HMS Ark Royal (91)

HMS Ark Royal (pennant number 91) was an aircraft carrier of the Royal Navy that served during the Second World War.

Designed in 1934 to fit the restrictions of the Washington Naval Treaty, Ark Royal was built by Cammell Laird and Company Ltd. at Birkenhead, England, and completed in November 1938. Her design differed from previous aircraft carriers. Ark Royal was the first ship on which the hangars and flight deck were an integral part of the hull, instead of an add-on or part of the superstructure. Designed to carry a large number of aircraft, she had two hangar deck levels. She served during a period that first saw the extensive use of naval air power; several carrier tactics were developed and refined aboard Ark Royal.

Ark Royal served in some of the most active naval theatres of the Second World War. She was involved in the first aerial and U-boat kills of the war, operations off Norway, the search for the German battleship Bismarck, and the Malta Convoys. Ark Royal survived several near misses and gained a reputation as a 'lucky ship'. She was torpedoed on 13 November 1941 by the German submarine U-81 and sank the following day; one of her 1,488 crew members was killed. Her sinking was the subject of several inquiries; investigators were keen to know how the carrier was lost, in spite of efforts to save the ship and tow her to the naval base at Gibraltar. They found that several design flaws contributed to the loss, which were rectified in new British carriers.

The wreck was discovered in December 2002 by an American underwater survey company using sonar mounted on an autonomous underwater vehicle, under contract from the BBC for the filming of a documentary about the ship,[2] at a depth of about 1000 metres and approximately 30 nautical miles (35 mi; 56 km) from Gibraltar.

HMS Ark Royal h85716
HMS Ark Royal in 1939, with Swordfish of 820 Naval Air Squadron passing overhead
Class overview
Preceded by: Courageous class
Succeeded by: Illustrious class
History
United Kingdom
Name: HMS Ark Royal (91)
Ordered: 1934 build programme
Builder: Cammell Laird and Company Ltd.
Laid down: 16 September 1935
Launched: 13 April 1937
Commissioned: 16 December 1938
Motto: Desire n'a pas Repos – "Zeal Does Not Rest"
Honours and
awards:
Fate:
  • Sank 14 November 1941
  • after being torpedoed by U-81 on 13 November 1941
General characteristics
Type: Aircraft Carrier
Displacement:
  • 22,000 long tons (22,000 t) standard
  • 27,720 long tons (28,160 t) loaded
Length:
  • 800 ft (240 m) overall
  • 721 ft 6 in (219.91 m) waterline
Beam: 94 ft 9.6 in (28.895 m)
Draught: 27.8 ft 9.6 in (8.717 m)
Propulsion:
Speed:
  • 30 knots (56 km/h; 35 mph) as designed
  • 31 knots (57 km/h; 36 mph) actual
Range: 7,600 nmi (14,100 km; 8,700 mi) at 20 knots (37 km/h; 23 mph)
Complement: 1,580 officers and sailors
Armament:
Armour:
  • Belt: 4.5 in (11.4 cm)
  • Deck: 3.5 in (8.9 cm) over boiler rooms and magazines
Aircraft carried:
Aviation facilities: 2 × catapults

Design

In 1923, the Admiralty prepared a 10-year building programme which included an aircraft carrier and 300 aircraft for the Fleet Air Arm.[3] The economic downturn following the First World War caused it to be postponed. In 1930, the Director of Naval Construction, Sir Arthur Johns, began to update the plans for the carrier by incorporating recently developed technology.[3] His aim was to increase the number of aircraft carried by shortening the landing and take-off distances of aircraft using arrestor gear and compressed steam catapults respectively, which would make more deck space available for storage and aircraft preparation.[3][4] Along with the inclusion of two hangar decks, this allowed Ark Royal to carry up to 72 aircraft, although the development of larger and heavier aircraft during the carrier's construction meant that the actual number carried was between 50 and 60.[5] Ark Royal featured an enclosed hangar design[6] where the flight deck was the 'strength deck'[7] and was strongly built with .75in (19mm) thick Ducol steel plating.[2] The two hangar decks were thus enclosed within the hull girder, which also gave splinter protection to the hangars. The machinery spaces were protected by 4.5-inch (11.4 cm) belt armour.[4] Three lifts moved aircraft between the hangars and the flight deck.[4]

HMS Ark Royal 19sb2j1
Ark Royal's flight deck overhangs the stern. Her unusual height above the waterline is visible in comparison with the tugboat.

Another feature was the length and height of the flight deck. At 800 feet (240 m), the flight deck was 118 feet (36 m) longer than the keel; the latter dictated by the length of Royal Navy drydocks in Gibraltar and Malta.[4] Due to the twin hangar decks, the flight deck rose to 66 feet (20 m) above the waterline.[8]

The Washington and London Naval treaties had restricted warship tonnage for a number of nations after the end of the great war and were both to expire by the end of 1936.[a] With a potential naval arms race developing between Britain, Japan and Italy, the British government sought a second treaty, which included limiting the maximum displacement of an aircraft carrier to 22,000 long tons (22,000 t).[9] Ark Royal would have to fit this anticipated limit; to conserve weight, armour plating was limited to the belt, engine rooms, and magazines, while welding instead of riveting 65% of the hull saved 500 long tons (510 t).[9] Installation of an armoured flight deck was not possible, as the weight would have placed Ark Royal above the proposed limit, while reducing her endurance and stability.[9] The ship was designed with a three layer side protection system based upon a void-liquid-void scheme very similar to that used on the King George V-class battleships, and was designed to protect against torpedoes with up to a 750-pound (340 kg) warhead.[10][11]

The ship was fitted with six boilers, which powered three Parsons geared turbines. The turbines were connected via three driveshafts to three propellers 16 feet (4.9 m) in diameter, to produce a maximum theoretical speed of 30 knots (56 km/h; 35 mph).[12][13] Speed was important, as with catapults and arrestor gear, Ark Royal would have to turn into the wind to launch and recover aircraft. To avoid endangering other ships with the frequent course changes associated with flight operations, Ark Royal would have to break away from accompanying ships, and catch up on completion. Additionally, as the carrier was not armed for ship-to-ship combat, speed was her main protection against enemy warships.[3]

Construction

The deteriorating international situation by 1933, typified by Germany's rearmament and the expansion of Japan and Italy, convinced the British to announce funds for the carrier's construction in the 1934 budget proposals.[14] The plans were finished by November 1934 and were tendered in February 1935 to Cammell Laird and Company Ltd., which calculated the cost of the hull at £1,496,250 (equivalent to £102,020,000 in 2018)[15] and the main machinery at approximately £500,000 (equivalent to £31,850,000 in 2016).[12][16] The overall cost was estimated to be over £3 million, making Ark Royal the most expensive ship ordered by the Royal Navy.[17] Construction began on Job No. 1012 when Ark Royal's keel was laid down on 16 September 1935.[18]

HMS Ark Royal (91) just after launching
Ark Royal immediately after launching. The lifts on the flight deck and the anti-aircraft positions on the hull are visible.

Ark Royal spent nearly two years in the builder's yard before being launched on 13 April 1937 by Lady Maud Hoare, wife of Sir Samuel Hoare, then First Lord of the Admiralty. The bottle of champagne thrown against Ark Royal's bows did not smash until the fourth attempt.[19] The carrier spent a year fitting out, was handed over to her first commander, Captain Arthur Power, on 16 November 1938, and was commissioned on 16 December.[18] Although intended for the Far East, events in Europe during the carrier's construction, including the Italian invasion of Abyssinia in 1935 and the Spanish Civil War in 1936, caused the Admiralty to mark her for deployment with the Home and Mediterranean Fleets.[20] After her crew joined at the end of 1938, Ark Royal underwent sea trials to prepare for service, during which the carrier proved capable of sailing above her theoretical speed, reaching over 31 knots (57 km/h; 36 mph)[8] and in trials during May 1938 Ark Royal achieved 31.2 knots (57.8 km/h; 35.9 mph) with 103,012 shaft horsepower (76,816 kW) at a deep displacement of 27,525 long tons (27,967 t).[21]

Armament and aircraft

Ark Royal's armament was designed with anti-aircraft warfare in mind, as aircraft were expected to be the main threat; ships and submarines could be outrun or dealt with by escorts.[22][23] Her main armament was sixteen quick-firing 4.5-inch (110 mm) dual purpose guns in eight double turrets, four on each side of the hull, controlled by four Directors using the High Angle Control System.[4] The original design placed the turrets low on the hull, but was later altered to locate them just below the flight deck, which increased each turret's field of fire.[4] Six[1] 8-barrelled 2-pounder (40-millimetre (1.57 in)) "pom-pom" guns were located on the flight deck, in front of and behind the superstructure island, while eight 4-barrelled .50-inch (12.7 mm) machine guns were installed on small projecting platforms to the front and rear of the flight deck.[24]

Sixteen Fleet Air Arm squadrons were posted aboard Ark Royal during her career; an average of five squadrons at any time. On entering service, most of Ark Royal's squadrons were equipped with either Blackburn Skuas—used as fighters and dive bombers—or Fairey Swordfish, for reconnaissance and torpedo bombing. From April 1940, squadrons equipped with Skuas were upgraded to Fairey Fulmars; like their predecessors, these were used as fighters and bombers. On occasion, the carrier operated Blackburn Roc fighter-bombers (from April 1939 – October 1940) and Fairey Albacore torpedo bombers (during October 1941); these were replacement aircraft used to boost squadron numbers.[25] In June 1940, Ark Royal was host to 701 Naval Air Squadron, a training squadron which operated Supermarine Walrus reconnaissance amphibians.[26]

Service history

With the hunter-killer groups

Declaration of war naval message
The message sent to the ship informing her of the commencing of hostilities on 3 September 1939

The outbreak of the Second World War on 3 September 1939 had been presaged by Germany's U-boat fleet taking up positions off the British coast, where they could intercept British shipping.[27] Within hours of the war starting, the passenger ship SS Athenia was torpedoed by U-30, the first of over 65,000 tons of shipping sunk by U-boats during the first week of the war.[27][28] Ark Royal was deployed with the Home Fleet in the North Western Approaches as part of a "hunter-killer" group, consisting of a flotilla of destroyers and other anti-submarine vessels grouped around an aircraft carrier; either Courageous, Hermes or Ark Royal. Carrier-borne aircraft could increase the area searched for U-boats, but made the carriers tempting targets.[28]

On 14 September, Ark Royal received a distress call from SS Fanad Head, which was 200 nautical miles (230 mi; 370 km) away under pursuit from the surfaced U-30.[29] Ark Royal launched aircraft to aid the merchant ship, but was spotted by U-39, which launched two torpedoes.[29][30] Lookouts spotted the torpedo tracks and Ark Royal turned towards the attack, reducing her cross-section and causing the torpedoes to miss and explode harmlessly astern.[28] Three F-class destroyers escorting the carrier began to depth charge U-39, and forced her to the surface.[30] The German crew abandoned ship before U-39 sank—the first U-boat lost during the war.[30] Ark Royal's aircraft reached Fanad Head, which was in the hands of a German boarding party.[29] The Skuas unsuccessfully attacked U-30: two crashed when caught by the blast of their own bombs.[29] The U-boat escaped after rescuing the boarding party and the pilots of the downed aircraft (both observers had drowned), and torpedoing the Fanad Head.[29]

Ark Royal returned to base in Loch Ewe, where she and her crew were inspected by Winston Churchill. The sinking of U-39 was hailed as important to morale. However, the failed attack on Ark Royal, and the successful attack on Courageous on 17 September, convinced the Admiralty it was too dangerous to risk aircraft carriers in this way, and carrier-centred hunter-killer groups were abandoned.[28]

Another near miss

HMS Ark Royal h79167
Ark Royal conducting flying operations in 1939

On 25 September, Ark Royal helped rescue the submarine Spearfish, which had been damaged by German warships off Horn Reefs, in the Kattegat.[31] While returning to port with Spearfish and the battleships Nelson and Rodney on 26 September, the ships were located by three Luftwaffe Dornier Do 18 seaplanes.[12] Ark Royal launched three Blackburn Skuas to disperse them; one Dornier was shot down in the first British aerial kill of the war.[22]

The air commander aboard Ark Royal—aware that the surviving Dorniers would report the location of the British ships—ordered the aircraft to be secured and the anti-aircraft weapons readied.[32] Four Junkers Ju 88 bombers[33] of the Luftwaffe bomber wing KG 30 soon appeared: three were driven away by anti-aircraft fire, but the fourth launched a 1,000-kilogram (2,200 lb) bomb at the carrier. Ark Royal turned hard to starboard, heeling over and avoiding the bomb, which landed in the ocean 30 metres (98 ft) off her starboard bow and sent a spout of water over the ship. The German pilots did not see if the carrier had been hit, and a reconnaissance flight later located the two battleships, but not Ark Royal. Based on this information, the Germans incorrectly claimed that Ark Royal had sunk.[34] To prove the German propaganda false before it had a negative effect on Britain's allies, Winston Churchill personally reassured United States President Franklin Delano Roosevelt that the carrier was undamaged and invited the US naval attaché to view Ark Royal in dock.[34] The British naval attaché in Rome was instructed to assure Italian Prime Minister Benito Mussolini that the ship was still in service.[34] This was an embarrassment for Goebbels and Nazi propaganda.[35]

Hunting the Graf Spee

In October 1939, Ark Royal was redeployed to Freetown to operate off the African coast in the hunt for the German commerce raider Admiral Graf Spee. The carrier was assigned to Force K, and sailed with the battlecruiser Renown to the South Atlantic.[12] On 9 October, aircraft from Ark Royal spotted the German tanker Altmark, which supplied Graf Spee. The tanker was disguised as the US vessel Delmar, which fooled the British into passing her by.[36] On 5 November, Ark Royal captured the German merchant SS Uhenfels, which was attempting to reach Germany. The ship was later taken into British service as a cargo ship[37] and renamed Empire Ability.[38] Several neutral merchant ships were also spotted by the carrier's aircraft, twice causing crews to believe they were under attack and abandon ship.[39] A note explaining the situation was dropped in a bag to a Norwegian vessel's crew, and they re-boarded; an attempt to repeat this exercise with a Belgian crew failed when the bag was dropped down the ship's funnel.[39]

By this time, Graf Spee had put into Montevideo to repair damage received during the battle of the River Plate. Two Royal Navy cruisers followed the raider, and patrolled the harbour entrance while reporting Graf Spee's position to the fleet. Ark Royal and Renown were dispatched to join the British ships outside the harbour, but as they were 36 hours away, the British naval attaché came up with a plan to make the Germans believe that the two capital ships had already arrived. An order for fuel for Ark Royal was placed at Buenos Aires, 140 miles (230 km) west of Montevideo. This was leaked to the press, passed on to the German embassy in Montevideo, and given to Graf Spee's captain, Hans Langsdorff.[40] This contributed to Langsdorff's decision to scuttle his ship.[40]

