HMAS Hobart (DDG 39)

HMAS Hobart (DDG 39), named after the city of Hobart, Tasmania, is the lead ship of the Hobart-class air warfare destroyers used by the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). The ship, based on the Álvaro de Bazán-class frigate designed by Navantia, was built at ASC's shipyard in Osborne, South Australia from modules fabricated by ASC, BAE Systems Australia in Victoria, and Forgacs Group in New South Wales. Hobart was ordered in 2007, but errors and delays in construction have caused extensive schedule slippage. Despite commissioning initially planned for December 2014, the ship was not laid down until September 2012, and launched in May 2015. The Department of Defence accepted delivery of HMAS Hobart on 16 June 2017.[1] The ship was commissioned on 23 September 2017.[2]

HMAS Hobart December 2017
HMAS Hobart in December 2017
History
Australia
Namesake: City of Hobart, Tasmania
Ordered: 4 October 2007
Builder:
Laid down: 6 September 2012
Launched: 23 May 2015
Acquired: 16 June 2017
Commissioned: 23 September 2017
Motto: Grow with Strength
Honours and
awards:
Nine inherited battle honours
Status: Active
Badge: Ship's Badge
General characteristics (as designed)
Type: Air warfare destroyer
Displacement: 6,250 tonnes (6,150 long tons; 6,890 short tons) full load
Length: 147.2 metres (483 ft)
Beam: 18.6 metres (61 ft) maximum
Draught: 5.17 metres (17.0 ft)
Propulsion:
Speed: Over 28 knots (52 km/h; 32 mph)
Range: Over 5,000 nautical miles (9,300 km; 5,800 mi) at 18 knots (33 km/h; 21 mph)
Complement:
  • 186 + 16 aircrew
  • Accommodation for 234
Sensors and
processing systems:
  • Aegis combat system
  • Lockheed Martin AN/SPY-1D(V) S-band radar
  • Northrop Grumman AN/SPQ-9B X-band pulse Doppler horizon search radar
  • Raytheon Mark 99 fire-control system with two continuous wave illuminating radars
  • 2 × L-3 Communications SAM Electronics X-band navigation radars
  • Ultra Electronics Sonar Systems' Integrated Sonar System
  • Ultra Electronics Series 2500 electro-optical director
  • Sagem VAMPIR IR search and track system
  • Rafael Toplite stabilised target acquisition sights
Electronic warfare
& decoys:
  • ITT EDO Reconnaissance and Surveillance Systems ES-3701 ESM radar
  • SwRI MBS-567A communications ESM system
  • Ultra Electronics Avalon Systems multi-purpose digital receiver
  • Jenkins Engineering Defence Systems low-band receiver
  • 4 × Nulka decoy launchers
  • 4 × 6-tube multi-purpose decoy launchers
Armament:
Aircraft carried: 1 x MH-60R Seahawk

Design

The Australian Air Warfare Destroyer (AWD) project commenced in 2000, to replace the Adelaide-class frigates and restore the capability last exhibited by the Perth-class destroyers.[3][4] The AWD Alliance (a consortium of the Defence Materiel Organisation (DMO), shipbuilder ASC, and combat system designer Raytheon) was created to oversee the acquisition project.[4] In August 2005, Gibbs & Cox's Evolved Flight II Arleigh Burke-class destroyer concept and the Navantia-designed Álvaro de Bazán-class frigate were selected from the initial round of tendering for further study.[5][6] Although the Arleigh Burke concept was larger, better-armed, and more capable on paper, the Álvaro de Bazán class was selected June 2007 as the basis of the AWD as they had seen active service, could be in Australian service earlier and were cheaper.[7][5] Three ships were ordered on 4 October 2007, with an unexercised option for a fourth.[4][8]

