Hudson Taylor

Herbert Hugo Menges

Herbert Ihlefeld

Herbert J. Sweet

Herbert John Leslie Barefoot

Bert Walker

Herbert Johnston

Herbert Joseph Thomas

Herbert Kappler

Herbert L. Anderson

Herbert Lange

Herbert Lloyd

Herbert Lumsden

Herbert Massey

Herbert Morrison

Herbert Nicol

Herbert Norkus

Herbert Otto Gille

Herbert Perry (sport shooter)

Herbert Schultze

Herbert Sobel

Herbert von Bose

Herbert von Petersdorff

Herbert Wallace Le Patourel

Herbert Wells (soccer)

Herbert Windt

Herbert Wohlfarth

Herbert York

Herberts Cukurs

Herbertus Bikker

Herbie Kronowitz

Herbie Roberts


Here Is Germany

Hereford Army Airfield

Herington Regional Airport

Heritage Front

Herk Harvey

Herman Auerbach

Herman Bodson

Herman Bottcher

Herman C. Wallace

Herman H. Hanneken

Herman Keiser

Herman T. Schneebeli

Herman Talmadge

Herman von Klempt

Herman Wouk

Hermann-Bernhard Ramcke

Hermann-Friedrich Joppien

Hermann-Heinrich Behrend

Hermann Balck

Hermann Barrelet

Hermann Bauer

Hermann Braun

Hermann Breith

Hermann Broch

Hermann Buchner

Hermann Buchner

Hermann de Pourtalès

Hermann Ehrhardt

Hermann Eilts

Hermann Esser

Hermann Fegelein

Hermann Florstedt

Hermann Friedrich Graebe

Hermann Göring

Hermann Görtz

Hermann Gauch

Hermann Gehri

Hermann Giesler

Hermann Graf

Hermann Höfle

Hermann Hackmann

Hermann Hogeback

Hermann Hohn

Hermann Hoth

Hermann Kriebel

Hermann Langbein

Hermann Maas

Hermann Muhs

Hermann Niehoff

Hermann Oberth

Hermann Obrecht

Hermann Prieß

Hermann Rauschning

Hermann Recknagel

Hermann Scherchen

Hermann van Pels

Hermann von Oppeln-Bronikowski

Hermann Wilker

Hermann Wraschtil

Hermanus Brockmann

Hermine Braunsteiner

Herménégilde Chiasson

Hero of the Soviet Union

Herr Engelbert Von Smallhausen

Herr Kleiser

Herr Meets Hare

Herr Otto Flick

Herschel F. Briles

Herschel Green

Herschel Grynszpan

Herschel Johnson

Herschel Schacter

Hersh Lyons

Hershel W. Williams

Herta Bothe

Herta Ehlert

Herta Oberheuser

Hervey Machen

Hervé Le Tellier


Heshui Campaign


Heuschrecke 10


Heywood-class attack transport

Heywood Hale Broun

Heywood L. Edwards


Hidden & Dangerous 2

Hidden & Dangerous

Hideki Tojo

Hideki Yukawa

Hideo Iwakuro

Hideo Sasaki

Hideyoshi Obata

Hieronim Dekutowski

Higashikuni Morihiro

Higgins Industries

High Command Trial

High Flux Isotope Reactor

High Seas Fleet Badge

High Standard HDM

Highballing to Victory

Higher Than a Kite

Higinio Morínigo

HIJMS Shinano Maru (1904)

Hikari Kikan

Hikōtai Transport Unit

Hilaire Belloc

Hilan Ebert

Hilary Corke

Hilde Coppi

Hildegard Lächert

Hildegard Neumann

Hill 112

Hill 400, Bergstein

Hill 62 Memorial

Hillel Zeitlin

Hillsborough Army Airfield

Hilmar Wictorin

Hilmer von Bülow-Bothkamp

Himeyuri Students

Hindustan Field Force

Hinrich Lohse

Hinrich Schuldt

Hinzert concentration camp

HIPO Corps

Hippolyte-Jules Pilet de La Mesnardière

Hippolyte Delaroche

Hippolyte Taine

Hirabayashi v. United States

Hiram Wesley Evans

Hiranuma Kiichirō

Hiroaki Abe


Hiromichi Yahara

Hiroo Onoda

Hiroshi Ōshima

Hiroshi Imazato

Hiroshi Kashiwagi

Hiroshima (book)

Hiroshima (film)

Hiroshima City Ebayama Museum of Meteorology

Hiroshima Maidens

Hiroshima National Peace Memorial Hall for the Atomic Bomb Victims

Hiroshima Peace Memorial Ceremony

Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum

Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park

Hiroshima Peace Memorial

Hiroshima Witness


Hiroyoshi Nishizawa

Hisaichi Terauchi

Hisakazu Tanaka

Hisao Tani

Hisaye Yamamoto

Hispanic Americans in World War II

Historia Tolteca-Chichimeca

Historical Advanced Squad Leader module

Historical revisionism (negationism)


Historiography of World War II

History (novel)

History of Blacks in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust

History of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1941–1945)