Return to the fleet

With Graf Spee sunk, Ark Royal remained in the Atlantic for a short time before escorting the damaged heavy cruiser Exeter back to Devonport Dockyard, where they arrived in February.[12] Following this, Ark Royal proceeded to Portsmouth to take on supplies and personnel, before sailing to Scapa Flow. On arrival, she transferred her Blackburn Skuas to Naval Air Station Hatston to strengthen the anchorage's defences.[41] Ark Royal was then assigned to the Mediterranean Fleet for exercises, departing Scapa Flow on 31 March 1940 and heading for Alexandria with the aircraft carrier Glorious.[12] The carriers arrived in the Eastern Mediterranean on 8 April, but the exercises were cancelled a day later. The ships sailed to Gibraltar to await orders.[41]

German forces had invaded Norway as part of Operation Weserübung on 9 April, and had secured sections of the coast. Attempts by the Royal Navy to operate in support of British troops were unsuccessful; air attacks had overwhelmed the ships, sinking Gurkha and nearly sinking Suffolk. Realising that the British ships required air cover, but aware that the Norwegian coast was outside the range of British land-based aircraft, the Admiralty recalled Ark Royal and Glorious from the Mediterranean on 16 April.[41]

Norwegian campaign

Ark Royal and Glorious arrived at Scapa Flow on 23 April 1940 and were immediately redeployed as part of Operation DX. Sailing to Norway with the cruisers Curlew and Berwick and screened by the destroyers Hyperion, Hereward, Hasty, Fearless, Fury and Juno, this was the first time the Royal Navy had deployed carriers with the primary purpose of providing fighter protection for other warships.[12] The ships took up position on 25 April off the coast; Ark Royal positioned 120 nautical miles (220 km) offshore to reduce the chance of air attacks. The carrier's aircraft conducted anti-submarine patrols, provided fighter support for other ships, and carried out strikes against shipping and shore targets.[12][25] Ark Royal returned to Scapa Flow on 27 April to refuel and replace lost and damaged aircraft, before heading back on the same day with the battleship Valiant as escort.[12] During the return, Ark Royal came under air attack from German Junkers Ju 88 and Heinkel He 111 bombers operating from Norway. The carrier was undamaged, and resumed position on 29 April.[42]

Blackburn Skua landing on HMS Ark Royal
A Blackburn Skua landing on Ark Royal. The Skuas were the mainstay of the Fleet Air Arm during the early Second World War. Also visible are the arrestor wires strung across the flight deck.

By this point, the British high command had realised that they could not hold the Germans in southern Norway. The evacuation of Allied troops from Molde and Åndalsnes began, with Ark Royal providing air cover from 30 April. On 1 May, the Germans tried to sink the carrier, with numerous air attacks through the day. Ark Royal's fighters and a heavy anti-aircraft barrage drove off the enemy, and although several bombs were dropped at the carrier, none impacted.[42] The evacuation was completed on 3 May, and the carrier was recalled to Scapa Flow to refuel and rearm before returning to Norway. While in port, Captain Arthur Power left the ship for a promotion to the Admiralty, and was replaced by Captain Cedric Holland.[43] On return to Norway, Ark Royal was told to provide air cover for operations around Narvik, including the landing of French troops on 13 May.[44] She was joined on 18 May by the carriers Glorious and Furious.[12]

Despite these efforts, it was clear by the end of May that French forces were on the verge of collapse and Norway was a sideshow compared to the German advance to the English Channel.[44] Operation Alphabet was instigated to move Allied troops from Narvik to Britain. Ark Royal and Glorious—screened by the destroyers Highlander, Diana, Acasta, Ardent, and Acheron—sailed from Scapa Flow on 1 June to cover the evacuation, which commenced the next day. Ark Royal carried out air patrols and bombing raids from 3–6 June, before redeploying to Narvik on 7 June. Disaster struck the next day, when Glorious, escorted by Acasta and Ardent, were detached to return to Britain. The three ships were attacked and sunk by the German battlecruisers Scharnhorst and Gneisenau. A search by Ark Royal's aircraft failed to locate the German ships, which had returned to Trondheim.[45]

The last evacuation convoy left Narvik on 9 June. Before the British ships could withdraw, a raid on Trondheim located Scharnhorst. An attack by Ark Royal's Skuas took place at midnight on 13 June.[46] The attack was a disaster: the escort destroyers Antelope and Electra collided while Ark Royal was launching aircraft in fog and returned to England for repairs, eight of the fifteen attacking Skuas were shot down, while Scharnhorst escaped damage.[47] Ark Royal returned to Scapa Flow the following day, and was reassigned to the Mediterranean Fleet.[48]

Mediterranean deployment

Ark Royal left Scapa Flow with the battlecruiser Hood and three destroyers, arriving at Gibraltar on 23 June 1940. Here she joined Force H, under Sir James Somerville. After the capitulation of France there was concern that a French fleet at Mers-el-Kébir might fall under Axis control and tip the balance of power in the Mediterranean, affecting the whole war.[49] Ark Royal's captain, Cedric Holland, had been the British naval attaché in Paris, and was sent to negotiate the surrender or scuttling of the French fleet.[50] Force H was deployed outside the harbour, and when the French admirals refused to agree to the offered terms, opened fire on the French ships. During the attack on Mers-el-Kébir, Ark Royal's aircraft provided targeting information for the British ships.[51] The French battleship Strasbourg escaped, despite attacks by Swordfish from Ark Royal.[52] Two days after the attack, aircraft from Ark Royal incapacitated the French battleship Dunkerque, which had been beached in the initial attack.[53]

HMS Ark Royal planes landing
A Fairey Swordfish aircraft lands on Ark Royal's flight deck, whilst a Blackburn Skua circles overhead. Photograph taken from Kelvin after the attacks on the Italian Fleet off Sardinia

Having reduced the possibility of a French challenge in the Mediterranean, Force H prepared for attacks on Italian targets, and sailed from Gibraltar on 8 July.[54] The force was attacked by Italian bombers within eight hours of departing, and although Force H escaped damage, Somerville cancelled the raids and ordered the fleet to Gibraltar.[55] During July, the British colony of Malta came under attack from the Italian air force, with Force H ordered to deliver Hawker Hurricanes to reinforce the island's air defences. Force H was deployed from 31 July – 4 August, with the carrier Argus used to deliver the aircraft, while Ark Royal provided air cover for the fleet.[54] On 2 August, Ark Royal launched a successful air attack against the Italian air base at Cagliari.[56]

Force H remained at Gibraltar until 30 September, when it escorted reinforcements for Admiral Andrew Cunningham's fleet to Alexandria.[57] En route, diversionary attacks were planned on Italian air bases at Elmas and Cagliari to direct attention from both the reinforcement operation and a supply convoy sailing to Malta. The attacks were successfully carried out on 1 October, and the fleet reached Alexandria without significant attention from the Italian air force.[58] From Alexandria, Ark Royal was detached and sent to West Africa to support British attempts to encourage Vichy French colonies to switch allegiance to the Free French. During negotiations, several Free French aircraft flew from Ark Royal, but their aircrews were arrested at Dakar. Negotiations failed, and bombers from Ark Royal were directed against military installations during the unsuccessful British attempt to take Dakar by force.[59] Following this, Ark Royal returned to Britain for refit, docking in Liverpool on 8 October after being escorted by Fortune, Forester and Greyhound.[60] The refit—which lasted until 3 November—included repairs to her machinery and the installation of a new flight deck barrier.[61]

HMS Ark Royal attack
Bombs falling astern of Ark Royal during an attack by Italian aircraft during the Battle of Cape Spartivento. Photograph taken from the cruiser Sheffield

Following refit, Ark Royal—accompanied by Barham, Berwick, and Glasgow—sailed for Gibraltar, arriving on 6 November.[61] They were deployed with the rest of Force H to escort convoys from Gibraltar to Alexandria and Malta, performing several runs before being assigned to Operation Collar, one of 35 convoys to support Malta between 1940 and 1942, on 25 November. An Italian fleet—led by the battleships Giulio Cesare and Vittorio Veneto—was dispatched to intercept the convoy.[62] The Italian fleet was detected by a reconnaissance aircraft from Ark Royal and the carrier launched Swordfish torpedo bombers while the capital ships of Force H turned to meet the enemy.[63] During the engagement, the Battle of Cape Spartivento, the Italian destroyer Lanciere was damaged, although it is uncertain if torpedoes from the bombers or British gunfire were responsible. The British mistook Lanciere for a cruiser, while the Italian commanders received incorrect reports that the cruiser Bolzano had been hit.[64] British attacks failed to damage any other Italian ships or sink the disabled destroyer, and a retaliatory attack by the Italian air force saw Ark Royal as the subject of multiple bombing runs, none of which hit.[64] The battle had no clear result, although the British convoy reached its destination unscathed.[65]

On 14 December 1940, Ark Royal and Force H were redeployed from Gibraltar to the Atlantic to search the Azores for commerce raiders. Ark Royal returned to the Mediterranean on 20 December, and escorted the battleship Malaya and merchant ships from Malta until 27 December.[66] Force H then became involved in Operation Excess, a plan to move convoys through the Mediterranean to support the Western Desert Force, which was trying to push Italian land forces from Egypt into Libya. Over the next month, British control of the Mediterranean theatre was weakened, particularly by the entry of the Luftwaffe and the near-loss of the aircraft carrier Illustrious.[67] The Mediterranean Fleet was under pressure from Axis forces in the Eastern Mediterranean, while the British port at Gibraltar was likely to be lost if the Spanish chose to ally with the Germans instead of remaining out of the war. To relieve the Mediterranean Fleet, while demonstrating British strength to the Spanish, the Admiralty and Admiral Cunningham planned to use Ark Royal's Swordfish bombers in raids against Italian targets, supported by bombardment from heavy fleet units. The first bombing, on 2 January against the Tirso Dam in Sardinia, was unsuccessful,[68] but Ark Royal's Swordfish bombers were more successful on 6 January, when they bombed the port city of Genoa. The carrier's aircraft also covered the battlecruiser Renown and battleship Malaya while they shelled the port. On 9 January, Ark Royal launched aircraft to bomb an oil refinery at La Spezia, and to lay mines in the harbour. Both operations were successful.[69]

Searching for Scharnhorst and Gneisenau

In early February 1941, the battleships Scharnhorst and Gneisenau headed into the Atlantic on the orders of Grand Admiral Erich Raeder, commander of the German Navy. They were to disrupt Allied shipping and draw capital ships from other areas. On 8 March, Force H and Ark Royal were ordered to the Canary Islands to search for the battleships, and to cover convoys crossing from the United States.[70] Ark Royal used her aircraft to search for captured ships returning to Germany under the control of prize crews. Three ships were located on 19 March: two scuttled themselves, while the third—SS Polykarp—was recaptured.[71]

On the evening of 21 March 1941 a Fairey Fulmar from Ark Royal stumbled across Scharnhorst and Gneisenau at sea. Because of a radio malfunction, the crew had to return to Ark Royal to report, by which time the German ships had escaped under fog.[72] The next day, Ark Royal re-established air patrols in the hope of re-locating the raiders. During the day, a catapult malfunction destroyed a Fairey Swordfish; flinging the fuselage into the sea ahead of the carrier. Unable to stop, Ark Royal ran over the Swordfish and was overhead when the aircraft's depth charges detonated.[73] Scharnhorst and Gneisenau reached Brest without British harassment, while Ark Royal returned to Gibraltar for repairs, arriving on 24 March.[74]

Malta convoys and Operation Tiger

H.M.S. Renown and Ark Royal
Ark Royal at sea with the battlecruiser Renown
HMS Ark Royal AA fire
An intense anti-aircraft barrage is visible during an attack by Italian torpedo bombers on Force H. Ark Royal is on the left, with an Italian aircraft over her bows, and HMS Renown to the right.

Ark Royal spent April alternating between covering convoys and delivering aircraft to Malta and forays into the Atlantic to hunt commerce raiders. By May 1941, Erwin Rommel's Afrika Korps were driving through North Africa towards the Suez Canal, pushing the Western Desert Force before them. With British forces close to collapse and strategic locations threatened, the British High Command risked sending a reinforcement convoy across the Mediterranean to Alexandria. The convoy consisted of five large transport ships, escorted by Ark Royal, the battlecruiser Renown, the battleship Queen Elizabeth, the cruisers Sheffield, Naiad, Fiji, and Gloucester, and screened by destroyers of the 5th Destroyer Flotilla.[75] Prior to Ark Royal's departure, Captain Holland left to recuperate from stress and poor health, and was replaced by Captain Loben Maund.[76] The convoy left Gibraltar on 6 May, and was detected by Italian aircraft. The convoy—limited to 14 knots (26 km/h; 16 mph) and escorted by so many capital ships—was such a tempting target that Italian and German aircraft were mobilised.[77]

The British convoy came under air attack on 8 May, first by the Italian air force, then German Luftwaffe. Over the day, 12 of Ark Royal's Fairey Fulmars (the maximum number available) drove off over 50 aircraft, with the assistance of targeting information from Sheffield's radar and anti-aircraft fire from the escorts.[78][79] During the initial waves, one Fulmar was lost, killing Flight Lieutenant Rupert Tillard and Lieutenant Mark Somerville; another was destroyed with the aircrew recovered, while several others were damaged.[80] Consequently, only seven were able to face the main Luftwaffe force of 34 aircraft, while an attack just before dark was driven off by two aircraft and heavy fire from the ships.[80] The convoy survived without serious damage: the only casualties were to mines, with the Empire Song sunk and New Zealand Star damaged but able to reach port.[81] Ark Royal underwent another aerial attack on 12 May, during her return to Gibraltar. Later that month, she and fellow aircraft carrier Furious delivered Hawker Hurricanes to support Malta.[82]

Hunting the Bismarck

On 18 May 1941, the German battleship Bismarck and heavy cruiser Prinz Eugen began Operation Rheinübung by breaking into the Atlantic to raid shipping. After sinking the battlecruiser Hood and damaging the battleship Prince of Wales during the Battle of the Denmark Strait, Bismarck shook off her pursuers and headed for the French Atlantic coast.[83] Ark Royal, Renown, and Sheffield—accompanied by Faulknor, Foresight, Forester, Fortune, Foxhound, and Fury—were dispatched to the Atlantic on 23 May to search for the battleship.[84] On 26 May, a Swordfish from Ark Royal located Bismarck and began to shadow her, while the Home Fleet was mobilised to pursue.[85]

HMS Ark Royal swordfish
One of Ark Royal's Fairey Swordfish returns at low level over the sea after making a torpedo attack on Bismarck.

