HMAS Adelaide (L01) is the second of two Canberra-class landing helicopter dock (LHD) ships of the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). Construction of the ship started at Navantia's Spanish shipyard with steel-cutting in February 2010. The ship was laid down in February 2011, and launched on 4 July 2012. Delivery to Australia for fitting out at BAE Systems Australia's facilities in Victoria was scheduled for 2013, but did not occur until early 2014. Despite construction delays and predictions the ship was commissioned in December 2015.
Adelaide (L01) at anchor in Jervis Bay
|Namesake:||City of Adelaide|
|Builder:||Navantia, Ferrol, Spain and BAE Systems Australia, Williamstown, Victoria|
|Laid down:||18 February 2011|
|Launched:||4 July 2012|
|Commissioned:||4 December 2015|
|Homeport:||Fleet Base East|
|Motto:||United for the common good|
|Battle honours: four inherited battle honours|
|Status:||Active as of 2016|
|Class and type:||Canberra-class Landing Helicopter Dock|
|Displacement:||27,500 tonnes (30,300 short tons; 27,100 long tons) at full load|
|Length:||230.82 m (757.3 ft)|
|Beam:||32.0 m (105.0 ft)|
|Draft:||7.08 m (23.2 ft)|
|Range:||9,000 nautical miles (17,000 km; 10,000 mi) at 15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph)|
|Boats & landing |
|4 × LLC|
|Complement:||358 personnel; 293 RAN, 62 Australian Army, 3 RAAF|
|Sensors and |
|Giraffe AMB radar, Saab 9LV combat system|
|Electronic warfare |
|Aviation facilities:||Flight deck with 13 degree ski-jump, 6 in-line deck landing spots|
The Canberra-class design is based on the warship Juan Carlos I, built by Navantia for the Spanish Navy. The contract was awarded to Navantia and Australian company Tenix Defence following a request for tender which ran from February 2004 to June 2007, beating the enlarged Mistral-class design offered by the French company Direction des Constructions Navales. Adelaide has the same physical dimensions as Juan Carlos I, but differs in the design of the island superstructure and the internal layout, in order to meet Australian conditions and requirements. Unlike the Spanish vessel, the Australian ships are built to meet Lloyd's Naval Rules.
The Canberra-class vessels are 230.82 metres (757.3 ft) long overall, with a maximum beam of 32 metres (105 ft), and a maximum draught of 7.08 metres (23.2 ft). At full load, Adelaide will displace 27,500 tonnes (27,100 long tons; 30,300 short tons), making the Canberra-class ships the largest vessels to serve in the RAN. Propulsion is provided by two Navantia Siemens 11-megawatt (15,000 hp) azimuth thrusters, each with an onboard electric motor, driving two 4.5-metre (15 ft) diameter propellers. The electricity is provided by a Combined diesel-electric and gas system, with a single General Electric LM2500 turbine producing 19,160 kilowatts (25,690 hp), supported by two Navantia MAN 16V32/40 diesel generators, each providing 7,448 kilowatts (9,988 hp). Maximum speed is over 20 knots (37 km/h; 23 mph), with a maximum sustainable full-load speed of 19 knots (35 km/h; 22 mph), and an economical cruising speed of 15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph). Economical range is 9,000 nautical miles (17,000 km; 10,000 mi).
Each ship is fitted with a Saab 9LV Mark 4 combat management system. The sensor suite includes a Sea Giraffe 3D surveillance radar, and a Vampir NG infrared search and track system. For self-defence, the LHDs will be fitted with four Rafael Typhoon 25 mm remote weapons systems (one in each corner of the flight deck), six 12.7 mm machine guns, an AN/SLQ-25 Nixie towed torpedo decoy, and a Nulka missile decoy. Defence against aircraft and larger targets is to be provided by escort vessels and air support from the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). The ships' companies will consist of 358 personnel; 293 RAN, 62 Australian Army, and 3 RAAF.