History of children in the Holocaust

History of gay men in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust

History of German settlement in Central and Eastern Europe

History of Germany during World War II

History of Germany since 1945

History of Gibraltar

History of Greenland during World War 2

History of Greenland during World War II

History of Paris

History of Poland (1939–1945)

History of the Armée de l'Air (1909-1942)

History of the Armée de l'Air (colonial presence 1939-1962)

History of the European Union

History of the Jews during World War II

History of the Jews in Guernsey

History of the Jews in Jersey

History of the Jews in Monastir

History of the Jews in the Dominican Republic

History of the People's Liberation Army

History of the Second World War

History of the world

History of United States Naval Operations in World War II

Hitler's Letters and Notes

Hitler's Pope

Hitler's SS: Portrait in Evil

Hitler's Terror Weapons

Hitler's War (game)

Hitler's War

Hitler's Willing Executioners

Hitler and the Occult (book)

Hitler Has Only Got One Ball

Hitler Line

Hitler Myth

Hitler oath

Hitler Youth knife

Hitler Youth Quex

Hitler Youth: Growing Up in Hitler's Shadow

Hitler Youth

Hitler, Beast of Berlin

Hitler: A Film from Germany

Hitler: Speeches and Proclamations

Hitler: The Last Ten Days


Hitlers Bombe

Hitoshi Imamura

Hiwi (volunteer)

Hiyō-class aircraft carrier

Hjördis Töpel

Hjalmar Mäe

Hjalmar Schacht

Hjalmar Siilasvuo

HKP 562 forced labor camp

Hlinka Guard

HM Prison Dhurringile

HM Trawler Force

HMAS Adelaide (1918)

HMAS Ararat (K34)

HMAS Armidale (J240)

HMAS Arunta (I30)

HMAS Australia (D84)

HMAS Ballarat (J184)

HMAS Bataan (I91)

HMAS Bathurst (J158)

HMAS Benalla (J323)

HMAS Bendigo (J187)

HMAS Bowen

HMAS Broome (J191)

HMAS Bunbury (J241)

HMAS Bundaberg (J231)

HMAS Burnie

HMAS Cairns (J183)

HMAS Canberra (D33)

HMAS Castlemaine

HMAS Cessnock (J175)

HMAS Colac

HMAS Cootamundra

HMAS Cowra

HMAS Deloraine

HMAS Diamantina (K377)

HMAS Dubbo (J251)

HMAS Echuca

HMAS Fremantle (J246)

HMAS Gascoyne (K354)

HMAS Gawler (J188)

HMAS Geelong (J201)

HMAS Geraldton (J178)

HMAS Gladstone (J324)

HMAS Glenelg (J236)

HMAS Goulburn

HMAS Gympie

HMAS Hawkesbury (K363)

HMAS Hobart (1939)

HMAS Horsham

HMAS Inverell

HMAS Ipswich (J186)

HMAS Junee


HMAS Kalgoorlie

HMAS Kanimbla (1936)

HMAS Kapunda

HMAS Katoomba

HMAS Kiama

HMAS Kookaburra


HMAS Latrobe

HMAS Launceston (J179)

HMAS Lismore (J145)

HMAS Lithgow (J206)

HMAS Macquarie (K532)

HMAS Manoora (1935)

HMAS Maryborough (J195)

HMAS Mavie

HMAS Mildura

HMAS Napier (G97)

HMAS Nepal (G25)

HMAS Nestor (G02)

HMAS Nizam (G38)

HMAS Norman (G49)

HMAS Parkes

HMAS Parramatta (U44)

HMAS Patricia Cam

HMAS Perth (D29)

HMAS Pirie (J189)

HMAS Platypus (1917)

HMAS Quadrant (G11)

HMAS Quality (G62)

HMAS Queenborough (G70)

HMAS Quiberon (G81)

HMAS Quickmatch (G92)

HMAS Rockhampton

HMAS Shepparton (J248)

HMAS Stawell

HMAS Strahan

HMAS Stuart (D-00/100)

HMAS Sydney (1934)

HMAS Tamworth (J191)

HMAS Toowoomba (J157)

HMAS Townsville (J205)

HMAS Vampire (D68)

HMAS Vendetta (D69)

HMAS Voyager (D31)

HMAS Wagga

HMAS Wallaroo

HMAS Warramunga (I44)

HMAS Warrnambool (J202)

HMAS Waterhen (D22)

HMAS Westralia (1939)

HMAS Whyalla (J153)

HMAS Wollongong (J172)

HMAS Yarra (U77)

HMCS Alberni (K103)

HMCS Asbestos (K358)

HMCS Assiniboine (I18)

HMCS Athabaskan (G07)

HMCS Buctouche (K179)

HMCS Calgary (K231)

HMCS Charlottetown (1941)

HMCS Chignecto (J160)

HMCS Cowichan (J146)

HMCS Digby (J267)

HMCS Esquimalt (J272)

HMCS Fraser (H48)

HMCS Granby (J264)

HMCS Haida (G63)

HMCS Halifax (K237)