At the time of detection, the British ships were 130 nautical miles (150 mi; 240 km) away and would not catch Bismarck before she reached Saint-Nazaire. Fifteen Swordfish bombers were armed with torpedoes and sent to delay the ship. Sheffield, also shadowing Bismarck, was between Ark Royal and Bismarck. The aircraft mistook the British cruiser for their target and fired torpedoes. The torpedoes were fitted with unreliable magnetic detonators, which caused most to explode on contact with the water, while Sheffield evaded the rest.[86] After realising his mistake, one of the pilots signalled 'Sorry for the kipper' to Sheffield.[87]

On return to the carrier, the Swordfish were re-armed with contact-detonator warhead torpedoes, and launched at 19:15 for a second attack; locating and attacking Bismarck just before sunset. Three torpedoes hit the battleship: two detonated forward of the engine rooms, while the third struck the starboard steering compartment and jammed her rudder in a 15° port turn.[88] Bismarck was forced to sail in circles until a combination of alternating propeller speeds was found which would keep her on a reasonably steady course which, in the prevailing force 8 wind and sea state, forced her to sail towards the British warships with almost no manoeuvring capability.[89] The German battleship suffered heavy attack during the night of 26–27 May, and sank at 10:39 hours on 27 May.[90]

Escorting the Malta convoys

HMS Ark Royal planes
Six Blackburn Skuas of No. 800 Squadron Fleet Air Arm lined up on deck before taking off

Ark Royal and the ships of Force H returned to Gibraltar on 29 May 1941. Despite the boost in Allied morale from the sinking of the battleship Bismarck, the war in the Mediterranean was going against the Allies. Greece and Crete had fallen to the Axis Powers, and the Afrika Korps was preparing to launch a final push into Egypt. Malta remained an important stronghold in the Mediterranean, but was coming under increased pressure from Italian and German air attacks, and could no longer be supplied from the east since the fall of Crete.[91]

Ark Royal was pressed into service, delivering aircraft to Malta during several supply runs throughout June and July, and escorting the convoys of Operation Substance in July and Operation Halberd in September. Despite some losses, the convoys succeeded in keeping Malta supplied and fighting.[92] The continued Allied presence in Malta was a considerable problem for Rommel in Africa, who was losing as much as ⅓ of his supplies from Italy to submarines and bombers based there.[93] Adolf Hitler decided to send a flotilla of U-boats into the Mediterranean to attack Allied shipping, against the advice of Großadmiral Raeder.[93]

Final voyage and sinking

On 10 November 1941, Ark Royal ferried more aircraft to Malta before returning to Gibraltar. Admiral Somerville had been warned of U-boats off the Spanish coast, and reminded Force H to be vigilant.[94] Also at sea was Friedrich Guggenberger's U-81, which had received a report that Force H was returning to Gibraltar.[93]

On 13 November, at 15:40, the sonar operator aboard the destroyer Legion detected an unidentified sound, but assumed it was the propellers of a nearby destroyer. One minute later, Ark Royal was struck amidships by a torpedo,[95] between the fuel bunkers and bomb store, and directly below the bridge island.[96] The explosion caused Ark Royal to shake, hurled loaded torpedo-bombers into the air, and killed Able Seaman Edward Mitchell.[96] A 130-by-30-foot (39.6 m × 9.1 m) hole was created on the ship's bottom and on the starboard side below the water-line by the torpedo, which was judged to have run deep, striking the bilge keel where it detonated, inboard of the side protection system.[97] The hit caused flooding of the starboard boiler room, main switchboard, oil tanks, and over 106 feet (32 m) of the ship's starboard bilge. The starboard power train was knocked out, causing the rear half of the ship to lose power, while communications were severed shipwide.[98]

HMS Ark Royal sinking
Legion moving alongside the damaged and listing Ark Royal to take off survivors

Immediately after the torpedo strike, Captain Maund ordered the engines to full stop, but discovered that communications were down and had to send a runner to the engine room.[99] The ship's continued motion enlarged the hole in the hull, and by the time Ark Royal stopped she had taken on a great deal of water and begun to list to starboard, reaching 18° from centre within 20 minutes.[99] Considering the list of the carrier, and the fact that other carriers, including Courageous and Glorious, had sunk rapidly with heavy loss of life, Maund gave the order to abandon ship. The crew were assembled on the flight deck to determine who would remain on board to try to save the ship while Legion came alongside to take off the rest. As a result, comprehensive damage control measures were not initiated until 49 minutes after the attack. The flooding spread unchecked, exacerbated by covers and hatches left open during evacuation of the lower decks.[100]

Water spread to the centreline boiler room, which started to flood from below, and power was lost shipwide when the boiler uptakes became choked; Ark Royal had no backup diesel generators.[101] About half an hour after the explosion, the carrier appeared to stabilise. Admiral Somerville, determined to save Ark Royal, ordered damage control parties back to the carrier before taking the battleship Malaya to Gibraltar to organise salvage efforts. The damage control parties re-lit a boiler, restoring power to the bilge pumps. The destroyer Laforey came alongside to provide power and additional pumps, while Swordfish aircraft from Gibraltar flew overhead to supplement anti-submarine patrols.[102] The tug Thames arrived from Gibraltar at 20:00 and attached a tow line to Ark Royal, but the flooding had caused the ship to list more severely. Rising water reached the boiler room fan flat, an uninterrupted compartment running the width of the ship. This forced the shutdown of the restored boiler.[103]

HMS Ark Royal sinking 2
Another photograph showing the degree of the list

The list reached 20° between 02:05 and 02:30, and when 'abandon ship' was declared again at 04:00, had reached 27°.[104] Ark Royal's complement had been evacuated to Legion by 04:30; with the exception of Mitchell, there were no fatalities. The 1,487 officers and crew were transported to Gibraltar.[105] The list reached 45° before Ark Royal capsized and sank at 06:19 on 14 November.[106] Witnesses reported the carrier rolling to 90°, where she remained for three minutes before inverting. Ark Royal then broke in two, the aft sinking within a couple of minutes, followed by the bow.[107]

Investigation

Following the sinking, a Board of Inquiry was established to investigate the loss. Based on its findings, Captain Loben Maund was court-martialled in February 1942 for negligence. He was found guilty on two counts of negligence: one of failing to ensure that properly constituted damage control parties had remained on board after the general evacuation, and one of failing to ensure the ship was in a sufficient state of readiness to deal with possible damage.[108] The board tempered their judgement with an acknowledgement that a high standard was being expected of Maund, and that he was primarily concerned with the welfare of his crew.[108]

The Bucknill Committee, which had been set up to investigate the loss of major warships, also produced a report. This report said that the lack of backup power sources was a major design failure, which contributed to the loss: Ark Royal depended on electricity for much of her operation, and once the boilers and steam-driven dynamos were knocked out, the loss of power made damage control difficult. The committee recommended the design of the bulkheads and boiler intakes be improved to decrease the risk of widespread flooding in boiler rooms and machine spaces, while the uninterrupted boiler room flat was criticised. The design flaws were rectified in the Illustrious- and Implacable-class carriers, under construction at the time.[109][110]

The Board of Inquiry closed its report with the observation that Ark Royal had sunk 22 nautical miles (25 mi; 41 km) east of Europa Point, the southernmost tip of Gibraltar. This was accepted as the wreck location for 60 years.[111]

Rediscovery

The location of the wreck was undetermined until mid-December 2002, when the wreck was discovered by an underwater survey company, C & C Technologies, Inc, using a sonar-equipped autonomous underwater vehicle, 30 nautical miles (35 mi; 56 km) from Gibraltar, at about 1000 metres depth.[2][112] The company had been contracted by the BBC as part of a documentary on maritime archaeology related to major battles of the Royal Navy.[112] The Ark Royal wreck lies scattered across the seafloor; 20 metres (66 ft) of the bow is separate from the rest of the ship's hull. A large debris field, which includes the remains of the funnel and bridge island, parts of the ship that came loose as the carrier sank, and aircraft from the hangars, lay between the two hull sections. Analysis revealed that the port side of the ship hit the seabed first.[113]

The wreck was found further east than expected. Researchers originally thought the wreck had been carried by currents farther into the Mediterranean as she sank – that the ship had travelled eastwards underwater before reaching the seabed.[114] The presence near the hull pieces of other debris, including a Swordfish bomber that was tipped off the flight deck before the ship rolled, proved this false. If the current had pushed the hull pieces any significant distance sideways as they sank, debris would have been spread over a much wider area. It seems though that eastward currents had affected her progress towards Gibraltar during the time she was under tow.[115]

Study of the wreck also showed that restarting the engines to provide power increased the stresses placed on the hull, adding to the flooding. Once power was then lost, it was impossible to prevent the ship from sinking — her fate was more the result of design flaws than of the actions of her captain.[115]

Notes

a. ^ The Washington Naval Treaty (signed in February 1922) imposed a limit of 135,000 tons on total British aircraft carrier tonnage, with no one ship allowed to exceed 33,000 tons, and only two to exceed 27,000 tons.[116] The London Naval Treaty (signed in April 1930) prevented signatories from constructing new capital ships, or converting existing capital ships into aircraft carriers, until 1937.[117]

Citations

  1. ^ a b Friedman, British Carrier Aviation, Appendix A. Ark Royal entered service with four 8-barrelled mountings, but by October 1941 all six mountings were in place.
  2. ^ a b Warren, Daniel; Church, Robert; Davey, Rick (September 2004). "Discovering H.M.S. Ark Royal" (PDF). Hydro International. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
  3. ^ a b c d Rossiter. Ark Royal. pp. 43–4.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Bishop & Chant. Aircraft carriers. p. 45.
  5. ^ Rossiter. Ark Royal. pp. 48–51.
  6. ^ Friedman. When the flight deck becomes the strength deck, the aircraft hangars are then enclosed within the hull structure. The terms, 'enclosed' and 'open' hangars do not, strictly speaking, refer to a hangar that is closed or open on the sides, but rather to whether the hangar is, respectively, below or above the strength deck.
  7. ^ Friedman. The flight deck was designed with .75 in of Ducol steel. The enclosed hangar design required a deck of approximately this thickness to ensure adequate hull integrity, so the limited armour protection was a by-product of the enclosed hangar design. The strength deck is designed to carry structural loading in combination with the hull girder and side and bottom plating. Ship's structure above the strength deck is termed 'superstructure'. Ducol steel was an advanced type of high tensile steel which had great strength and was often used to provide armour for splinter protection.
  8. ^ a b Jameson. Ark Royal. p. 16.
  9. ^ a b c Rossiter. Ark Royal. pp. 48–9.
  10. ^ Garzke. Allied Battleships. pp. 364–5.
  11. ^ Friedman. British Carrier Aviation. p. 121.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Mason. "HMS Ark Royal – Fleet Aircraft Carrier". Archived from the original on 29 September 2016.
  13. ^ Rossiter. Ark Royal. p. 47.
  14. ^ Rossiter. Ark Royal. p. 45.
  15. ^ UK Retail Price Index inflation figures are based on data from Clark, Gregory (2017). "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved January 27, 2019.
  16. ^ Rossiter. Ark Royal. pp. 45–46.
  17. ^ Rossiter. Ark Royal. p. 46.
  18. ^ a b Colledge & Warlow. Ships of the Royal Navy. p. 21.
  19. ^ Rossiter. Ark Royal. p. 41.
  20. ^ Rossiter. Ark Royal. pp. 61–62.
  21. ^ Friedman, p.123
  22. ^ a b Westwood. Fighting Ships of World War II. p. 66.
  23. ^ Rossiter. Ark Royal. p. 47.
  24. ^ Rossiter. Ark Royal. pp. 47–48.
  25. ^ a b Rossiter. Ark Royal. p. 112.
  26. ^ Brown; et al. Carrier Operations. p. 15.
  27. ^ a b Edwards. Dönitz and the Wolf Packs. p. 18.
  28. ^ a b c d Rossiter. Ark Royal. pp. 74–7.
  29. ^ a b c d e Rossiter. Ark Royal. pp. 75–8.
  30. ^ a b c Edwards. Dönitz and the wolf packs. p. 87.
  31. ^ Rossiter. Ark Royal. p. 81.
  32. ^ Rossiter. Ark Royal. p. 82.
  33. ^ Bekker. The Luftwaffe War Diaries. pp. 75–76.
  34. ^ a b c Rossiter. Ark Royal. pp. 84–5.
  35. ^ Balfour. Propaganda in War 1939–1945. pp. 158–9.
  36. ^ Rossiter. Ark Royal. pp. 88–9.
  37. ^ Jameson. Ark Royal. p. 53.
  38. ^ Mitchell. The Empire Ships. p. 431.
  39. ^ a b Jameson. Ark Royal. p. 42.
  40. ^ a b Rossiter. Ark Royal. pp. 94–6.
  41. ^ a b c Rossiter. Ark Royal. p. 99.
  42. ^ a b Jameson. Ark Royal. p. 97.
  43. ^ Rossiter. Ark Royal. p. 117.
  44. ^ a b Rossiter. Ark Royal. p. 119.
  45. ^ Rossiter. Ark Royal. pp. 120–1.
  46. ^ Jameson. Ark Royal. p. 137.
  47. ^ Jameson. Ark Royal. pp. 140–1.
  48. ^ Rossiter. Ark Royal. p. 128.
  49. ^ Jameson. Ark Royal. p. 154.
  50. ^ Rossiter. Ark Royal. p. 132.
  51. ^ Rossiter. Ark Royal. p. 136.
  52. ^ Rossiter. Ark Royal. p. 138.
  53. ^ Jameson. Ark Royal. p. 170.
  54. ^ a b Rossiter. Ark Royal. p. 179.
  55. ^ Rossiter. Ark Royal. p. 180.
  56. ^ Jameson. Ark Royal. pp. 185–7.
  57. ^ Jameson. Ark Royal. pp. 192–3.
  58. ^ Rossiter. Ark Royal. p. 190.
  59. ^ Jameson. Ark Royal. pp. 212–5.
  60. ^ Jameson. Ark Royal. pp. 222–5.
  61. ^ a b Rossiter. Ark Royal. p. 192.
  62. ^ Jameson. Ark Royal. p. 230.
  63. ^ Jameson. Ark Royal. pp. 236–58.
  64. ^ a b Jameson. Ark Royal. p. 239.
  65. ^ O'Hara. Struggle. pp. 72–74.
  66. ^ Rossiter. Ark Royal. p. 210.
  67. ^ Rossiter. Ark Royal. pp. 218–9.
  68. ^ Rossiter. Ark Royal. pp. 222–6.
  69. ^ Rossiter. Ark Royal. pp. 228–30.
  70. ^ Jameson. Ark Royal. pp. 259–60.
  71. ^ Jameson. Ark Royal. p. 260.
  72. ^ Jameson. Ark Royal. pp. 260–2.
  73. ^ Rossiter. Ark Royal. p. 242.
  74. ^ Rossiter. Ark Royal. p. 243.
  75. ^ Jameson. Ark Royal. pp. 268–9.
  76. ^ Jameson. Ark Royal. p. 266.
  77. ^ Jameson. Ark Royal. p. 269.
  78. ^ Jameson. Ark Royal. pp. 271–74.
  79. ^ Rossiter. Ark Royal. p. 258.
  80. ^ a b Rossiter. Ark Royal. p. 249.
  81. ^ Jameson. Ark Royal. p. 274.
  82. ^ Jameson. Ark Royal. pp. 276–77.
  83. ^ Jameson. Ark Royal. pp. 279–90.
  84. ^ Jameson. Ark Royal. p. 294.
  85. ^ Jameson. Ark Royal. p. 296.
  86. ^ Jameson. Ark Royal. pp. 299–300.
  87. ^ Stephen. Sea Battles. p. 90.
  88. ^ Jameson. Ark Royal. pp. 303–5.
  89. ^ Garzke. Axis Battleships. pp. 235–6.
  90. ^ Williamson. German Battleships. pp. 33–34.
  91. ^ Rossiter. Ark Royal. pp. 316–7.
  92. ^ Jameson. Ark Royal. p. 318.
  93. ^ a b c Rossiter. Ark Royal. p. 327.
  94. ^ Jameson. Ark Royal. p. 337.
  95. ^ Rossiter. Ark Royal. p. 329.
  96. ^ a b Rossiter. Ark Royal. p. 332.
  97. ^ Friedman. British Carrier Aviation. p. 126.
  98. ^ Paterson. U-Boats. p. 38.
  99. ^ a b Jameson. Ark Royal. p. 338.
  100. ^ Jameson. Ark Royal. pp. 338–40.
  101. ^ Rossiter. Ark Royal. p. 345.
  102. ^ Jameson. Ark Royal. p. 342.
  103. ^ Jameson. Ark Royal. pp. 343–5.
  104. ^ Jameson. Ark Royal. p. 346.
  105. ^ Duffy. Target America. p. 136.
  106. ^ Jameson. Ark Royal. p. 348.
  107. ^ Rossiter. Ark Royal. pp. 375–6.
  108. ^ a b Rossiter. Ark Royal. pp. 372–3.
  109. ^ Papers of Admiral Sir Hugh Binney, reports of Second Bucknill Committee relating to loss of HMS PRINCE OF WALES and HMS ARK ROYAL, 1941–1942, held at Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archives, King's College London
  110. ^ Rossiter. Ark Royal. p. 374.
  111. ^ Rossiter. Ark Royal. p. 30.
  112. ^ a b "Film team finds wreck of Ark Royal". BBC News. 19 December 2002.
  113. ^ Rossiter. Ark Royal. pp. 368–9.
  114. ^ Rossiter. Ark Royal. pp. 168–9.
  115. ^ a b Rossiter. Ark Royal. p. 377.
  116. ^ Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States. pp. 247–266.
  117. ^ Reproduced in Goldman. Sunken treaties. pp. 307–319.