Hobart will have a full-load displacement at launch of 6,250 tonnes (6,150 long tons; 6,890 short tons), a length overall of 147.2 metres (483 ft), a maximum beam of 18.6 metres (61 ft), and a draught of 5.17 metres (17.0 ft).[4][9] The combined diesel or gas turbine (CODOG) propulsion arrangement consists of two General Electric Marine model 7LM2500-SA-MLG38 gas turbines, each generating 17,500 kilowatts (23,500 hp), and two Caterpillar Bravo 16 V Bravo diesel engines, each providing 5,650 kilowatts (7,580 hp).[4] These drive two propeller shafts, fitted with Wärtsilä controllable pitch propellers.[4] The ships' maximum speed is over 28 knots (52 km/h; 32 mph), with a range of over 5,000 nautical miles (9,300 km; 5,800 mi) at 18 knots (33 km/h; 21 mph); although slower than equivalent designs, the greater range and endurance is more important for Australian operating conditions.[4] She is also fitted with a bow thruster.[4] The standard ship's company is 186-strong, plus 16 additional personnel to operate and maintain the ship's helicopter, with maximum accommodation for 234.[4]

The destroyer's main weapon is a 48-cell Mark 41 Vertical Launch System, capable of firing RIM-66 Standard 2 anti-aircraft missile or quad-packed RIM-162 Evolved Sea Sparrow point-defence missiles, with likely upgrades to carry RIM-174 Standard 6 anti-aircraft missiles and Tomahawk cruise missiles.[4][10] This will be supplemented by two four-canister Harpoon anti-ship missile launchers, and a BAE Systems 5-inch/62 calibre Mark 45 gun.[4] Two Mark 32 Mod 9 two-tube launchers fitted with Eurotorp MU90 torpedoes will be carried for anti-submarine warfare .[4] For close-in defence, an aft-facing Phalanx CIWS system and two M242 Bushmaster autocannons in Typhoon mounts sited on the bridge wings are fitted.[11] A single MH-60 Romeo Seahawk will be embarked.[9]

The ship's sensors are built around the Aegis combat system, with a Lockheed Martin AN/SPY-1D(V) S-band main radar, a Northrop Grumman AN/SPQ-9B X-band search radar, a Raytheon Mark 99 fire-control system with two continuous wave illuminating radars for missile direction, and two L-3 Communications SAM Electronics X-band navigation radars.[4] An Ultra Electronics Sonar Systems' Integrated Sonar System is fitted, which includes a hull-mounted sonar and a towed variable depth sonar built up from a quad directional active-passive receive array, a passive torpedo detection array and a high-powered towed sonar source.[4] Other sensors include an Ultra Electronics Series 2500 electro-optical director, a Sagem VAMPIR IR search and track system, and Rafael Toplite stabilised target acquisition sights for each ship's Typhoons.[4] Electronic warfare sensors consist of the ITT EDO Reconnaissance and Surveillance Systems ES-3701 electronic support measures (ESM) radar, a SwRI MBS-567A communications ESM system, an Ultra Electronics Avalon Systems multi-purpose digital receiver, and a Jenkins Engineering Defence Systems low-band receiver.[4] Countermeasures include four launchers for Nulka decoy missiles, plus four six-tube launchers for radio frequency, infrared, and underwater acoustic decoys.[4]

Construction

The ship was assembled from 31 pre-fabricated modules ('blocks'): 12 for the hull, 9 for the forward superstructure, and 10 for the aft superstructure.[12][13] Modules were fabricated by ASC in South Australia, BAE Systems Australia in Victoria, and Forgacs Group in New South Wales, with final assembly of the ship at ASC's shipyard in Osborne, South Australia.[4][8][12][13] Delays and project slippage resulted in the redistribution of block construction across the three shipbuilders, and the bow hull block was constructed by Navantia.[14][15]

HMAS Hobart under construction April 2015
Hobart under construction in April 2015

In October 2010, the 20-by-17-metre (66 by 56 ft) central keel block for Hobart was found to be distorted and incompatible with other hull sections.[16] Incorrect drawings from designer Navantia and first-of-kind manufacturing errors by manufacturer BAE were blamed, and the delay in reworking the block set construction back at least six months.[16][17] Other major issues during construction included the need to replace 25% of the destroyer's internal pipework due to faulty manufacture, and the initial rejection of the ship's mainmast block because of defects in the cabling and combat system equipment.[18][19]

Hobart's keel was laid down on 6 September 2012.[20] The ship was launched on 23 May 2015, with 76% of construction complete.[21][22] Construction of Hobart and her sister ships saw numerous delays: a planned December 2014 commissioning for Hobart was pushed back in September 2012 to March 2016, then again in May 2015 to delivery in June 2017.[4][20][23] As of October 2015, construction of Hobart was estimated to be 30 months behind schedule and $870 million over budget.[24] Sea trials were completed in September 2016.[24] Hobart was handed over to the Navy in June 2017, and was commissioned on 23 September 2017 with the designation Guided missile destroyer 'DDG' and assigned the pennant number '39'.[25][26]