HMCS Huron (G24)

HMCS Iroquois (G89)

HMCS Kapuskasing (J326)

HMCS Kenogami (K125)

HMCS Kitchener (K225)

HMCS Kootenay (H75)

HMCS Long Branch (K487)

HMCS Margaree (H49)

HMCS Miramichi (J169)

HMCS Moncton (K139)

HMCS Moosejaw (K164)

HMCS Nipigon (J154)

HMCS Nootka (R96)

HMCS Oakville (K178)

HMCS Ottawa (H60)

HMCS Pictou (K146)

HMCS Prince David (F89)

HMCS Quebec (C66)

HMCS Red Deer (J255)

HMCS Regina (K234)

HMCS Rimouski (K121)

HMCS Rivière du Loup (K357)

HMCS Sackville (K181)

HMCS Saguenay (D79)

HMCS Sarnia (J309)

HMCS Sioux (R64)

HMCS Skeena (D59)

HMCS Snowberry (K166)

HMCS St. Laurent (H83)

HMCS Stratford (J310)

HMCS Sudbury (K162)

HMCS Suderoy

HMCS Summerside (K141)

HMCS Ungava (J149)

HMCS Vegreville (J257)

HMCS Windflower (K155)

HMHS Newfoundland

HMIS Bombay (1941)

HMNZS Achilles (70)

HMNZS Arabis (K385)

HMNZS Arbutus (K403)

HMNZS Kiwi (T102)

HMNZS Leander

HMNZS Moa (T233)

HMNZS Monowai (F59)

HMNZS Tui (1970)

HMNZS Tui (T234)

HMNZS Wakakura (T00)

HMS Abelia (K184)

HMS Abercrombie (F109)

HMS Acasta (H09)

HMS Achates (H12)

HMS Acheron (H45)

HMS Active (H14)

HMS Activity (D94)

HMS Adamant (1940)

HMS Adventure (M23)

HMS Affleck (K462)

HMS Afridi (F07)

HMS Ajax (22)

HMS Allington Castle (K689)

HMS Alnwick Castle (K405)

HMS Amazon (D39)

HMS Amberley Castle (K386)

HMS Ambuscade (D38)

HMS Ameer (D01)

HMS Amethyst (F116)

HMS Anchusa (K186)

HMS Anson (79)

HMS Antelope (H36)

HMS Aphis (1915)

HMS Arbiter (D31)

HMS Arbutus (K86)

HMS Archer (D78)

HMS Ardent (H41)

HMS Ardrossan (J131)

HMS Arethusa (26)

HMS Argonaut (61)

HMS Argus (I49)

HMS Ark Royal (91)

HMS Arrow (H42)

HMS Ashanti (F51)

HMS Atheling (D51)

HMS Attacker (D02)

HMS Audacity (D10)

HMS Aurora (12)

HMS Avenger (D14)

HMS Aylmer (K463)

HMS Azalea (K25)

HMS Balfour (K464)

HMS Bamborough Castle (K412)

HMS Bangor (J00)

HMS Barfleur (D80)

HMS Barham (04)

HMS Barnard Castle (K694)

HMS Basilisk (H11)

HMS Battler (D18)

HMS Bayntun (K310)

HMS Bazely (K311)

HMS Beagle (H30)

HMS Bedouin (F67)

HMS Bee (1915)

HMS Begum (D38)

HMS Belfast (C35)

HMS Bellona (63)

HMS Bentinck (K314)

HMS Bentley (K465)

HMS Bergamot (K189)

HMS Berkeley Castle (K387)

HMS Bermuda (52)

HMS Berwick (65)

HMS Bickerton (K466)

HMS Birmingham (C19)

HMS Biter (D97)

HMS Bittern (L07)

HMS Black Prince (81)

HMS Black Swan (L57)

HMS Blanche (H47)

HMS Bligh (K467)

HMS Bluebell (K80)

HMS Boadicea (H65)

HMS Bonaventure (31)

HMS Boreas (H77)

HMS Boxer (F121)

HMS Braithwaite (K468)

HMS Bramham (L51)

HMS Brazen (H80)

HMS Brilliant (H84)

HMS Britomart (J22)

HMS Broke (D83)

HMS Bryony (K192)

HMS Bulldog (H91)

HMS Bullen (K469)

HMS Burnham (H82)

HMS Byard (K315)

HMS BYMS-2026 (J 826)

HMS BYMS-2203 (J 1003)

HMS Byron (K508)

HMS Cachalot (N83)

HMS Cairo (D87)

HMS Caistor Castle (K690)

HMS Calcutta (D82)

HMS Calder (K349)

HMS Caledon (D53)

HMS Calypso (D61)

HMS Camellia (K31)

HMS Campania (D48)

HMS Campbeltown (I42)

HMS Capetown (D88)

HMS Caradoc (D60)

HMS Cardiff (D58)

HMS Carinthia

HMS Carisbrooke Castle (K379)

HMS Carlisle (D67)

HMS Castleton (I23)

HMS Cavalier (R73)

HMS Centurion (1911)