References

Books

  • Balfour, Michael (1979). Propaganda in War 1939–1945: Organisation, Policies and Publics in Britain and Germany. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 0-7100-0193-2. OCLC 5373844.
  • Bekker, Cajus (1969). The Luftwaffe War Diaries. Zielger, Frank (trans.). London: Corgi. ISBN 0-552-08236-8. OCLC 30270475.
  • Bishop, Chris; Chant, Christopher (2004). Aircraft Carriers: The World's Greatest Naval Vessels and Their Aircraft. Grand Rapids, MI: Zenith. ISBN 0-7603-2005-5. OCLC 56646560. Retrieved 22 July 2008.
  • Brown, David; Brown, J. D.; Hobbs, David (2009). Carrier Operations in World War II. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-59114-108-2.
  • Chesneau, Roger (1984). Aircraft Carriers of the World, 1914 to the present; an illustrated encyclopedia. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-902-2. OCLC 11018793.
  • Colledge, J. J.; Warlow, Ben (2006) [1969]. Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy (Rev. ed.). London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8. OCLC 67375475.
  • Duffy, James P. (2006) [2004]. Target America: Hitler's Plan to Attack the United States (3rd ed.). New York: Lyons. ISBN 1-59228-934-7. OCLC 70264388.
  • Edwards, Bernard (1999) [1996]. Dönitz and the Wolf Packs: the U-boats at war (2nd ed.). London: Cassell. ISBN 0-304-35203-9. OCLC 41465151.
  • Friedman, Norman (1988). British Carrier Aviation: The Evolution of the Ships and their Aircraft. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-054-8.
  • Garzke, William; John Dulin (1990). Battleships: Axis and Neutral Battleships in World War II. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-0-87021-101-0.
  • Garzke, William H.; Dulin Jr., Robert O.; Webb, Thomas G. (1980). Allied Battleships in World War II. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-100-5.
  • Goldman, Emily O. (1994). Sunken Treaties: Naval Arms Control Between the Wars. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University. ISBN 0-271-01034-7. OCLC 28723444.
  • Jameson, William (1 April 2004) [1957]. Ark Royal: the Life of an Aircraft Carrier at War 1939–41 (2nd ed.). Periscope Publishing. ISBN 1-904381-27-8.
  • Lenton, H. T. (1998). British and Empire Warships of the Second World War. London: Greenhill Books. ISBN 1-85367-277-7. OCLC 39245871.
  • Mitchell, William Harry; Sawyer, Leonard Arthur (1990). The Empire Ships: A Record of British-built and Acquired Merchant Ships During the Second World War. Lloyd's of London Press. ISBN 1-85044-275-4.
  • O'Hara, Vincent (2009). Struggle for the Middle Sea. 1. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-59114-648-3.
  • "Conference on the Limitation of Armament". Papers relating to the foreign relations of the United States. Vol I. Washington: US G.P.O. 1922. pp. 247–266. OCLC 24045525. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
  • Paterson, Lawrence (2007). U-boats in the Mediterranean, 1941–1944. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-59114-893-7.
  • Rossiter, Mike (2007) [2006]. Ark Royal: the life, death and rediscovery of the legendary Second World War aircraft carrier (2nd ed.). London: Corgi Books. ISBN 978-0-552-15369-0. OCLC 81453068.
  • Stephen, Martin (1988). Sea Battles in Close-Up: World War 2. 1. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-556-6.
  • Westwood, J. N. (1975) [1971]. Fighting ships of World War II. London: Sidgwick and Jackson (for Book Club Associates). ISBN 0-283-98287-X. OCLC 2090062.
  • Williamson, Gordon (2003). German Battleships 1939–45. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-498-6.

Websites

External links

Preceded by
1914
HMS Ark Royal
1938–1941
Succeeded by
R09

Coordinates: 36°3′N 4°45′W / 36.050°N 4.750°W

1938 in the United Kingdom

Events from the year 1938 in the United Kingdom.

HMS Ark Royal

Five ships of the Royal Navy have borne the name HMS Ark Royal:

Ark Royal (1587), the flagship of the English fleet during the Spanish Armada campaign of 1588

HMS Ark Royal (1914), planned as freighter, built as seaplane carrier during the First World War, renamed Pegasus in 1934

HMS Ark Royal (91), British aircraft carrier launched in 1937 that participated in the Second World War and was sunk by a U-boat in 1941

HMS Ark Royal (R09), an Audacious-class aircraft carrier launched in 1950, decommissioned in 1979

HMS Ark Royal (R07), an Invincible-class aircraft carrier, launched in 1981, decommissioned in 2011

HMS Invincible

Seven ships of the Royal Navy have been named HMS Invincible.

Index of World War II articles (H)

H-hour (D-day)

H. A. Sinclair de Rochemont

H. E. Bates

H. Emory Widener Jr.

H. H. Kung

H. Keith Thompson

H. L. N. Salmon

H. Montgomery Hyde

H. Ryan Price

H. Stuart Hughes

H. W. Whillock

Höcker Album

Höfle Telegram

Hôtel-Dieu de Paris

Hôtel Biron

Hôtel Carnavalet

Hôtel Continental

Hôtel Costes

Hôtel d'Evreux

Hôtel de Castries

Hôtel de Cluny

Hôtel de Crillon

Hôtel de Lauzun

Hôtel de Rambouillet

Hôtel de Salm

Hôtel de Sens

Hôtel de Soubise

Hôtel de Toulouse

Hôtel de Ville (Paris Métro)

Hôtel de Ville, Paris

Hôtel des Invalides

Hôtel Grimod de La Reynière

Hôtel Lambert

Hôtel Lutetia

Hôtel Matignon

Hôtel Méridien Montparnasse

Hôtel particulier

Hôtel Ritz Paris

Hôtel Salomon de Rothschild

H2S radar

H2X radar

Ha'avara Agreement

HA. 19 (Japanese Midget Submarine)

Haakon Hansen (boxer)

Haakon VII of Norway

Haane Manahi

Haavara Agreement

Habib Bamogo

Raja Habib ur Rahman Khan

Hachirō Arita

Hadamar Clinic

Hadrien Feraud

Hafthohlladung

Hagushi

Hai (midget submarine)

Haig Acterian

HAIG L-15

Haijiu-class submarine chaser

Haika Grossman

Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia

Hailstorm Over Truk Lagoon

Hainan Island Operation

Hainewalde concentration camp

Hainichen concentration camp

Haiqing-class submarine chaser

Hajile

Hajime Sugiyama

Hajo Herrmann

Hajo Holborn

Hakim Saci

Hakko ichiu

Hal Clement

Hal Far Fighter Flight

Hal Gould

Hal Holbrook

Hal Lahar

Hal Turner

Hal Van Every

Hala Gorani

Halberstadt C.V

Halberstadt CL.II

Halberstadt CL.IV

Halberstadt D.I

Halberstadt D.II

Halcyon-class minesweeper

Hale Boggs

Halina Birenbaum

Halina Szymańska

Hall Overton

Halle concentration camp

Halls of Montezuma (film)

Halswell House

Hamazasp Babadzhanian

Hamburg Ravensbrück Trials

Hamilton Air Force Base

Hamilton H. Howze

Hamish Forbes

Hammerskins

Hammond Innes

Hampshire County Division

Han Deqin

Han Xianchu

Hana Brady

Hana Greenfield

Hana Mašková

Handan Campaign

Handley Page Heyford

Hanford MacNider

Hanford Site

Hangmen Also Die!

Hank Bauer

Hank Gowdy

Hank Greenberg

Hank Ketcham

Hank Soar

Hank Stram

Hank Thompson (baseball)

Hank Thompson (musician)

Hanna Reitsch

Hanna Yablonka

Hannah Arendt

Hannah Billig

Hannah Szenes

Hannes Messemer

Hannes Trautloft

Hannie Schaft

Hannover CL.II

Hannover CL.III

Hannover CL.IV

Hannover CL.V

Hanns-Martin Schleyer

Hanns Albin Rauter

Hanns Eisler

Hanns Johst

Hanns Kerrl

Hanns Ludin

Hanns Scharff

Hanover Street (film)

Hans-Adolf Prützmann

Hans-Arnold Stahlschmidt

Hans-Dieter Weihs

Hans-Dietrich Genscher

Hans-Erich Voss

Hans-Georg von Friedeburg

Hans-Hartwig Trojer

Hans-Heinz Augenstein

Hans-Jürgen Stumpff

Hans-Jürgen von Arnim

Hans-Jürgen von Blumenthal

Hans-Joachim Jabs

Hans-Joachim Marseille

Hans-Jochen Vogel

Hans-Karl Freiherr von Esebeck

Hans-Karl Stepp

Hans-Oscar Wöhlermann

Hans-Rudolf Rösing

Hans-Ulrich Rudel

Hans-Ulrich Wehler

Hans-Valentin Hube

Hans "Assi" Hahn

Hans Adolf Krebs

Hans Aumeier

Hans Baur

Hans Beißwenger

Hans Bernd Gisevius

Hans Bernd von Haeften

Hans Bethe

Hans Biebow

Hans Bühler

Hans Candrian

Hans Conrad Leipelt

Hans Coppi

Hans Dammers

Hans Dorr

Hans Egon Holthusen

Hans Ekkehard Bob

Hans F. K. Günther

Hans Felber

Hans Frank

Hans Frankenthal

Hans Fritzsche

Hans Götz

Hans Georg Calmeyer

Hans Georg Dehmelt

Hans Georg Klamroth

Hans Globke

Hans Gollnick

Hans Graf von Sponeck

Hans Grünberg

Hans Grundig

Hans Gruneberg

Hans Gál

Hans Guido Mutke

Hans Hartung

Hans Heilbronn

Hans Heinrich von Twardowski

Hans Hinkel

Hans Howaldt

Hans Jacob Nielsen

Hans Jeschonnek

Hans Jüttner

Hans John

Hans Jordan

Hans Josephsohn

Hans Kammler

Hans Kempin

Hans Koning

Hans Krebs (SS general)

Hans Krebs (Wehrmacht general)

Hans Kreysing

Hans Krüger

Hans Kroh

Hans Krása

Hans Källner

Hans Lammers

Hans Langsdorff

Hans Larive

Hans Litten

Hans Loritz

Hans Münch

Hans Modrow

Hans Mommsen

Hans Multhopp

Hans Nieland

Hans Nordvik

Hans Oster

Hans P. Kraus

Hans Philipp

Hans Plenk

Hans Pulver

Hans Röhrig

Hans Refior

Hans Reidar Holtermann

Hans Reiter

Hans Ritter von Seisser

Hans Rose

Hans Rothfels

Hans Schemm

Hans Schleef

Hans Scholl

Hans Seidemann

Hans Speidel

Hans Thomsen

Hans Ulrich Klintzsch

Hans van den Broek

Hans von Adam

Hans von Dohnanyi

Hans von Halban

Hans von Herwarth

Hans von Luck

Hans von Obstfelder

Hans von Ohain

Hans von Salmuth

Hans von Tschammer und Osten

Hans Waldmann (fighter pilot)

Hans Walter

Hans Weik

Hans Wind

Hans Ziegler (physicist)

Hansa-Brandenburg B.I

Hansa-Brandenburg C.I

Hansa-Brandenburg CC

Hansa-Brandenburg D.I

Hansa-Brandenburg G.I

Hansa-Brandenburg GW

Hansa-Brandenburg KDW

Hansa-Brandenburg W.11

Hansa-Brandenburg W.12

Hansa-Brandenburg W.13

Hansa-Brandenburg W.19

Hansa-Brandenburg W.27

Hansa-Brandenburg W.29

Hansa-Brandenburg W.33

Hansa-Brandenburg W

Hansa (Swedish ship)

Hansa Bay

Hanson Victor Turner

Hanyang 88

Hanyang Arsenal

Hao Mengling

Happy Sam Sawyer

Happy Valley, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Harald Edelstam

Harald Feller

Harald Grønningen

Harald Hagen

Harald Langhelle

Harald Mors

Harald Natvig

Harald Quandt

Harald Riipalu

Harald Weinrich

Harbaville Triptych

Harbin SH-5

Harbin Z-5

Harbin Z-9

Harbor Defenses of Manila and Subic Bays

Harbour Defence Motor Launch

Hardy Brown

Harl Pease

Harlan Lane

Harlem Désir

Harley-Davidson WLA

Harlo Jones

Harlon Block

Harm's Way (novel)

Harold "Barehands" Bates

Harold A. Garman

Harold Abrahams

Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis

Harold Annison

Harold Augustus Wernher

Harold Auten

Harold Ball

Harold Brownlow Martin

Harold Burrough

Harold C. Agerholm

Harold Chester Thomas

Harold Clarke

Harold Comte

Harold Covington

Harold E. Martin

Harold E. Wilson

Harold Eric Barrowclough

Harold Farncomb

Harold G. Epperson

Harold G. Hoffman

Harold G. Kiner

Harold G. Schrier

Harold Gonsalves

Harold Gould

Harold H. Moon Jr.