The LHDs will transport 1,046 soldiers and their equipment. Adelaide will be capable deploying a reinforced company of up to 220 soldiers at a time by airlift. Two vehicle decks (one for light vehicles, the other for heavy vehicles and tanks) have areas of 1,880 square metres (20,200 sq ft) and 1,410 square metres (15,200 sq ft) respectively, and between them can accommodate up to 110 vehicles. The well deck will carry up to four LHD Landing Craft, which can be launched and recovered in conditions up to Sea State 4. The flight deck can operate six MRH-90-size helicopters or four Chinook-size helicopters simultaneously, in conditions up to Sea State 5. A mix of MRH-90 transport helicopters and S-70B Seahawk anti-submarine helicopters will be carried: up to eight can be stored in the hangar deck, and the light vehicle deck can be repurposed to fit another ten. The ski-jump ramp of Juan Carlos I has been retained for the RAN ships, although fixed-wing flight operations are not planned for the ships.
Construction of Adelaide began at Navantia's shipyard in Ferrol, northern Spain, during February 2010, when the first steel was cut. Hull modules were fabricated at Ferrol and Fene, with the first hull blocks laid down on 18 February 2011. Adelaide's hull was launched on 4 July 2012. Initially, the ship was due to reach Australia in early 2013 to begin final fitout and superstructure installation at BAE Systems Australia facilities in Victoria, but this did not occur. The hull was loaded onto Blue Marlin on 10 December 2013 in Vigo Bay. Blue Marlin and Adelaide arrived at Williamstown on 7 February 2014. On 17 June 2015, Adelaide departed from Williamstown to commence sea trials, which included sailing to Sydney for docking at Garden Island, before returning to Williamstown on 11 July. A second set of trials ran from 19 to 28 August, and the ship was delivered to Fleet Base East two days later.
Entry into RAN service was originally planned for mid-2015, but as of July 2011, this had been pushed back to sometime in 2016. Fitting out of the ship progressed at a faster rate than expected, which brought the predicted commissioning date back to September 2015, although this did not eventuate. The ship was formally handed over to the ADF on 22 October, and was commissioned into the RAN on 4 December. Although identified as "LHD02" during construction, Adelaide received the pennant number "L01" on commissioning; the number corresponding to that used by the frigate of the same name.
In early 2016, Adelaide undertook post-commissioning trials and other activities as the ship was worked up to full operational status.
In September 2016, Adelaide took part in Exercise Kakadu 2016, based at Darwin, Northern Territory.
On 12 December 2016, Adelaide intercepted the 50m former Japanese whaling vessel Kaiyo Maru No. 8 in international waters in the Southern Ocean south east of Tasmania. The vessel had attracted the attention of Maritime Border Command after loitering and circling more than 200 nautical miles off the southern coast of Australia. Tactical Assault Group personnel boarded the vessel and located suspected illicit drugs after which the vessel was escorted to Hobart with approximately 186 kilograms of cocaine located on board. The vessel was loitering after a botched rendezvous 300 nautical miles off the coast of Port Fairy in Victoria.
In September 2017, Adelaide sailed as part of the largest Australian task group to deploy since the early 1980s on Exercise Indo-Pacific Endeavour 2017. This was planned as a series of exercises with nations around the Pacific Rim testing communications, disaster relief plans and regional security. Adelaide was accompanied by fleet oiler HMAS Sirius and a varying number of escorts, with a total of four frigates (Melbourne, Darwin, Toowoomba and Parramatta) sailing from Sydney on 4 September 2017. The last time such a large deployment of Australian warships went to sea was September 1980, led by the aircraft carrier HMAS Melbourne.
