The transmission is in AM mode with only the lower sideband (part of the time H3E and the rest H2B/H2D) and consists of 780 Hz tone pulses repeated every ten seconds and voice announcements in Spanish.
RBU is a time code radio station located in Moscow (56°44′00″N 37°39′48″E). It transmits a continuous 10 kW time code on 66⅔ kHz. This is commonly written as 66.66 or 66.666 kHz, but is actually 200/3 = 66.6̅ kHz. Until 2008, the transmitter site was near Kupavna 55°44′04″N 38°9′0″E and used as antenna three T-antennas spun between three 150 metres tall grounded masts. In 2008, it has been transferred to the Taldom transmitter at 56°44′00″N 37°39′48″E.RBU is controlled by All-Russian Scientific Research Institute for Physical-Engineering and Radiotechnical Metrology. It is operated by Russian Television and Radio Broadcasting Network.RWM
RWM is the callsign of a high frequency (shortwave) standard frequency and time signal radio station in Moscow, Russia. It is controlled by All-Russian Scientific Research Institute for Physical-Engineering and Radiotechnical Metrology, and operated by Russian Television and Radio Broadcasting Network. Transmitting frequencies are 4.996 MHz with 5 kW and on 9.996 and 14.996 MHz with 8 kW.
The frequencies are very close to those of WWV, and WWVH. Because of this, RWM is very difficult to receive in North America with simple receivers of low selectivity, due to interference from these said stations.
The mode of transmission is N0N and A1A (CW). Between 0 and 8 minutes past the hour, RWM transmits a straight unmodulated carrier wave. At 9 minutes past, RWM identifies itself in Morse code. Between 10 and 20 minutes past the hour, RWM transmits a pulse of carrier every second, with the difference between UT1 and UTC in units of one-fiftieth of a second encoded onto the once-per-second pulses. Between 20 and 30 minutes past the hour, RWM transmits 10 carrier pulses each second. This transmission cycle is repeated every half-hour.RWM does not transmit the time of day, only standard time intervals.
The 1 Hz pulses begin on the second, and are doubled (a second pulse transmitted from 200–300 ms past the second) to encode DUT1 and dUT1. Using these values, UT1 may be computed as:
UT1 = UTC + DUT1 × 0.1 s + dUT1 × 0.02 sDUT1 may vary between −8 and +8. The number of double pulses sent during seconds 1–8 of each minute encode positive values; if DUT1 = +5, then pulses 1 through 5 will be doubled. Doubling pulses 9–16 encodes negative values similarly.
dUT1 varies from −4 to +4. Positive values are encoded by double pulses during seconds 21–24 of each minute. Negative values are encoded during seconds 31–34.The 10 Hz pulses are widened in a pattern similar to that of the Beta time signal: Most pulses are 20 ms, but ones sent on the second are 40 ms, and ones sent on the minute are 500 ms.YVTO
YVTO is the callsign of the official time signal from the Juan Manuel Cagigal Naval Observatory in Caracas, Venezuela. The content of YVTO's signal, which is a continuous 1 kW amplitude modulated carrier wave at 5.000 MHz, is much simpler than that broadcast by some of the other time signal stations around the world, such as WWV.
The methods of time transmission from YVTO are very limited. The broadcast employs no form of digital time code. The time of day is given in Venezuelan Standard Time (VET), and is only sent using Spanish language voice announcements. YVTO also transmits 100 ms-long beeps of 1000 Hz every second, except for thirty seconds past the minute. The top of the minute is marked by a 0.5 second 800 Hz tone.The station previously broadcast on 6,100 MHz but appears to have changed to the current frequency by 1990.
|Philosophy of time|
and use of time
|Time in physics|
|Archaeology and geology|
|Other units of time|