HMS Ceres (D59)

HMS Ceylon (30)

HMS Charity (R29)

HMS Charlestown (I21)

HMS Charybdis (88)

HMS Chaser (D32)

HMS Clacton (J151)

HMS Clare (I14)

HMS Cleopatra (33)

HMS Codrington (D65)

HMS Colombo (D89)

HMS Colossus (R15)

HMS Conn (K509)

HMS Cornwall (56)

HMS Cosby (K559)

HMS Cossack (F03)

HMS Courageous (50)

HMS Coventry (D43)

HMS Cricket (1915)

HMS Cromer Castle

HMS Cumberland (57)

HMS Curacoa (D41)

HMS Curlew (D42)

HMS Dainty (H53)

HMS Danae (D44)

HMS Daring (H16)

HMS Dauntless (D45)

HMS Deane (K551)

HMS Decoy (H75)

HMS Defender (H07)

HMS Delhi (D47)

HMS Delight (H38)

HMS Denbigh Castle (K696)

HMS Despatch (D30)

HMS Devonshire (39)

HMS Diadem (84)

HMS Diamond (H22)

HMS Diana (H49)

HMS Dido (37)

HMS Diomede (D92)

HMS Dominica (K507)

HMS Dorsetshire (40)

HMS Dragon (D46)

HMS Duchess (H64)

HMS Duke of York (17)

HMS Dulverton (L63)

HMS Duncan (D99)

HMS Dundalk

HMS Dundee (L84)

HMS Dunedin (D93)

HMS Dunoon

HMS Durban (D99)

HMS Eagle (1918)

HMS Edinburgh (16)

HMS Effingham (D98)

HMS Egret (L75)

HMS Electra (H27)

HMS Emerald (D66)

HMS Emperor (D98)

HMS Empress (D42)

HMS Engadine (1911)

HMS Engadine (1941)

HMS Enterprise (D52)

HMS Erebus (I02)

HMS Erne (U03)

HMS Eskimo (F75)

HMS Euryalus (42)

HMS Exeter (68)

HMS Express (H61)

HMS Faulknor (H62)

HMS Felixstowe (J126)

HMS Fencer (D64)

HMS Fiji (58)

HMS Flint Castle (K383)

HMS Folkestone (L22)

HMS Foresight (H68)

HMS Forfar (F30)

HMS Formidable (67)

HMS Fowey (L15)

HMS Foylebank

HMS Furious (47)

HMS Fury (H76)

HMS Galatea (71)

HMS Gallant (H59)

HMS Gambia (48)

HMS Garland (H37)

HMS Gentian (K90)

HMS Gipsy (H63)

HMS Gladiolus (K34)

HMS Glasgow (C21)

HMS Glorious

HMS Glory (R62)

HMS Gloucester (62)

HMS Glowworm (H92)

HMS Gnat (T60)

HMS Goodson (K480)

HSwMS Gotland (1933)

HMS Grafton (H89)

HMS Grampus (N56)

HMS Graph (P715)

HMS Grenade (H86)

HMS Grenville (H03)

HMS Grenville (R97)

HMS Greyhound (H05)

HMS Griffin (H31)

HMS Guardian (1932)

HMS Gurkha (F20)

HMS Gurkha (G63)


HMS Halcyon (J42)

HMS Hardy (1936)

HMS Hasty (H24)

HMS Havelock (H88)

HMS Havock (H43)

HMS Heartsease (K15)

HMS Heather (K69)

HMS Hebe (J24)

HMS Hedingham Castle (K529)

HMS Hereward (H93)

HMS Hermes (95)

HMS Hermione (74)

HMS Hero (H99)

HMS Hesperus (H57)

HMS Hollyhock (K64)

HMS Hood (51)

HMS Hostile (H55)

HMS Hotspur (H01)

HMS Howe (32)

HMS Hunter (D80)

HMS Hunter (H35)

HMS Hurricane (H06)

HMS Hursley (L84)

HMS Hurst Castle (K416)

HMS Hyperion (H97)

HMS Hythe (J194)

HMS Ibis (U99)

HMS Icarus (D03)

HMS Ilex (D61)

HMS Illustrious (87)

HMS Imogen (D44)

HMS Imperial (D09)

HMS Implacable (R86)

HMS Impulsive (D11)

HMS Inconstant (H49)

HMS Indefatigable (R10)

HMS Indomitable (92)

HMS Inglefield (D02)

HMS Intrepid (D10)

HMS Isis (D87)

HMS Ithuriel (H05)

HMS Ivanhoe (D16)

HMS Jackal (F22)

HMS Jaguar (F34)

HMS Jamaica (44)

HMS Janus (F53)

HMS Javelin (F61)

HMS Jersey (F72)

HMS Jervis (F00)

HMS Jervis Bay (F40)

HMS Juniper (T123)

HMS Juno (F46)

HMS Jupiter (F85)

HMS Justice (W-140)

HMS Kandahar (F28)

HMS Kashmir (F12)

HMS Keith (H06)

HMS Kelly (F01)

HMS Kelvin (F37)