Citations

  1. ^ "Defence accepts delivery of first Air Warfare Destroyer Hobart" (Press release). Australian Department of Defence. 16 June 2017. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  2. ^ "PM to commission new navy destroyer". skynews.com.au. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  3. ^ Gulber, Growth in Strength, p. 5
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Pengelley, Aussie rules
  5. ^ a b Brown, Spanish designs are Australia's choice for warship programmes
  6. ^ Department of Defence, Preferred designer chosen for AWD contract
  7. ^ Shackleton, Choices and consequences
  8. ^ a b Kerr, Australia seeks to extend AWD options
  9. ^ a b Gulber, Growth in Strength, p. 8
  10. ^ Thornhill, Force 2030, pp. 9–10
  11. ^ Gulber, Growth in Strength, p. 7
  12. ^ a b Grevatt, AWD Alliance admits destroyer contract hit by construction 'difficulties'
  13. ^ a b Grevatt, NQEA loses block-building deal for Australian destroyers
  14. ^ Stewart, Overdue and over budget
  15. ^ Royal Australian Navy, Changes to Air Warfare Destroyer Construction Program
  16. ^ a b Stewart, $8bn navy flagship founders after construction bungle
  17. ^ Stewart, BAE shipyard to blame for destroyer delays: Defence
  18. ^ McPhedran, Navy warships project heading for cost blowout
  19. ^ Greene, Companies building multi-billion-dollar warships feared defects would damage their reputations, leaked documents show
  20. ^ a b Cullen, Work on $8bn destroyer fleet delayed
  21. ^ Starick, First look aboard Adelaide-built air warfare destroyer, the Hobart
  22. ^ Radio Australia, Air Warfare Destroyer project: HMAS Hobart launched, SA Premier calls on Government to trust workers with next generation submarines
  23. ^ Sheridan, Warships cost blows out to $9bn
  24. ^ a b Naval-technology.com, HMAS Hobart construction costs overrun by $870m, says AWD Alliance
  25. ^ http://www.australiandefence.com.au/news/first-destroyer-hobart-handed-over-to-navy First destroyer Hobart handed over to Navy
  26. ^ Navy, Royal Australian. "Welcome to the fleet - HMAS Hobart III". navy.gov.au. Retrieved 2 November 2017.

References

Journal articles
  • Andrew, Gordon (September 2010). "AWD, Hobart, MFU or DDGH – What's in a name?". Semaphore. 2010 (7). Retrieved 22 May 2015.
  • Brown, Nick (28 June 2007). "Spanish designs are Australia's choice for warship programmes". International Defence Review.
  • Grevatt, Jon (30 June 2009). "NQEA loses block-building deal for Australian destroyers". Jane's Navy International.
  • Grevatt, Jon (26 October 2010). "AWD Alliance admits destroyer contract hit by construction 'difficulties'". Jane's Defence Industry.
  • Gulber, Abraham (October 2009). "Growth in Strength: The Hobart class AWD". The Navy. 71 (4): 4–8.
  • Kerr, Julian (25 September 2008). "Australia seeks to extend AWD options". Jane's Defence Weekly.
  • Pengelley, Rupert (26 September 2011). "Aussie rules: air warfare destroyers push boundaries". Jane's Navy International.
  • Shackleton, David (February 2007). "Choices and consequences: choosing the AWD design". Australian Defence Magazine: 20–24.
  • Thornhill, Roger (July 2009). "Force 2030: The Defence White Paper". The Navy. 71 (3): 8–13.
News articles
Press releases
Guided missile destroyer

A guided-missile destroyer is a destroyer designed to launch guided missiles. Many are also equipped to carry out anti-submarine, anti-air, and anti-surface operations. The NATO standard designation for these vessels is DDG. Nations vary in their use of destroyer D designation in their hull pennant numbering, either prefixing or dropping it altogether. The U.S. Navy has adopted the classification DDG in the American hull classification system.