Harold Himmel Velde

Harold James (historian)

Harold Jensen Christopher

Harold John Ellison

Harold John Mack

Harold Keith Johnson

Harold Little

Harold MacMichael

Harold Maguire

Harold Mahony

Harold Marcus Ervine-Andrews

Harold Marshall (Canadian sniper)

Harold O. Messerschmidt

Harold Osborn

Harold P. Hamilton

Harold Rainsford Stark

Harold Rawdon Briggs

Harold Redman

Harold Reginald Newgass

Harold Robert Aaron

Harold Russell

Harold Sebring

Harold Soref

Harold Stassen

Harold Taft

Harold Turner (German SS commander)

Harold Urey

Harold W. Bauer

Harold Ware

Harold Washington

Harold Wilson (rower)

Harris-class attack transport

Harris George Rogers

Harris Hull

Harrison C. Summers

Harrison Glancy

Harrison Thyng

Harro Schulze-Boysen

Harry's New York Bar

Harry "Wings" Day

Harry A. "Paddy" Flint

Harry B. Liversedge

Harry Brinkley Bass

Harry Broos

Harry Carey Jr.

Harry Cator

Harry Corner

Harry Crerar

Harry D. Felt

Harry Daniels

Harry DeBaecke

Harry DeWolf

Harry Dénis

Harry E. Yarnell

Harry Edward de Robillard Wetherall

Harry Elmer Barnes

Harry F. Byrd Jr.

Harry Frank Guggenheim

Harry G. Haskell Jr.

Harry George Armstrong

Harry Gill (RAF officer)

Harry Gold

Harry Harrison

Harry Ice

Harry J. Collins

Harry J. Michael

Harry James Lowe Jr.

Harry Daghlian

Harry K. Fukuhara

Harry Kenneth Dimoline

Harry L. Martin

Harry Lee (athlete)

Harry Llewellyn

Harry Magdoff and espionage

Harry Mallin

Harry Mitchell (boxer)

Harry Newcombe

Harry Nicholls

Harry O'Neill (catcher)

Harry Pennell

Harry Pregerson

Harry R. Harr

Harry Reasoner

Harry Rée

Harry S. Truman

Harry Schell

Harry Schmidt (USMC)

Harry Secombe

Harry Steel

Harry Sundberg

Harry T. Mangurian Jr.

Harry T. Moore

Harry Thürk

Harry Turtledove's Darkness

Harry Wyld

Hart's War

Hartford-Brainard Airport

Hartland Molson

Hartley Shawcross, Baron Shawcross

Hartmann Lauterbacher

Harukichi Hyakutake

Haruko Okamoto

Harvard Army Airfield

Harvey C. Couch

Harvey Emerson Oswald

Harvey Lipschultz (TV character)

Harvey Lord

Harvey Parnell

Harvey Possinger

Harwood Harrison

Hasegawa Yoshimichi

Hashim al-Atassi

Hashirajima

Haskell-class attack transport

Hassan Ahamada

Hasso von Boehmer

Hasso von Manteuffel

Hastings Ismay, 1st Baron Ismay

Hatazō Adachi

Hatbox Field

Hate-Monger

Hatsuharu-class destroyer

Hauptamt SS-Gericht

Hauptamt Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle

Hauptscharführer

Hauptsturmführer

Haupttruppführer

Haus der Kunst

Haussmann's renovation of Paris

Haussmann – Saint-Lazare (Paris RER)

Havana Conference of 1940

Haven-class hospital ship

Haviva Reik

Havre - Caumartin (Paris Métro)

Hawker Sea Fury

Hawker Sea Hawk

Hawker Tempest

Hawker Tornado

Hawker Typhoon

Hawkins grenade

Haxhi Lleshi

Haxo (Paris Métro)

Hayabusa-class torpedo boat

Hayao Kinugasa

Hayao Tada

Haydarpaşa Cemetery

Hayward Executive Airport

Hazel Hotchkiss Wightman

Hazel Ying Lee

He-Umezu Agreement

He Long

He Yingqin

He Zhuguo

Hełm wz. 31

Head in the Clouds

Headquarters Allied Command Europe Rapid Reaction Corps

Heart Mountain War Relocation Center

Hearts of Iron II: Armageddon

Hearts of Iron II: Doomsday

Hearts of Iron II

Hearts of Iron

Heathcote Howard Hammer

Heaven Knows, Mr. Allison (novel)

Heaven Knows, Mr. Allison

Hebei-Chahar Political Council

Hebei-Rehe-Chahar Campaign

Hec Kilrea

Hector Bertram Gray

Hector Bianciotti

Hector Boece

Hector MacLean

Hector Monro, Baron Monro of Langholm

Hector P. Garcia

Hector Waller

Hedgehog (weapon)

Hedley Hazelden

Hedley Verity

Hedwiga Rosenbaumová

Hedy Epstein

German Army (Wehrmacht)

Heeresgeschichtliches Museum

Hehalutz

Heidemarie Steiner

Heidi Lee Morgan

Heikki Liimatainen (athlete)

Heiligenbeil concentration camp

Heiligenbeil Pocket

Heilungkiang National Salvation Army

Heimatvertriebene

Heimkehr

Hein ter Poorten

Heinie Elder

Heinkel HD 17

Heinkel HD 23

Heinkel HD 25

Heinkel HD 26

Heinkel HD 28

Heinkel HD 32

Heinkel HD 36

Heinkel HD 37

Heinkel HD 38

Heinkel HD 55

Heinkel HE 1

Heinkel He 100

Heinkel He 111

Heinkel He 112 operational service

Heinkel He 112

Heinkel He 113

Heinkel He 114

Heinkel He 115

Heinkel He 118

Heinkel He 119

Heinkel He 162

Heinkel He 176

Heinkel He 177

Heinkel He 178

Heinkel HE 2

Heinkel He 219

Heinkel He 274

Heinkel He 277

Heinkel He 280

Heinkel He 343

Heinkel He 42

Heinkel He 45

Heinkel He 46

Heinkel HE 5

Heinkel He 50

Heinkel He 51

Heinkel He 59

Heinkel He 60

Heinkel He 62

Heinkel He 70

Heinkel He 72

Heinkel He 74

Heinkel HE 8

Heinkel Lerche

Heino von Heimburg

Heinrich Bartels

Heinrich Behmann

Heinrich Bleichrodt

Heinrich Blum

Heinrich Boere

Heinrich Bär

Heinrich Eberbach

Heinrich Ehrler

Heinrich Fehlis

Heinrich Freiherr von Lüttwitz

Heinrich Freiherr von Stackelberg

Heinrich George

Heinrich Graf von Einsiedel

Heinrich Graf von Lehndorff-Steinort

Heinrich Graf zu Dohna-Schlobitten

Heinrich Gross

Heinrich Höfemeier

Heinrich Harrer

Heinrich Himmler

Heinrich Hoffmann (photographer)

Heinrich Kreipe

Heinrich Lehmann-Willenbrock

Heinrich Liebe

Heinrich Messner

Heinrich Müller (Gestapo)

Heinrich Prinz zu Sayn-Wittgenstein

Heinrich Rau

Heinrich Rischtoff

Heinrich Schwarz

Heinrich Severloh

Heinrich Sturm

Heinrich Thoma

Heinrich Trettner

Heinrich von Vietinghoff

Heinz-Georg Lemm

Heinz-Gerhard Vogt

Heinz-Wilhelm Eck

Heinz-Wolfgang Schnaufer

Heinz Arnold

Heinz Auerswald

Heinz Barth

Heinz Brücher

Heinz Dörmer

Heinz Drossel

Heinz Ebeling

Heinz Galinski

Heinz Günther Guderian

Heinz Guderian

Heinz Harmel

Heinz Hellmich

Heinz Hitler

Heinz Kapelle

Heinz Lange

Heinz Linge

Heinz Lorenz

Heinz Macher

Heinz Marquardt

Heinz Müller (SS officer)

Heinz Nixdorf

Heinz Pernet

Heinz Rökker

Heinz Reinefarth

Heinz Sachsenberg

Heinz Schmidt

Heinz Spanknobel

Heinz Strüning

Heinz von Randow

Heinz Waaske

Heisuke Hironaka

Heisuke Yanagawa

Heitarō Kimura

Helen Duncan

Helen Gwynne-Vaughan

Helen L. Seaborg

Helen Meany

Helen of Greece and Denmark

Helen Wainwright

Helen Wills Moody

Helena Macher

Helena Nordheim

Helene Moszkiewiez

Helenio Herrera

Helfer

Helga Deen

Helge Auleb

Hell in the Pacific

Hell Is for Heroes (film)

Hell ship

Hell to Eternity

Hellfire Pass

Hellmer Hermandsen

Hellmuth Heye

Hellmuth Mäder

Hellmuth Reymann

Helmbrechts concentration camp

Helmer Swenholt

Helmet for My Pillow

Helmut Baudach

Helmut Bennemann

Helmut Bruckner

Helmut Dörner

Helmut Gröttrup

Helmut Hamann

Helmut Kapp

Helmut Knochen

Helmut Kunz

Helmut Lennartz

Helmut Lent

Helmut Lipfert

Helmut Poppendick

Helmut Schmidt

Helmut Thumm

Helmut Vetter

Helmut Wick

Helmut Wirnsberger

Helmut Woltersdorf

Helmuth Ehrhardt

Helmuth Hübener

Helmuth James Graf von Moltke

Helmuth Stieff

Helmuth von Pannwitz

Helmuth von Ruckteschell

Helmuth Weidling

Heloise (abbess)

Hemp for Victory

Hendrik Elias

Hendrik Nicolaas Werkman

Hendrik Offerhaus

Hendrik Timmer (tennis)

Hendrik van Heuckelum

Hendrik van Riessen

Hendrikus Colijn

Henk de Best

Henk Feldmeijer

Henk Sneevliet

Henneicke Column

Henner Henkel

Henning von Tresckow

Henri-Cardin-Jean-Baptiste d'Aguesseau

Henri-Chapelle American Cemetery and Memorial

Henri-Jacques de Caumont, duc de La Force

Henri-Louis Duhamel du Monceau

Henri-Robert Petit

Henri Alekan

Henri Amouroux

Henri Auguste Barbier

Henri Barbusse

Henri Bergson

Henri Braquenié

Henri Béraud

Henri Caillavet

Henri Cartan

Henri Claude

Henri Cochet

Henri Curiel

Henri d'Astier de la Vigerie

Henri d'Orléans, duc d'Aumale

Henri Daniel-Rops

Henri de Man

Henri de Massue, 1st Earl of Galway

Henri de Régnier

Henri Deloge

Henri Dentz

Henri Dericourt

Henri Donnedieu de Vabres

Henri Dumat

Henri Duparc (composer)

Henri Désiré Landru

Henri Fantin-Latour

Henri Frenay

Henri Galau

Henri Giraud

Henri Gouhier

Henri Helle

Henri Honoré d'Estienne d'Orves

Henri Hérouin

Henri Krasucki

Henri Landwirth

Henri Laurent

Henri Lauvaux

Henri Lucien Doucet

Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville

Henri Martin (historian)

Henri Maspero

Henri Masson

Henri Meilhac

Henri Menier

Henri Michel

Henri Mineur

Henri Moissan

Henri Navarre

Henri Oreiller

Henri Pieck

Henri Pitot

Henri Poincaré

Henri Regnault

Henri Reynders

Henri Rol-Tanguy

Henri Tauzin

Henri Troyat

Henri Victor Regnault

Henri Wallon (psychologist)

Henri Wernli

Henri Winkelman

Henri, comte de Chambord

Henricus Tromp

Henrietta Maria of France

Henrik Agerbeck

Henrik Kauffmann

Henrik Robert

Henrik Sillem

Henry A. Commiskey Sr.

Henry A. Courtney Jr.

Henry A. Miley Jr.

Henry A. Schade

Henry Ashby Turner

Henry Bailey (sport shooter)

Henry Bellmon

Henry Bentinck, 11th Earl of Portland

Henry Blagrove

Henry Botterell

Henry Browne, Farmer

Henry Cabot Lodge Bohler

Henry Cabot Lodge Jr.

Henry Cattan

Henry Clausen

Henry Cohen (civil servant)

Henry Corbin

Henry Coston

Henry d'Avigdor-Goldsmid

Henry de Montherlant

Henry DeWolf Smyth

Henry E. Erwin

Henry Eric Harden

Henry Everard

Henry F. Warner

Henry Fancourt

Henry Fonda

Henry Friedlander

Henry Gurke

Henry Harwood

Henry Herbert Reed

Henry Houssaye

Henry Hugh Gordon Stoker

Henry Hurwitz Jr.

Henry Huttleston Rogers Coe

Henry Hyde

Henry I. Hodes

Henry Jamison Handy

Henry L. Stimson

Henry Leach

Henry Lerolle

Henry M. Britt

Henry M. Mullinnix

Henry Maitland Wilson, 1st Baron Wilson

Henry Mancini

Henry Margenau

Henry Millicer

Henry Morgentaler

Henry Morgenthau Jr.