HMS Kempenfelt (I18)

HMS Kempthorne (K483)

HMS Kenilworth Castle (K420)

HMS Kent (54)

HMS Kenya (14)

HMS Khedive (D62)

HMS Kimberley (F50)

HMS King George V (41)

HMS Kingston (F64)

HMS Kite (U87)

HMS Knaresborough Castle (K389)

HMS La Malouine (K46)

HMS Ladybird (1916)

HMS Laforey (G99)

HMS Lance (G87)

HMS Largs

HMS Launceston Castle (K397)

HMS Lawford (K514)

HMS Ledbury (L90)

HMS Leeds Castle (K384)

HMS Legion (G74)

HMS Leith (U36)

HMS Liverpool (C11)

HMS Loch Achray (K426)

HMS Loch Alvie (K428)

HMS Loch Dunvegan (K425)

HMS Loch Eck (K422)

HMS Loch Fada (K390)

HMS Loch Fyne (K429)

HMS Loch Glendhu (K639)

HMS Loch Insh (K433)

HMS Loch Killin (K391)

HMS Loch Killisport (K628)

HMS Loch Lomond (K437)

HMS Loch More (K369)

HMS Locust (1939)

HMS London (69)

HMS Lookout (G32)

HMS Lord Hailsham

HMS Lotus (K130)

HMS Magpie (1943)

HMS Malaya

HMS Malcolm (D19)

HMS Mallow (K81)

HMS Manchester (15)

HMS Maori (F24)

HMS Marigold (K87)

HMS Marne (G35)

HMS Mashona (F59)

HMS Matabele (F26)

HMS Mauritius (80)

HMS Medway (F25)

HMS Mohawk (F31)

HMS Montrose (D01)

HMS Nabberley

HMS Nabbington

HMS Nabob (D77)

HMS Nabthorpe

HMS Naiad (93)

HMS Nairana (D05)

HMS Narwhal (N45)

HMS Nelson (28)

HMS Neptune (20)

HMS Newcastle (C76)

HMS Newfoundland (59)

HMS Nigeria (60)

HMS Norfolk (78)

HMS Nubian (F36)

HMS Odin (N84)

HMS Offa (G29)

HMS Olympus (N35)

HMS Onslow (G17)

HMS Oribi (G66)

HMS Orion (85)

HMS Orwell (G98)

HMS Otway

HMS Oxford Castle (K692)

HMS Oxley

HMS P222

HMS P311

HMS P32 (1940)

HMS P33 (1941)

HMS P36 (submarine)

HMS P38 (1941)



HMS P48 (1942)

HMS P611

HMS Paladin (G69)

HMS Palomares

HMS Panther (G41)

HMS Parthian (N75)

HMS Patroller (D07)

HMS Penelope (97)

HMS Penn (G77)

HMS Perseus (N36)

HMS Petard (G56)

HMS Peterhead (J59)

HMS Pevensey Castle (K449)

HMS Pheasant (U49)

HMS Phoebe (43)

HMS Picotee (K63)

HMS Pioneer (R76)

HMS Porpoise (N14)

HMS Portchester Castle (K362)

HMS Poseidon (1929)

HMS Premier (D23)

HMS Pretoria Castle (F61)

HMS Prince of Wales (53)

HMS Puncher (D79)

HMS Punjabi (F21)

HMS Pursuer (D73)

HMS Pylades (J401)

HMS Quail (G45)

HMS Quality (G62)

HMS Queen (D19)

HMS Queen Elizabeth (1913)

HMS Queen Emma

HMS Quentin (G78)

HMS Quilliam (G09)

HMS Quorn (L66)

HMS Raider (H15)

HMS Rajah (D10)

HMS Ramillies (07)

HMS Ranee (D03)

HMS Rapid (H32)

HMS Ravager (D70)

HMS Rawalpindi

HMS Reaper (D82)

HMS Relentless (H85)

HMS Renown (1916)

HMS Repulse (1916)

HMS Resolution (09)

HMS Revenge (06)

HMS Roberts (F40)

HMS Rocket (H92)

HMS Rodney (29)

HMS Roebuck (H95)

HMS Rorqual (N74)

HMS Rotherham (H09)

HMS Royal Oak (08)

HMS Royal Sovereign (05)

HMS Royal Ulsterman

HMS Royalist (89)

HMS Ruler (D72)

HMS Rushen Castle (K372)

HMS Rye (J76)

HMS Safari (P211)

HMS Saga (P257)

HMS Sahib (P212)

HMS Salmon (N65)

HMS Samphire (K128)

HMS Sanguine (P266)

HMS Saracen (P247)

HMS Satyr (P214)

HMS Saumarez (G12)

HMS Sceptre (P215)

HMS Scorcher (P258)

HMS Scotsman (P243)

HMS Scylla (98)

HMS Scythian (P237)

HMS Sea Devil (P244)

HMS Sea Nymph (P223)

HMS Sea Rover (P218)

HMS Sea Scout (P253)

HMS Seadog (P216)

HMS Seagull (J85)

HMS Seahorse (98S)