In addition to the guns, a guided-missile destroyer is usually equipped with two large missile magazines, usually in vertical-launch cells. Some guided-missile destroyers contain powerful radar systems, such as the United States’ Aegis Combat System, and may be adopted for use in an anti-missile or ballistic-missile defense role. This is especially true of navies that no longer operate cruisers, so other vessels must be adopted to fill in the gap.

HMAS Hobart

Three ships of the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) have been named HMAS Hobart, for Hobart, the capital city of Tasmania.

HMAS Hobart (D63), a Leander-class light cruiser acquired from the Royal Navy in 1938, and operating until 1947.

HMAS Hobart (D 39), a Perth-class guided missile destroyer commissioned in 1965 and decommissioned in 2000.

HMAS Hobart (DDG 39), lead ship of the Hobart-class air warfare destroyers, commissioned in 2017.see alsoHMS Hobart (1794), an 18-gun sloop built by the French, captured by the Royal Navy in 1794, and operated until her sale in India in 1803.

HMAS Hobart (D 39)

HMAS Hobart (D 39) was a Perth class guided missile destroyer of the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). Built in the United States of America to a slight variant of the United States Navy (USN) Charles F. Adams class, she was commissioned into the RAN in 1965. In March 1967, Hobart became the first RAN combat ship deployed to fight in the Vietnam War. This marked the start of consistent six-month deployments to the warzone, which continued until late 1971; Hobart was redeployed in 1969 and 1970. During the 1968 tour, the destroyer was attacked by a United States Air Force aircraft.

After the Vietnam War, Hobart saw service during Operation Navy Help Darwin; the RAN disaster relief effort following Cyclone Tracy, was the first RAN ship to dock at HMAS Stirling in Western Australia, and completed a round-the-world voyage in 1976. The ship was modernised during the late 1970s. Hobart was decommissioned in 2000, and sunk as a dive wreck off South Australia.

Hobart-class destroyer

The Hobart class is a ship class of three air warfare destroyers (AWDs) being built for the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). Planning for ships to replace the Adelaide-class frigates and restore the capability last exhibited by the Perth-class destroyers began by 2000, initially under acquisition project SEA 1400, which was re-designated SEA 4000. Although the designation "Air Warfare Destroyer" is used to describe ships dedicated to the defence of a naval force (plus assets ashore) from aircraft and missile attack, the planned Australian destroyers are expected to also operate in anti-surface, anti-submarine, and naval gunfire support roles.

Planning for the Australian Air Warfare Destroyer (as the class was known until 2006) continued through the mid-2000s, with the selection of the Aegis combat system as the intended combat system and ASC as the primary shipbuilder in 2005. In late 2005, the AWD Alliance was formed as a consortium of the Defence Materiel Organisation (DMO), ASC, and Raytheon. Between 2005 and 2007, Gibbs & Cox's Evolved Arleigh Burke-class destroyer concept and Navantia's Álvaro de Bazán-class frigate competed for selection as the AWD design. Although the Arleigh Burke design was larger and more capable, the Álvaro de Bazán design was selected in June 2007 as it was an existing design, and would be cheaper, quicker, and less risky to build.

Three ships were ordered in October 2007, and will be assembled at ASC's facility in Osborne, South Australia, from 31 pre-fabricated modules (or 'blocks'). An option to build a fourth destroyer was included in the original contract, but has not been exercised. ASC, NQEA Australia, and the Forgacs Group were selected in May 2009 to build the blocks, but within two months, NQEA was replaced by BAE Systems Australia. Construction errors and growing delays led the AWD Alliance to redistribute the construction workload in 2011, with some modules to be built by Navantia. Increasing slippage has pushed the original planned 2014-2016 commissioning dates out by at least three years, with lead ship Hobart to be completed by June 2017, Brisbane in September 2018, and Sydney by March 2020. The AWD Alliance, Navantia, and the involved shipyards have been criticised for underestimating risks, costs, and timeframes; faulty drawings and bad building practices leading to repeated manufacturing errors; and blame-passing. The alliance concept has been panned for having no clear management structure or entity in charge, and having the DMO simultaneously acting as supplier, build partner, and customer for the ships.

List of ships of the Royal Australian Navy

Since its foundation in 1913, the Royal Australian Navy has operated a large number of vessels, including various types of warship, support and supply craft, and auxiliary vessels drawn from civilian service when required.

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