Henry Mucci

Henry Oliver Hansen

Henry Oliver Rinnan

Henry Orenstein

Henry Percy, 9th Duke of Northumberland

Henry Poole MacKeen

Henry Ries

Henry Robert Bowreman Foote

Henry Rowland (actor)

Henry Royds Pownall

Henry Ruthven Moore

Henry Schauer

Henry Scrimgeour

H. B. Stallard

Henry Sydney, 1st Earl of Romney

Henry T. Elrod

Henry T. King

Henry Terry

Henry W. Hahn

Henry Wade

Henry Wallace McLeod

Henry Wascow

Henry Wellesley, 6th Duke of Wellington

Henry Wells (author)

Henry Welsford

Henry Wilhelm Kristiansen

Henry Wise Jr.

Henryk Breit

Henryk Chmielewski

Henryk Cybulski

Henryk de Kwiatkowski

Henryk Dobrzański

Henryk Iwański

Henryk Jabłoński

Henryk Leon Strasburger

Henryk Mandelbaum

Henryk Pietrzak

Henryk Sławik

Henryk Sucharski

Henryk Szatkowski

Henryk Woliński

Henryk Zygalski

Henschel Hs 123

Henschel Hs 124

Henschel Hs 126

Henschel Hs 127

Henschel Hs 129

Henschel Hs 130

Henschel Hs 132

Henschel Hs 293

Henschel Hs 294

Hera Borghese

Herb Sargent

Herb Siegert

Herb Trawick

Herbert A. Calcaterra

Herbert Annesley Packer

Herbert B. Powell

Herbert B. Warburton

Herbert Bachnick

Herbert Backe

Herbert Baum

Herbert Beckington

Herbert C. Jones

Herbert Cecil Duncan

Herbert Emery Schonland

Herbert F. Christian

Herbert Gerdes

Herbert Gruber

Herbert H. Burr

Herbert Hans Haupt

Herbert Hasler

Herbert Huber

Herbert Hudson Taylor

Herbert Hugo Menges

Herbert Ihlefeld

Herbert J. Sweet

Herbert John Leslie Barefoot

Bert Walker

Herbert Johnston

Herbert Joseph Thomas

Herbert Kappler

Herbert L. Anderson

Herbert Lange

Herbert Lloyd

Herbert Lumsden

Herbert Massey

Herbert Morrison

Herbert Nicol

Herbert Norkus

Herbert Otto Gille

Herbert Perry (sport shooter)

Herbert Schultze

Herbert Sobel

Herbert von Bose

Herbert von Petersdorff

Herbert Wallace Le Patourel

Herbert Wells (soccer)

Herbert Windt

Herbert Wohlfarth

Herbert York

Herberts Cukurs

Herbertus Bikker

Herbie Kronowitz

Herbie Roberts

Herdt

Here Is Germany

Hereford Army Airfield

Herington Regional Airport

Heritage Front

Herk Harvey

Herman Auerbach

Herman Bodson

Herman Bottcher

Herman C. Wallace

Herman H. Hanneken

Herman Keiser

Herman T. Schneebeli

Herman Talmadge

Herman von Klempt

Herman Wouk

Hermann-Bernhard Ramcke

Hermann-Friedrich Joppien

Hermann-Heinrich Behrend

Hermann Balck

Hermann Barrelet

Hermann Bauer

Hermann Braun

Hermann Breith

Hermann Broch

Hermann Buchner

Hermann Buchner

Hermann de Pourtalès

Hermann Ehrhardt

Hermann Eilts

Hermann Esser

Hermann Fegelein

Hermann Florstedt

Hermann Friedrich Graebe

Hermann Göring

Hermann Görtz

Hermann Gauch

Hermann Gehri

Hermann Giesler

Hermann Graf

Hermann Höfle

Hermann Hackmann

Hermann Hogeback

Hermann Hohn

Hermann Hoth

Hermann Kriebel

Hermann Langbein

Hermann Maas

Hermann Muhs

Hermann Niehoff

Hermann Oberth

Hermann Obrecht

Hermann Prieß

Hermann Rauschning

Hermann Recknagel

Hermann Scherchen

Hermann van Pels

Hermann von Oppeln-Bronikowski

Hermann Wilker

Hermann Wraschtil

Hermanus Brockmann

Hermine Braunsteiner

Herménégilde Chiasson

Hero of the Soviet Union

Herr Engelbert Von Smallhausen

Herr Kleiser

Herr Meets Hare

Herr Otto Flick

Herschel F. Briles

Herschel Green

Herschel Grynszpan

Herschel Johnson

Herschel Schacter

Hersh Lyons

Hershel W. Williams

Herta Bothe

Herta Ehlert

Herta Oberheuser

Hervey Machen

Hervé Le Tellier

Herzogenbusch

Heshui Campaign

Hetzer

Heuschrecke 10

Heydebreck-Cosel

Heywood-class attack transport

Heywood Hale Broun

Heywood L. Edwards

Hibakusha

Hidden & Dangerous 2

Hidden & Dangerous

Hideki Tojo

Hideki Yukawa

Hideo Iwakuro

Hideo Sasaki

Hideyoshi Obata

Hieronim Dekutowski

Higashikuni Morihiro

Higgins Industries

High Command Trial

High Flux Isotope Reactor

High Seas Fleet Badge

High Standard HDM

Highballing to Victory

Higher Than a Kite

Higinio Morínigo

HIJMS Shinano Maru (1904)

Hikari Kikan

Hikōtai Transport Unit

Hilaire Belloc

Hilan Ebert

Hilary Corke

Hilde Coppi

Hildegard Lächert

Hildegard Neumann

Hill 112

Hill 400, Bergstein

Hill 62 Memorial

Hillel Zeitlin

Hillsborough Army Airfield

Hilmar Wictorin

Hilmer von Bülow-Bothkamp

Himeyuri Students

Hindustan Field Force

Hinrich Lohse

Hinrich Schuldt

Hinzert concentration camp

HIPO Corps

Hippolyte-Jules Pilet de La Mesnardière

Hippolyte Delaroche

Hippolyte Taine

Hirabayashi v. United States

Hiram Wesley Evans

Hiranuma Kiichirō

Hiroaki Abe

Hirohito

Hiromichi Yahara

Hiroo Onoda

Hiroshi Ōshima

Hiroshi Imazato

Hiroshi Kashiwagi

Hiroshima (book)

Hiroshima (film)

Hiroshima City Ebayama Museum of Meteorology

Hiroshima Maidens

Hiroshima National Peace Memorial Hall for the Atomic Bomb Victims

Hiroshima Peace Memorial Ceremony

Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum

Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park

Hiroshima Peace Memorial

Hiroshima Witness

Hiroshima

Hiroyoshi Nishizawa

Hisaichi Terauchi

Hisakazu Tanaka

Hisao Tani

Hisaye Yamamoto

Hispanic Americans in World War II

Historia Tolteca-Chichimeca

Historical Advanced Squad Leader module

Historical revisionism (negationism)

Historikerstreit

Historiography of World War II

History (novel)

History of Blacks in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust

History of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1941–1945)

History of children in the Holocaust

History of gay men in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust

History of German settlement in Central and Eastern Europe

History of Germany during World War II

History of Germany since 1945

History of Gibraltar

History of Greenland during World War 2

History of Greenland during World War II

History of Paris

History of Poland (1939–1945)

History of the Armée de l'Air (1909-1942)

History of the Armée de l'Air (colonial presence 1939-1962)

History of the European Union

History of the Jews during World War II

History of the Jews in Guernsey

History of the Jews in Jersey

History of the Jews in Monastir

History of the Jews in the Dominican Republic

History of the People's Liberation Army

History of the Second World War

History of the world

History of United States Naval Operations in World War II

Hitler's Letters and Notes

Hitler's Pope

Hitler's SS: Portrait in Evil

Hitler's Terror Weapons

Hitler's War (game)

Hitler's War

Hitler's Willing Executioners

Hitler and the Occult (book)

Hitler Has Only Got One Ball

Hitler Line

Hitler Myth

Hitler oath

Hitler Youth knife

Hitler Youth Quex

Hitler Youth: Growing Up in Hitler's Shadow

Hitler Youth

Hitler, Beast of Berlin

Hitler: A Film from Germany

Hitler: Speeches and Proclamations

Hitler: The Last Ten Days

Hitlerjunge

Hitlers Bombe

Hitoshi Imamura

Hiwi (volunteer)

Hiyō-class aircraft carrier

Hjördis Töpel

Hjalmar Mäe

Hjalmar Schacht

Hjalmar Siilasvuo

HKP 562 forced labor camp

Hlinka Guard

HM Prison Dhurringile

HM Trawler Force

HMAS Adelaide (1918)

HMAS Ararat (K34)

HMAS Armidale (J240)

HMAS Arunta (I30)

HMAS Australia (D84)

HMAS Ballarat (J184)

HMAS Bataan (I91)

HMAS Bathurst (J158)

HMAS Benalla (J323)

HMAS Bendigo (J187)

HMAS Bowen

HMAS Broome (J191)

HMAS Bunbury (J241)

HMAS Bundaberg (J231)

HMAS Burnie

HMAS Cairns (J183)

HMAS Canberra (D33)

HMAS Castlemaine

HMAS Cessnock (J175)

HMAS Colac

HMAS Cootamundra

HMAS Cowra

HMAS Deloraine

HMAS Diamantina (K377)

HMAS Dubbo (J251)

HMAS Echuca

HMAS Fremantle (J246)

HMAS Gascoyne (K354)

HMAS Gawler (J188)

HMAS Geelong (J201)

HMAS Geraldton (J178)

HMAS Gladstone (J324)

HMAS Glenelg (J236)

HMAS Goulburn

HMAS Gympie

HMAS Hawkesbury (K363)

HMAS Hobart (1939)

HMAS Horsham

HMAS Inverell

HMAS Ipswich (J186)

HMAS Junee

HMAS K9

HMAS Kalgoorlie

HMAS Kanimbla (1936)

HMAS Kapunda

HMAS Katoomba

HMAS Kiama

HMAS Kookaburra

HMAS Kuru

HMAS Latrobe

HMAS Launceston (J179)

HMAS Lismore (J145)

HMAS Lithgow (J206)

HMAS Macquarie (K532)

HMAS Manoora (1935)

HMAS Maryborough (J195)

HMAS Mavie

HMAS Mildura

HMAS Napier (G97)

HMAS Nepal (G25)

HMAS Nestor (G02)

HMAS Nizam (G38)

HMAS Norman (G49)

HMAS Parkes

HMAS Parramatta (U44)

HMAS Patricia Cam

HMAS Perth (D29)

HMAS Pirie (J189)

HMAS Platypus (1917)

HMAS Quadrant (G11)

HMAS Quality (G62)

HMAS Queenborough (G70)

HMAS Quiberon (G81)

HMAS Quickmatch (G92)

HMAS Rockhampton

HMAS Shepparton (J248)

HMAS Stawell

HMAS Strahan

HMAS Stuart (D-00/100)

HMAS Sydney (1934)

HMAS Tamworth (J191)

HMAS Toowoomba (J157)

HMAS Townsville (J205)

HMAS Vampire (D68)

HMAS Vendetta (D69)

HMAS Voyager (D31)

HMAS Wagga

HMAS Wallaroo

HMAS Warramunga (I44)

HMAS Warrnambool (J202)

HMAS Waterhen (D22)

HMAS Westralia (1939)

HMAS Whyalla (J153)

HMAS Wollongong (J172)

HMAS Yarra (U77)

HMCS Alberni (K103)

HMCS Asbestos (K358)

HMCS Assiniboine (I18)

HMCS Athabaskan (G07)

HMCS Buctouche (K179)

HMCS Calgary (K231)

HMCS Charlottetown (1941)

HMCS Chignecto (J160)

HMCS Cowichan (J146)

HMCS Digby (J267)

HMCS Esquimalt (J272)

HMCS Fraser (H48)

HMCS Granby (J264)

HMCS Haida (G63)

HMCS Halifax (K237)

HMCS Huron (G24)

HMCS Iroquois (G89)

HMCS Kapuskasing (J326)

HMCS Kenogami (K125)

HMCS Kitchener (K225)

HMCS Kootenay (H75)

HMCS Long Branch (K487)

HMCS Margaree (H49)

HMCS Miramichi (J169)

HMCS Moncton (K139)

HMCS Moosejaw (K164)

HMCS Nipigon (J154)

HMCS Nootka (R96)

HMCS Oakville (K178)

HMCS Ottawa (H60)

HMCS Pictou (K146)

HMCS Prince David (F89)

HMCS Quebec (C66)

HMCS Red Deer (J255)

HMCS Regina (K234)

HMCS Rimouski (K121)

HMCS Rivière du Loup (K357)

HMCS Sackville (K181)

HMCS Saguenay (D79)

HMCS Sarnia (J309)

HMCS Sioux (R64)

HMCS Skeena (D59)

HMCS Snowberry (K166)

HMCS St. Laurent (H83)

HMCS Stratford (J310)

HMCS Sudbury (K162)

HMCS Suderoy

HMCS Summerside (K141)

HMCS Ungava (J149)

HMCS Vegreville (J257)

HMCS Windflower (K155)

HMHS Newfoundland

HMIS Bombay (1941)

HMNZS Achilles (70)

HMNZS Arabis (K385)

HMNZS Arbutus (K403)

HMNZS Kiwi (T102)

HMNZS Leander

HMNZS Moa (T233)

HMNZS Monowai (F59)

HMNZS Tui (1970)

HMNZS Tui (T234)

HMNZS Wakakura (T00)

HMS Abelia (K184)

HMS Abercrombie (F109)

HMS Acasta (H09)

HMS Achates (H12)

HMS Acheron (H45)

HMS Active (H14)

HMS Activity (D94)

HMS Adamant (1940)

HMS Adventure (M23)

HMS Affleck (K462)

HMS Afridi (F07)

HMS Ajax (22)

HMS Allington Castle (K689)

HMS Alnwick Castle (K405)

HMS Amazon (D39)

HMS Amberley Castle (K386)

HMS Ambuscade (D38)

HMS Ameer (D01)

HMS Amethyst (F116)

HMS Anchusa (K186)

HMS Anson (79)

HMS Antelope (H36)

HMS Aphis (1915)

HMS Arbiter (D31)

HMS Arbutus (K86)

HMS Archer (D78)

HMS Ardent (H41)

HMS Ardrossan (J131)

HMS Arethusa (26)

HMS Argonaut (61)

HMS Argus (I49)

HMS Ark Royal (91)

HMS Arrow (H42)

HMS Ashanti (F51)

HMS Atheling (D51)

HMS Attacker (D02)

HMS Audacity (D10)

HMS Aurora (12)

HMS Avenger (D14)

HMS Aylmer (K463)

HMS Azalea (K25)

HMS Balfour (K464)

HMS Bamborough Castle (K412)

HMS Bangor (J00)

HMS Barfleur (D80)

HMS Barham (04)