HMS Seal (N37)

HMS Sealion (72S)

HMS Searcher (D40)

HMS Seawolf (47S)

HMS Selene (P254)

HMS Seneschal (P255)

HMS Sentinel (P256)

HMS Seraph (P219)

HMS Shah (D21)

HMS Shakespeare (P221)

HMS Shalimar (P242)

HMS Shark (54S)

HMS Sheffield (C24)

HMS Shropshire (73)

HMS Sibyl (P217)

HMS Sickle (P224)

HMS Sidon (P259)

HMS Sikh (F82)

HMS Simoom (P225)

HMS Sirdar (P226)

HMS Sirius (82)

HMS Skate (1917)

HMS Sleuth (P261)

HMS Slinger (D26)

HMS Smiter (D55)

HMS Snapper (39S)

HMS Solent (P262)

HMS Somali (F33)

HMS Southampton (83)

HMS Spark (P236)

HMS Spartan (95)

HMS Speaker (D90)

HMS Spearfish (69S)

HMS Spearhead (P263)

HMS Speedy (J17)

HMS Spirit (P245)

HMS Spiteful (P227)

HMS Splendid (P228)

HMS Sportsman (P229)

HMS Springer (P264)

HMS Spur

HMS Stalker (D91)

HMS Starfish (19S)

HMS Starling (U66)

HMS Statesman (P246)

HMS Sterlet (2S)

HMS Stoic (P231)

HMS Stonehenge (P232)

HMS Storm (P233)

HMS Stratagem (P234)

HMS Striker (D12)

HMS Strongbow (P235)

HMS Stubborn (P238)

HMS Sturdy (P248)

HMS Sturgeon (73S)

HMS Stygian (P249)

HMS Subtle (P251)

HMS Suffolk (55)

HMS Sunfish (81S)

HMS Superb (25)

HMS Supreme (P252)

HMS Surf (P239)

HMS Sussex (96)

HMS Swiftsure (08)

HMS Swordfish (61S)

HMS Syrtis (P241)

HMS Talisman (N78)

HMS Tamar (1863)

HMS Tarpon (N17)

HMS Tartar (F43)

HMS Teazer (R23)

HMS Tempest (N86)

HMS Tenacious (R45)

HMS Termagant (R89)

HMS Terpsichore (R33)

HMS Terror (I03)

HMS Tetrarch (N77)

HMS Thane (D48)

HMS Thetis (N25)

HMS Thorn (N11)

HMS Tigris (N63)

HMS Tracker (D24)

HMS Traveller (N48)

HMS Triad (N53)

HMS Trinidad (46)

HMS Triton (N15)

HMS Triumph (N18)

HMS Trooper (N91)

HMS Troubridge (R00)

HMS Trouncer (D85)

HMS Trumpeter (D09)

HMS Tulip (K29)

HMS Tumult (R11)

HMS Turbulent (N98)

HMS Tuscan (R56)

HMS Tyrian (R67)

HMS Uganda (66)

HMS Ulster (R83)

HMS Ultimatum (P34)

HMS Ultor (P53)

HMS Ulysses (novel)

HMS Ulysses (R69)

HMS Umbra (P35)

HMS Umpire (N82)

HMS Una (N87)

HMS Unbeaten (N93)

HMS Unbending (P37)

HMS Unbroken (P42)

HMS Undaunted (N55)

HMS Undaunted (R53)

HMS Undine (N48)

HMS Undine (R42)

HMS Unicorn (I72)

HMS Union (N56)

HMS Unique (N95)

HMS Unison (P43)

HMS United (P44)

HMS Unity (N66)

HMS Universal (P57)

HMS Unrivalled (P45)

HMS Unruffled (P46)

HMS Unruly (P49)

HMS Unseen (P51)

HMS Unshaken (P54)

HMS Unsparing (P55)

HMS Unswerving (P63)

HMS Untamed (P58)

HMS Untiring (P59)

HMS Upholder (P37)

HMS Upright (N89)

HMS Uproar (P31)

HMS Upstart (P65)

HMS Urania (R05)

HMS Urchin (R99)

HMS Urge (N17)

HMS Ursa (R22)

HMS Ursula (N59)

HMS Usk (N65)

HMS Usurper (P56)

HMS Uther (P62)

HMS Utmost (N19)

HMS Valiant (1914)

HMS Vampire (P72)

HMS Vandal (P64)

HMS Varangian (P61)

HMS Vengeance (R71)

HMS Venturer (P68)

HMS Venus (R50)

HMS Verulam (R28)

HMS Victorious (R38)

HMS Vidette (D48)

HMS Vigilant (R93)

HMS Vindex (D15)

HMS Virago (R75)

HMS Vitality

HMS Volage (R41)

HMS Wakeful (R59)

HMS Walney (Y04)

HMS Warspite (03)

HMS Wellington (U65)

HMS Whaddon (L45)

HMS Whirlwind (R87)

HMS Whitshed (D77)

HMS Wild Goose (U45)

HMS Wild Swan (D62)

HMS Wizard (R72)