Three ships of the Royal Australian Navy have been named HMAS Adelaide, after Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia:
HMAS Adelaide (1918) was a Town-class light cruiser commissioned in 1922 and decommissioned in 1946
HMAS Adelaide (FFG 01) was an Adelaide-class frigate commissioned in 1980 and decommissioned in 2008
HMAS Adelaide (L01) is a Canberra-class landing helicopter dock ship commissioned in 2015 and active as of 2016List of amphibious warfare ships
This is a list of amphibious warfare ships.List of ships of the Royal Australian Navy
Since its foundation in 1913, the Royal Australian Navy has operated a large number of vessels, including various types of warship, support and supply craft, and auxiliary vessels drawn from civilian service when required.Timeline for aircraft carrier service
Aircraft carriers have their origins during the days of World War I. The earliest experiments consisted of fitting temporary "flying off" platforms to the gun turrets of the warships of several nations, notably the United States and the United Kingdom. The first ship to be modified with a permanent flight deck was the battlecruiser HMS Furious, which initially had a single flying-off deck forward of the original superstructure. Subsequently, she was modified with a separate "landing on" deck aft and later with a full flush deck. Other ships, often liners, were modified to have full flush flight decks, HMS Argus being the first to have such modification begun. Those first faltering steps gave little indication of just how important the aircraft carrier was to prove to be. During the inter-war years (between the World Wars), Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States built up significant carrier fleets so that by the beginning of World War II, they had 18 carriers between them. The 1940 Battle of Taranto and the 1941 Attack on Pearl Harbor in retrospect showed the world that the aircraft carrier was to be the most important ship in the modern fleet. Today, aircraft carriers are the capital ships of the navies they serve in, and in the case of modern US "supercarriers", they embark an airgroup that is effectively a small air force.
This timeline is an attempt to provide a unified chronology of key dates[I] in carrier service. Aircraft carriers[II] often serve their navies for many decades and this chronology[III] enables the reader to track the progress of the carrier as it has developed alongside the evolution of aircraft for nearly a hundred years.Williamstown Dockyard
Williamstown Dockyard was one of Australia's principal ship building yards at Williamstown, Victoria, Australia.
The Colony of Victoria decided to construct a large slipway at Williamstown to provide ship repair facilities in 1856 and the Government Patent Slip was opened in 1858. Slip Pier was built in 1858 and was used in conjunction with the Government Patent Slip. The Slip Pier was later known as the Lady Loch Jetty after the similarly named Government steamer. The pier and Government Patent Slipway were demolished in 1919.
In 1858, the Colony of Victoria decided to build a graving dock and dockyard. Construction commenced in 1868, and was completed in February 1874. The Alfred Graving Dock, named after Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, was built at a cost of £300,000. The graving dock was 143 metres (469 ft) in length, 24 metres (79 ft) wide, 8 metres (26 ft) deep. The dock was designed by William Wardell for the Public Works Department (Victoria), and it was the largest structure of its type in the southern hemisphere. The Dockyard Pier, originally known as Dock Pier was constructed in 1874 for use with vessels engaged in pre/post docking in the Alfred Graving Dock. In the 1870s, the railway department contracted for the construction of a new pier to meet increased demand imposed by wool and later grain handling. When completed in 1878, it was initially referred to as the Western Pier, but was later renamed New Railway Pier. It was rebuilt in 1915 and 1927 and was renamed Nelson Pier in 1923. The pier and surrounding land was purchased by the Commonwealth in 1967, and use of the facility declined. Demolition work began in 1979 due to its poor condition. Nelsons Pier West was constructed in 1978 to replace the nearby Nelson Pier. It provided two cranes and two berths for the refitting and outfitting of warships. Reid St Pier was constructed for the Melbourne Harbour Trust for exclusive use with its own floating plant in September 1891. It was later used to house the tug fleet, and was rebuilt in 1949.
In 1913, the dockyard was known as the State Shipbuilding Yard and was requisitioned in 1918 by the Commonwealth. Ownership passed to the Melbourne Harbor Trust in 1924 and during World War II it was requisitioned by the Commonwealth in 1942 and was known as HM Naval Dockyard Williamstown, or Williamstown Naval Dockyard. In 1987 it passed into private control of Tenix Defence and then acquired by BAE Systems Australia.