HMS Barnard Castle (K694)

HMS Basilisk (H11)

HMS Battler (D18)

HMS Bayntun (K310)

HMS Bazely (K311)

HMS Beagle (H30)

HMS Bedouin (F67)

HMS Bee (1915)

HMS Begum (D38)

HMS Belfast (C35)

HMS Bellona (63)

HMS Bentinck (K314)

HMS Bentley (K465)

HMS Bergamot (K189)

HMS Berkeley Castle (K387)

HMS Bermuda (52)

HMS Berwick (65)

HMS Bickerton (K466)

HMS Birmingham (C19)

HMS Biter (D97)

HMS Bittern (L07)

HMS Black Prince (81)

HMS Black Swan (L57)

HMS Blanche (H47)

HMS Bligh (K467)

HMS Bluebell (K80)

HMS Boadicea (H65)

HMS Bonaventure (31)

HMS Boreas (H77)

HMS Boxer (F121)

HMS Braithwaite (K468)

HMS Bramham (L51)

HMS Brazen (H80)

HMS Brilliant (H84)

HMS Britomart (J22)

HMS Broke (D83)

HMS Bryony (K192)

HMS Bulldog (H91)

HMS Bullen (K469)

HMS Burnham (H82)

HMS Byard (K315)

HMS BYMS-2026 (J 826)

HMS BYMS-2203 (J 1003)

HMS Byron (K508)

HMS Cachalot (N83)

HMS Cairo (D87)

HMS Caistor Castle (K690)

HMS Calcutta (D82)

HMS Calder (K349)

HMS Caledon (D53)

HMS Calypso (D61)

HMS Camellia (K31)

HMS Campania (D48)

HMS Campbeltown (I42)

HMS Capetown (D88)

HMS Caradoc (D60)

HMS Cardiff (D58)

HMS Carinthia

HMS Carisbrooke Castle (K379)

HMS Carlisle (D67)

HMS Castleton (I23)

HMS Cavalier (R73)

HMS Centurion (1911)

HMS Ceres (D59)

HMS Ceylon (30)

HMS Charity (R29)

HMS Charlestown (I21)

HMS Charybdis (88)

HMS Chaser (D32)

HMS Clacton (J151)

HMS Clare (I14)

HMS Cleopatra (33)

HMS Codrington (D65)

HMS Colombo (D89)

HMS Colossus (R15)

HMS Conn (K509)

HMS Cornwall (56)

HMS Cosby (K559)

HMS Cossack (F03)

HMS Courageous (50)

HMS Coventry (D43)

HMS Cricket (1915)

HMS Cromer Castle

HMS Cumberland (57)

HMS Curacoa (D41)

HMS Curlew (D42)

HMS Dainty (H53)

HMS Danae (D44)

HMS Daring (H16)

HMS Dauntless (D45)

HMS Deane (K551)

HMS Decoy (H75)

HMS Defender (H07)

HMS Delhi (D47)

HMS Delight (H38)

HMS Denbigh Castle (K696)

HMS Despatch (D30)

HMS Devonshire (39)

HMS Diadem (84)

HMS Diamond (H22)

HMS Diana (H49)

HMS Dido (37)

HMS Diomede (D92)

HMS Dominica (K507)

HMS Dorsetshire (40)

HMS Dragon (D46)

HMS Duchess (H64)

HMS Duke of York (17)

HMS Dulverton (L63)

HMS Duncan (D99)

HMS Dundalk

HMS Dundee (L84)

HMS Dunedin (D93)

HMS Dunoon

HMS Durban (D99)

HMS Eagle (1918)

HMS Edinburgh (16)

HMS Effingham (D98)

HMS Egret (L75)

HMS Electra (H27)

HMS Emerald (D66)

HMS Emperor (D98)

HMS Empress (D42)

HMS Engadine (1911)

HMS Engadine (1941)

HMS Enterprise (D52)

HMS Erebus (I02)

HMS Erne (U03)

HMS Eskimo (F75)

HMS Euryalus (42)

HMS Exeter (68)

HMS Express (H61)

HMS Faulknor (H62)

HMS Felixstowe (J126)

HMS Fencer (D64)

HMS Fiji (58)

HMS Flint Castle (K383)

HMS Folkestone (L22)

HMS Foresight (H68)

HMS Forfar (F30)

HMS Formidable (67)

HMS Fowey (L15)

HMS Foylebank

HMS Furious (47)

HMS Fury (H76)

HMS Galatea (71)

HMS Gallant (H59)

HMS Gambia (48)

HMS Garland (H37)

HMS Gentian (K90)

HMS Gipsy (H63)

HMS Gladiolus (K34)

HMS Glasgow (C21)

HMS Glorious

HMS Glory (R62)

HMS Gloucester (62)

HMS Glowworm (H92)

HMS Gnat (T60)

HMS Goodson (K480)

HSwMS Gotland (1933)

HMS Grafton (H89)

HMS Grampus (N56)

HMS Graph (P715)

HMS Grenade (H86)

HMS Grenville (H03)

HMS Grenville (R97)

HMS Greyhound (H05)

HMS Griffin (H31)

HMS Guardian (1932)

HMS Gurkha (F20)

HMS Gurkha (G63)

HMS H6

HMS Halcyon (J42)

HMS Hardy (1936)

HMS Hasty (H24)

HMS Havelock (H88)

HMS Havock (H43)

HMS Heartsease (K15)

HMS Heather (K69)

HMS Hebe (J24)

HMS Hedingham Castle (K529)

HMS Hereward (H93)

HMS Hermes (95)

HMS Hermione (74)

HMS Hero (H99)

HMS Hesperus (H57)

HMS Hollyhock (K64)

HMS Hood (51)

HMS Hostile (H55)

HMS Hotspur (H01)

HMS Howe (32)

HMS Hunter (D80)

HMS Hunter (H35)

HMS Hurricane (H06)

HMS Hursley (L84)

HMS Hurst Castle (K416)

HMS Hyperion (H97)

HMS Hythe (J194)

HMS Ibis (U99)

HMS Icarus (D03)

HMS Ilex (D61)

HMS Illustrious (87)

HMS Imogen (D44)

HMS Imperial (D09)

HMS Implacable (R86)

HMS Impulsive (D11)

HMS Inconstant (H49)

HMS Indefatigable (R10)

HMS Indomitable (92)

HMS Inglefield (D02)

HMS Intrepid (D10)

HMS Isis (D87)

HMS Ithuriel (H05)

HMS Ivanhoe (D16)

HMS Jackal (F22)

HMS Jaguar (F34)

HMS Jamaica (44)

HMS Janus (F53)

HMS Javelin (F61)

HMS Jersey (F72)

HMS Jervis (F00)

HMS Jervis Bay (F40)

HMS Juniper (T123)

HMS Juno (F46)

HMS Jupiter (F85)

HMS Justice (W-140)

HMS Kandahar (F28)

HMS Kashmir (F12)

HMS Keith (H06)

HMS Kelly (F01)

HMS Kelvin (F37)

HMS Kempenfelt (I18)

HMS Kempthorne (K483)

HMS Kenilworth Castle (K420)

HMS Kent (54)

HMS Kenya (14)

HMS Khedive (D62)

HMS Kimberley (F50)

HMS King George V (41)

HMS Kingston (F64)

HMS Kite (U87)

HMS Knaresborough Castle (K389)

HMS La Malouine (K46)

HMS Ladybird (1916)

HMS Laforey (G99)

HMS Lance (G87)

HMS Largs

HMS Launceston Castle (K397)

HMS Lawford (K514)

HMS Ledbury (L90)

HMS Leeds Castle (K384)

HMS Legion (G74)

HMS Leith (U36)

HMS Liverpool (C11)

HMS Loch Achray (K426)

HMS Loch Alvie (K428)

HMS Loch Dunvegan (K425)

HMS Loch Eck (K422)

HMS Loch Fada (K390)

HMS Loch Fyne (K429)

HMS Loch Glendhu (K639)

HMS Loch Insh (K433)

HMS Loch Killin (K391)

HMS Loch Killisport (K628)

HMS Loch Lomond (K437)

HMS Loch More (K369)

HMS Locust (1939)

HMS London (69)

HMS Lookout (G32)

HMS Lord Hailsham

HMS Lotus (K130)

HMS Magpie (1943)

HMS Malaya

HMS Malcolm (D19)

HMS Mallow (K81)

HMS Manchester (15)

HMS Maori (F24)

HMS Marigold (K87)

HMS Marne (G35)

HMS Mashona (F59)

HMS Matabele (F26)

HMS Mauritius (80)

HMS Medway (F25)

HMS Mohawk (F31)

HMS Montrose (D01)

HMS Nabberley

HMS Nabbington

HMS Nabob (D77)

HMS Nabthorpe

HMS Naiad (93)

HMS Nairana (D05)

HMS Narwhal (N45)

HMS Nelson (28)

HMS Neptune (20)

HMS Newcastle (C76)

HMS Newfoundland (59)

HMS Nigeria (60)

HMS Norfolk (78)

HMS Nubian (F36)

HMS Odin (N84)

HMS Offa (G29)

HMS Olympus (N35)

HMS Onslow (G17)

HMS Oribi (G66)

HMS Orion (85)

HMS Orwell (G98)

HMS Otway

HMS Oxford Castle (K692)

HMS Oxley

HMS P222

HMS P311

HMS P32 (1940)

HMS P33 (1941)

HMS P36 (submarine)

HMS P38 (1941)

HMS P39

HMS P47

HMS P48 (1942)

HMS P611

HMS Paladin (G69)

HMS Palomares

HMS Panther (G41)

HMS Parthian (N75)

HMS Patroller (D07)

HMS Penelope (97)

HMS Penn (G77)

HMS Perseus (N36)

HMS Petard (G56)

HMS Peterhead (J59)

HMS Pevensey Castle (K449)

HMS Pheasant (U49)

HMS Phoebe (43)

HMS Picotee (K63)

HMS Pioneer (R76)

HMS Porpoise (N14)

HMS Portchester Castle (K362)

HMS Poseidon (1929)

HMS Premier (D23)

HMS Pretoria Castle (F61)

HMS Prince of Wales (53)

HMS Puncher (D79)

HMS Punjabi (F21)

HMS Pursuer (D73)

HMS Pylades (J401)

HMS Quail (G45)

HMS Quality (G62)

HMS Queen (D19)

HMS Queen Elizabeth (1913)

HMS Queen Emma

HMS Quentin (G78)

HMS Quilliam (G09)

HMS Quorn (L66)

HMS Raider (H15)

HMS Rajah (D10)

HMS Ramillies (07)

HMS Ranee (D03)

HMS Rapid (H32)

HMS Ravager (D70)

HMS Rawalpindi

HMS Reaper (D82)

HMS Relentless (H85)

HMS Renown (1916)

HMS Repulse (1916)

HMS Resolution (09)

HMS Revenge (06)

HMS Roberts (F40)

HMS Rocket (H92)

HMS Rodney (29)

HMS Roebuck (H95)

HMS Rorqual (N74)

HMS Rotherham (H09)

HMS Royal Oak (08)

HMS Royal Sovereign (05)

HMS Royal Ulsterman

HMS Royalist (89)

HMS Ruler (D72)

HMS Rushen Castle (K372)

HMS Rye (J76)

HMS Safari (P211)

HMS Saga (P257)

HMS Sahib (P212)

HMS Salmon (N65)

HMS Samphire (K128)

HMS Sanguine (P266)

HMS Saracen (P247)

HMS Satyr (P214)

HMS Saumarez (G12)

HMS Sceptre (P215)

HMS Scorcher (P258)

HMS Scotsman (P243)

HMS Scylla (98)

HMS Scythian (P237)

HMS Sea Devil (P244)

HMS Sea Nymph (P223)

HMS Sea Rover (P218)

HMS Sea Scout (P253)

HMS Seadog (P216)

HMS Seagull (J85)

HMS Seahorse (98S)

HMS Seal (N37)

HMS Sealion (72S)

HMS Searcher (D40)

HMS Seawolf (47S)

HMS Selene (P254)

HMS Seneschal (P255)

HMS Sentinel (P256)

HMS Seraph (P219)

HMS Shah (D21)

HMS Shakespeare (P221)

HMS Shalimar (P242)

HMS Shark (54S)

HMS Sheffield (C24)

HMS Shropshire (73)

HMS Sibyl (P217)

HMS Sickle (P224)

HMS Sidon (P259)

HMS Sikh (F82)

HMS Simoom (P225)

HMS Sirdar (P226)

HMS Sirius (82)

HMS Skate (1917)

HMS Sleuth (P261)

HMS Slinger (D26)

HMS Smiter (D55)

HMS Snapper (39S)

HMS Solent (P262)

HMS Somali (F33)

HMS Southampton (83)

HMS Spark (P236)

HMS Spartan (95)

HMS Speaker (D90)

HMS Spearfish (69S)

HMS Spearhead (P263)

HMS Speedy (J17)

HMS Spirit (P245)

HMS Spiteful (P227)

HMS Splendid (P228)

HMS Sportsman (P229)

HMS Springer (P264)

HMS Spur

HMS Stalker (D91)

HMS Starfish (19S)

HMS Starling (U66)

HMS Statesman (P246)

HMS Sterlet (2S)

HMS Stoic (P231)

HMS Stonehenge (P232)

HMS Storm (P233)

HMS Stratagem (P234)

HMS Striker (D12)

HMS Strongbow (P235)

HMS Stubborn (P238)

HMS Sturdy (P248)

HMS Sturgeon (73S)

HMS Stygian (P249)

HMS Subtle (P251)

HMS Suffolk (55)

HMS Sunfish (81S)

HMS Superb (25)

HMS Supreme (P252)

HMS Surf (P239)

HMS Sussex (96)

HMS Swiftsure (08)

HMS Swordfish (61S)

HMS Syrtis (P241)

HMS Talisman (N78)

HMS Tamar (1863)

HMS Tarpon (N17)

HMS Tartar (F43)

HMS Teazer (R23)

HMS Tempest (N86)

HMS Tenacious (R45)

HMS Termagant (R89)

HMS Terpsichore (R33)

HMS Terror (I03)

HMS Tetrarch (N77)

HMS Thane (D48)

HMS Thetis (N25)

HMS Thorn (N11)

HMS Tigris (N63)

HMS Tracker (D24)

HMS Traveller (N48)

HMS Triad (N53)

HMS Trinidad (46)

HMS Triton (N15)

HMS Triumph (N18)

HMS Trooper (N91)

HMS Troubridge (R00)

HMS Trouncer (D85)

HMS Trumpeter (D09)

HMS Tulip (K29)

HMS Tumult (R11)

HMS Turbulent (N98)

HMS Tuscan (R56)