HMS Wolverine (D78)

HMS Woodpecker (U08)

HMS Wrangler (R48)

HMS Wryneck (D21)

HMS York (90)

HMS Zealous (R39)

HMS Zest (R02)

HMS Zinnia (K98)

HMS Zulu (F18)

HMT Dunera

HMT Rohna

HNLMS Abraham Crijnssen (1936)

HNLMS Abraham van der Hulst (1937)

HNLMS Abraham van der Hulst (1946)

HNLMS De Gelderland

HNLMS De Ruyter (1935)

HNLMS Eland Dubois (1937)

HNLMS Jacob van Heemskerk

HNLMS Jan van Amstel (1937)

HNLMS Jan van Gelder

HNLMS Kortenaer (1927)

HNLMS Pieter de Bitter (1937)

HNLMS Pieter Florisz (1937)

HNLMS Tromp (1937)

HNLMS Willem van Ewijck (1937)

HNoMS Æger (1936)

HNoMS Brage (1878)

HNoMS Brand (1898)

HNoMS Draug (1908)

HNoMS Eidsvold

HNoMS Frøya

HNoMS Fridtjof Nansen (1930)

HNoMS Garm (1913)

HNoMS Glommen (1916)

HNoMS Gor (1884)

HNoMS Gyller (1938)

HNoMS Harald Haarfagre

HNoMS Heimdal OPV (1892)

HNoMS Hitra

HNoMS Honningsvåg

HNoMS King Haakon VII

HNoMS Kjell

HNoMS Laugen (1918)

HNoMS Nor (1878)

HNoMS Nordkapp OPV (1937)

HNoMS Norge

HNoMS Odin (1939)

HNoMS Olav Tryggvason

HNoMS Otra (1939)


HNoMS Rauma (1939)


HNoMS Sleipner (1936)

HNoMS Stegg (1921)

HNoMS Stord (G26)

HNoMS Storm (1898)

HNoMS Svenner (G03)

HNoMS Thorodd

HNoMS Tor (1939)

HNoMS Tordenskjold

HNoMS Troll (1910)

HNoMS Trygg (1919)

HNoMS Tyr (1887)

HNoMS Ula (1943)

HNoMS Uller (1876)

HNoMS Uredd (P-41)

HNoMS Vale (1874)

HNoMS Vidar (1878)

Hütter Hü 136

Hütter Hü 211


Ho Chi Minh

Hobart's Funnies

Hobart Baumann Amstutz

Hobart Cenotaph

Hobart R. Gay

Hoche (Paris Métro)

Hocine Ragued

Hodding Carter

Hoechst AG

Hogan's Heroes

Holger Danske (resistance group)

Holland House

Holland Smith

Hollis Alpert

Hollister brothers

Hollywood Boulevard (Walt Disney Studios Park)

Hollywood Canteen

Hollywood Victory Caravan

Hollywood Victory Committee

Holmfrid Olsson

Holocaust (resources)

Holocaust (TV miniseries)

Holocaust and Genocide Studies

Holocaust denial

Holocaust Educational Trust

Holocaust Encyclopedia

Holocaust in Nazi-occupied Lithuania

Holocaust in Norway

Holocaust in Poland

Holocaust in Romania

Holocaust Memorial Center

Holocaust Memorial Day (UK)

Holocaust Memorial Day and Genocide Remembrance Act

Holocaust Memorial on Miami Beach

Holocaust memorials

Holocaust Museum Houston

Holocaust teaching controversy of 2007

Holocaust trains

Holocaust trials in Soviet Estonia

Holocaust trivialization debate

Holocaust victims


Holy Cross Mountains Brigade

Home Army and V1 and V2

Home Defence Executive

Home front during World War II

Homer A. McCrerey

Homer L. Wise

Homer Litzenberg

Homer N. Wallin

Homeward Bound (Turtledove novel)


Hondo Municipal Airport

Honey, I Shrunk the Audience

Hong Kong 1941

Hong Sa-ik

Hong Xuezhi

Hongdu JL-8

Honkawa Elementary School Peace Museum

Honorary Aryan

Honorat de Bueil, seigneur de Racan

Honoré de Balzac

Honour Cross for Combatants

Honours of Winston Churchill

Hope and Glory (film)

Horace A. Jones

Horace M. Thorne

Horace S. Carswell Jr.

Horacio Rivero Jr.