HMS Tyrian (R67)

HMS Uganda (66)

HMS Ulster (R83)

HMS Ultimatum (P34)

HMS Ultor (P53)

HMS Ulysses (novel)

HMS Ulysses (R69)

HMS Umbra (P35)

HMS Umpire (N82)

HMS Una (N87)

HMS Unbeaten (N93)

HMS Unbending (P37)

HMS Unbroken (P42)

HMS Undaunted (N55)

HMS Undaunted (R53)

HMS Undine (N48)

HMS Undine (R42)

HMS Unicorn (I72)

HMS Union (N56)

HMS Unique (N95)

HMS Unison (P43)

HMS United (P44)

HMS Unity (N66)

HMS Universal (P57)

HMS Unrivalled (P45)

HMS Unruffled (P46)

HMS Unruly (P49)

HMS Unseen (P51)

HMS Unshaken (P54)

HMS Unsparing (P55)

HMS Unswerving (P63)

HMS Untamed (P58)

HMS Untiring (P59)

HMS Upholder (P37)

HMS Upright (N89)

HMS Uproar (P31)

HMS Upstart (P65)

HMS Urania (R05)

HMS Urchin (R99)

HMS Urge (N17)

HMS Ursa (R22)

HMS Ursula (N59)

HMS Usk (N65)

HMS Usurper (P56)

HMS Uther (P62)

HMS Utmost (N19)

HMS Valiant (1914)

HMS Vampire (P72)

HMS Vandal (P64)

HMS Varangian (P61)

HMS Vengeance (R71)

HMS Venturer (P68)

HMS Venus (R50)

HMS Verulam (R28)

HMS Victorious (R38)

HMS Vidette (D48)

HMS Vigilant (R93)

HMS Vindex (D15)

HMS Virago (R75)

HMS Vitality

HMS Volage (R41)

HMS Wakeful (R59)

HMS Walney (Y04)

HMS Warspite (03)

HMS Wellington (U65)

HMS Whaddon (L45)

HMS Whirlwind (R87)

HMS Whitshed (D77)

HMS Wild Goose (U45)

HMS Wild Swan (D62)

HMS Wizard (R72)

HMS Wolverine (D78)

HMS Woodpecker (U08)

HMS Wrangler (R48)

HMS Wryneck (D21)

HMS York (90)

HMS Zealous (R39)

HMS Zest (R02)

HMS Zinnia (K98)

HMS Zulu (F18)

HMT Dunera

HMT Rohna

HNLMS Abraham Crijnssen (1936)

HNLMS Abraham van der Hulst (1937)

HNLMS Abraham van der Hulst (1946)

HNLMS De Gelderland

HNLMS De Ruyter (1935)

HNLMS Eland Dubois (1937)

HNLMS Jacob van Heemskerk

HNLMS Jan van Amstel (1937)

HNLMS Jan van Gelder

HNLMS Kortenaer (1927)

HNLMS Pieter de Bitter (1937)

HNLMS Pieter Florisz (1937)

HNLMS Tromp (1937)

HNLMS Willem van Ewijck (1937)

HNoMS Æger (1936)

HNoMS Brage (1878)

HNoMS Brand (1898)

HNoMS Draug (1908)

HNoMS Eidsvold

HNoMS Frøya

HNoMS Fridtjof Nansen (1930)

HNoMS Garm (1913)

HNoMS Glommen (1916)

HNoMS Gor (1884)

HNoMS Gyller (1938)

HNoMS Harald Haarfagre

HNoMS Heimdal OPV (1892)

HNoMS Hitra

HNoMS Honningsvåg

HNoMS King Haakon VII

HNoMS Kjell

HNoMS Laugen (1918)

HNoMS Nor (1878)

HNoMS Nordkapp OPV (1937)

HNoMS Norge

HNoMS Odin (1939)

HNoMS Olav Tryggvason

HNoMS Otra (1939)

HNoMS Pol III

HNoMS Rauma (1939)

HNoMS Sæl

HNoMS Sleipner (1936)

HNoMS Stegg (1921)

HNoMS Stord (G26)

HNoMS Storm (1898)

HNoMS Svenner (G03)

HNoMS Thorodd

HNoMS Tor (1939)

HNoMS Tordenskjold

HNoMS Troll (1910)

HNoMS Trygg (1919)

HNoMS Tyr (1887)

HNoMS Ula (1943)

HNoMS Uller (1876)

HNoMS Uredd (P-41)

HNoMS Vale (1874)

HNoMS Vidar (1878)

Hütter Hü 136

Hütter Hü 211

Ho-Ri

Ho Chi Minh

Hobart's Funnies

Hobart Baumann Amstutz

Hobart Cenotaph

Hobart R. Gay

Hoche (Paris Métro)

Hocine Ragued

Hodding Carter

Hoechst AG

Hogan's Heroes

Holger Danske (resistance group)

Holland House

Holland Smith

Hollis Alpert

Hollister brothers

Hollywood Boulevard (Walt Disney Studios Park)

Hollywood Canteen

Hollywood Victory Caravan

Hollywood Victory Committee

Holmfrid Olsson

Holocaust (resources)

Holocaust (TV miniseries)

Holocaust and Genocide Studies

Holocaust denial

Holocaust Educational Trust

Holocaust Encyclopedia

Holocaust in Nazi-occupied Lithuania

Holocaust in Norway

Holocaust in Poland

Holocaust in Romania

Holocaust Memorial Center

Holocaust Memorial Day (UK)

Holocaust Memorial Day and Genocide Remembrance Act

Holocaust Memorial on Miami Beach

Holocaust memorials

Holocaust Museum Houston

Holocaust teaching controversy of 2007

Holocaust trains

Holocaust trials in Soviet Estonia

Holocaust trivialization debate

Holocaust victims

Holocaust

Holy Cross Mountains Brigade

Home Army and V1 and V2

Home Defence Executive

Home front during World War II

Homer A. McCrerey

Homer L. Wise

Homer Litzenberg

Homer N. Wallin

Homeward Bound (Turtledove novel)

Homomonument

Hondo Municipal Airport

Honey, I Shrunk the Audience

Hong Kong 1941

Hong Sa-ik

Hong Xuezhi

Hongdu JL-8

Honkawa Elementary School Peace Museum

Honorary Aryan

Honorat de Bueil, seigneur de Racan

Honoré de Balzac

Honour Cross for Combatants

Honours of Winston Churchill

Hope and Glory (film)

Horace A. Jones

Horace M. Thorne

Horace S. Carswell Jr.

Horacio Rivero Jr.

Horatio Fitch

Horatio Nelson Lay (admiral)

Horatio Pettus Mackintosh Berney-Ficklin

Horia Agarici

Horia Macellariu

Horia Sima

Horia, Cloşca şi Crişan Division

Hornet Flight

Horrie Knight

Horst-Günther von Fassong

Horst Ademeit

Horst Floth

Horst Freiherr Treusch von Buttlar-Brandenfels

Horst Günther

Horst Hörnlein

Horst Kopkow

Horst Mahler

Horst Niemack

Horst Queck

Horst Schumann

Horst Tappert

Horst von Möllendorff

Horten Ho 229

Horten Ho XVIII

Hortense de Beauharnais

Hosea Williams

Hosoya Jūdayū

Hossbach Memorandum

Hostages Trial

Hotchkiss H35

Hotchkiss M1914 machine gun

Hotel Concorde La Fayette

Hotel George V, Paris

Hotel Metropole, Vienna

Hotel Meurice

Hotel Polski

Hotsumi Ozaki

Houbei-class missile boat

Hougham Battery

Hour of Victory

House of Responsibility

Hovhannes Bagramyan

Howard Aiken

Howard Brodie

Howard Cosell

Howard D. Wardle

Howard E. Woodford

Howard Franklin Clark

Howard Graham (Canadian Army officer)

Howard Hayes

Howard Kingsbury

Howard Kippenberger

Howard Peter "Cowboy" Blatchford

Howard R. Healy

Howard Thomas Markey

Howard Unruh

Howard W. Gilmore

Howard Zinn

Howell Appling Jr.

Howell Heflin

Howitzer Motor Carriage M8

Hoxton Park Airport

Hoylake and West Kirby War Memorial

Hristijan Todorovski Karpoš

Hristo Yanev

Hu Kexian

Hu Lancheng

Hu Zongnan

Huaihai Campaign

Huairen Air Base

Huaiyin-Huai'an Campaign

Huang Chieh

Huang Qixiang

Huang Yiguang

Huangpu-class gunboat

Hubert-Erwin Meierdress

Hubert Curien

Hubert D. Stephens

Hubert Klausner

Hubert Lagardelle

Hubert Lefèbvre

Hubert Lyautey

Hubert Lynes

Hubert Meyer

Hubert Miller

Hubert Paul Chatelain

Hubert Pierlot

Hubert Rance

Hubert Schiffer

Hubert Van Innis

Hubert William Lewis

Hubert Yockey

Hubert Zemke

Hubertine Auclert

Hubertus Strughold

Hubertus von Bonin

Huff-Duff

Hugh Aloysius Drum

Hugh B. Hester

Hugh Capet

Hugh Culverhouse

Hugh David Black

Hugh Dowding, 1st Baron Dowding

Hugh Dundas

Hugh Elles

Hugh Falkus

Hugh Francis Redmond

Hugh Fraser (British politician)

Hugh Gallarneau

Hugh Gordon Malcolm

Hugh Griffiths, Baron Griffiths

Hugh Hefner

Hugh John Casey

Hugh Lister

Hugh Meade

Hugh O'Brian

Hugh O'Flaherty

Hugh of Châteauneuf

Hugh P. Harris

Hugh Randall Syme

Hugh Scott

Hugh Seagrim

Hugh Trefusis Brassey

Hugh Trevor-Roper

Hughie Edwards

Hughie Green

Hugo Black

Hugo Bleicher

Hugo Boss AG

Hugo Butler

Hugo Curioni

Hugo Drax

Hugo Gryn

Hugo Johansson

Hugo Jury

Hugo Kraas

Hugo Launicke

Hugo Leal

Hugo Lilliér

Hugo Primozic

Hugo Rüster

Hugo Sperrle

Huhtiniemi mass grave

Hukbalahap

Hull note

Hulon B. Whittington

Human torpedo

Humber Armoured Car

Humber Light Reconnaissance Car

Humber Scout Car

Humber Super Snipe

Humberto Coelho

Humberto Tomasina

Hummel (artillery)

Humphrey Atkins

Humphrey de Verd Leigh

Humphrey Lyttelton

Hundred Regiments Offensive

Hungarian Gold Train

Hungarian National Socialist Party

Hungarian Second Army

Hungarian Volunteers in the Winter War

Hungary during the Second World War

Hungary during World War II

Hunger Plan

Hunt-class minesweeper (1916)

Hunter Harris Jr.

Huo Kuizhang

Huon Peninsula campaign

Hurja-class motor torpedo boat

Husband E. Kimmel

Hussar's Picture Book

Huta Pieniacka massacre

Hutton Gibson

Huub Huizenaar

Huzagol 35M

Hvidstengruppen

HX convoys

Hyacinthe-Louis De Quelen

Hyazinth Graf Strachwitz von Gross-Zauche und Camminetz

Hydra-class minelayer

Hyman G. Rickover

Héctor Méndez (boxer)

Héctor Scarone

Hélder Cristóvão

Hélder de Souza

Hélie de Saint Marc

Hélène de Pourtalès

Hélène Berr

Hélène Carrère d'Encausse

Hélène Prévost

List of Girls und Panzer characters

The following is a list of characters from Girls und Panzer. It is a 2012 Japanese anime television series created by Actas, directed by Tsutomu Mizushima and produced by Kiyoshi Sugiyama. It depicts a competition between girls' high schools practicing tank warfare as a sport called "sensha-dō" (戦車道, lit. "the way of the tank"), the art of operating tanks.

List of Royal Navy losses in World War II

This is a list of Royal Navy ships and personnel lost during World War II, from 3 September 1939 to 1 October 1945.

See also List of ships of the Royal Navy.

List of shipwrecks in the Atlantic Ocean

This is a partial list of shipwrecks which occurred in the Atlantic Ocean. The list includes ships that sank, foundered, grounded, or were otherwise lost. The Atlantic Ocean is here defined in its widest sense to include: the Baltic Sea; Black Sea; the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico; the English Channel; the Labrador Sea; the Mediterranean Sea; the Mid-Atlantic; the North Sea; and the Norwegian Sea.

USS Barnegat (AVP-10)

The second USS Barnegat (AVP-10), in commission from 1941 to 1946, was the lead ship of her class of small seaplane tenders built for the United States Navy just before and during World War II. She was the second U.S. Navy ship to bear that name.

After the end of her U.S. Navy career, the former Barnegat operated as the Greek cruise ship MV Kentavros from 1962, and finally was scrapped in 1986.

Squadrons embarked aboard Ark Royal
Squadron Aircraft operated Embarked (from – to) Notes
800 Blackburn Skua Mk. II January 1939 – April 1941 Transferred to Victorious
810 Fairey Swordfish Mk. I January 1939 – March 1941
May – September 1941
Aboard Illustrious from March – May 1941
820 Fairey Swordfish Mk. I January 1939 – June 1941
821 Fairey Swordfish Mk. I January 1939 – April 1940 Removed from operational service following losses against Scharnhorst
803 Blackburn Skua Mk. II
Blackburn Roc Mk. I
April 1939 – October 1940
818 Fairey Swordfish Mk. I August – October 1939
June – July 1940
Operated from Furious and land bases between October 1939 and June 1940
801 Blackburn Skua Mk. II April – May 1940 Transferred to Furious
807 Fairey Fulmar Mk. II April 1940 – November 1941 Embarked at sinking
701 Supermarine Walrus Mk. I June 1940 Training squadron
808 Fairey Fulmar Mk. II September 1940 – November 1941 Embarked at sinking
821X Fairey Swordfish Mk. I December 1940 – January 1941 Flight assembled from 821 Squadron survivors, later absorbed into 815 Squadron
800Y Fairey Fulmar Mk. I June 1941 Flight from 800 Squadron
825 Fairey Swordfish Mk. I June – November 1941 Embarked at sinking
816 Fairey Swordfish Mk. I July – November 1941 Embarked at sinking
812 Fairey Swordfish Mk. I September – November 1941 Embarked at sinking
828 Fairey Swordfish Mk. I
Fairey Albacore Mk. I
October 1941 Redeployed to Malta
British naval ship classes of the Second World War
Aircraft carriers
Light aircraft carriers
Escort carriers
Battleships
Battlecruisers
Heavy cruisers
Light cruisers
Destroyer leaders
Destroyers
Frigates
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Sloops
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U-boat lists
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Major engagements
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Capital ships sunk
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