Horatio Fitch

Horatio Nelson Lay (admiral)

Horatio Pettus Mackintosh Berney-Ficklin

Horia Agarici

Horia Macellariu

Horia Sima

Horia, Cloşca şi Crişan Division

Hornet Flight

Horrie Knight

Horst-Günther von Fassong

Horst Ademeit

Horst Floth

Horst Freiherr Treusch von Buttlar-Brandenfels

Horst Günther

Horst Hörnlein

Horst Kopkow

Horst Mahler

Horst Niemack

Horst Queck

Horst Schumann

Horst Tappert

Horst von Möllendorff

Horten Ho 229

Horten Ho XVIII

Hortense de Beauharnais

Hosea Williams

Hosoya Jūdayū

Hossbach Memorandum

Hostages Trial

Hotchkiss H35

Hotchkiss M1914 machine gun

Hotel Concorde La Fayette

Hotel George V, Paris

Hotel Metropole, Vienna

Hotel Meurice

Hotel Polski

Hotsumi Ozaki

Houbei-class missile boat

Hougham Battery

Hour of Victory

House of Responsibility

Hovhannes Bagramyan

Howard Aiken

Howard Brodie

Howard Cosell

Howard D. Wardle

Howard E. Woodford

Howard Franklin Clark

Howard Graham (Canadian Army officer)

Howard Hayes

Howard Kingsbury

Howard Kippenberger

Howard Peter "Cowboy" Blatchford

Howard R. Healy

Howard Thomas Markey

Howard Unruh

Howard W. Gilmore

Howard Zinn

Howell Appling Jr.

Howell Heflin

Howitzer Motor Carriage M8

Hoxton Park Airport

Hoylake and West Kirby War Memorial

Hristijan Todorovski Karpoš

Hristo Yanev

Hu Kexian

Hu Lancheng

Hu Zongnan

Huaihai Campaign

Huairen Air Base

Huaiyin-Huai'an Campaign

Huang Chieh

Huang Qixiang

Huang Yiguang

Huangpu-class gunboat

Hubert-Erwin Meierdress

Hubert Curien

Hubert D. Stephens

Hubert Klausner

Hubert Lagardelle

Hubert Lefèbvre

Hubert Lyautey

Hubert Lynes

Hubert Meyer

Hubert Miller

Hubert Paul Chatelain

Hubert Pierlot

Hubert Rance

Hubert Schiffer

Hubert Van Innis

Hubert William Lewis

Hubert Yockey

Hubert Zemke

Hubertine Auclert

Hubertus Strughold

Hubertus von Bonin


Hugh Aloysius Drum

Hugh B. Hester

Hugh Capet

Hugh Culverhouse

Hugh David Black

Hugh Dowding, 1st Baron Dowding

Hugh Dundas

Hugh Elles

Hugh Falkus

Hugh Francis Redmond

Hugh Fraser (British politician)

Hugh Gallarneau

Hugh Gordon Malcolm

Hugh Griffiths, Baron Griffiths

Hugh Hefner

Hugh John Casey

Hugh Lister

Hugh Meade

Hugh O'Brian

Hugh O'Flaherty

Hugh of Châteauneuf

Hugh P. Harris

Hugh Randall Syme

Hugh Scott

Hugh Seagrim

Hugh Trefusis Brassey

Hugh Trevor-Roper

Hughie Edwards

Hughie Green

Hugo Black

Hugo Bleicher

Hugo Boss AG

Hugo Butler

Hugo Curioni

Hugo Drax

Hugo Gryn

Hugo Johansson

Hugo Jury

Hugo Kraas

Hugo Launicke

Hugo Leal

Hugo Lilliér

Hugo Primozic

Hugo Rüster

Hugo Sperrle

Huhtiniemi mass grave


Hull note

Hulon B. Whittington

Human torpedo

Humber Armoured Car

Humber Light Reconnaissance Car

Humber Scout Car

Humber Super Snipe

Humberto Coelho

Humberto Tomasina

Hummel (artillery)

Humphrey Atkins

Humphrey de Verd Leigh

Humphrey Lyttelton

Hundred Regiments Offensive

Hungarian Gold Train

Hungarian National Socialist Party

Hungarian Second Army

Hungarian Volunteers in the Winter War

Hungary during the Second World War

Hungary during World War II

Hunger Plan

Hunt-class minesweeper (1916)

Hunter Harris Jr.

Huo Kuizhang

Huon Peninsula campaign

Hurja-class motor torpedo boat

Husband E. Kimmel

Hussar's Picture Book

Huta Pieniacka massacre

Hutton Gibson

Huub Huizenaar

Huzagol 35M


HX convoys

Hyacinthe-Louis De Quelen

Hyazinth Graf Strachwitz von Gross-Zauche und Camminetz

Hydra-class minelayer

Hyman G. Rickover

Héctor Méndez (boxer)

Héctor Scarone

Hélder Cristóvão

Hélder de Souza

Hélie de Saint Marc

Hélène de Pourtalès

Hélène Berr

Hélène Carrère d'Encausse

Hélène Prévost

List of Royal Navy losses in World War II

This is a list of Royal Navy ships and personnel lost during World War II, from 3 September 1939 to 1 October 1945.

See also List of ships of the Royal Navy.


Tingmissartoq was the name given to a Lockheed Model 8 Sirius flown by Charles and Anne Morrow Lindbergh in the 1930s. Tingmissartoq means "one who flies like a big bird"; the plane was thus christened by an Inuit boy in Godthaab (Nuuk), Greenland, who painted the word on its side.

British naval ship classes of the Second World War
Aircraft carriers
Light aircraft carriers
Escort carriers
Heavy cruisers
Light cruisers
Destroyer leaders
Other incidents
Other incidents


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