hCard is a microformat for publishing the contact details (which might be no more than the name) of people, companies, organizations, and places, in (X)HTML, Atom, RSS, or arbitrary XML.[1] The hCard microformat does this using a 1:1 representation of vCard (RFC 2426) properties and values, identified using HTML classes and rel attributes.

It allows parsing tools (for example other websites, or Firefox's Operator extension) to extract the details, and display them, using some other websites or mapping tools, index or search them, or to load them into an address-book program.

In May 2009, Google announced that they would be parsing the hCard, hReview and hProduct microformats, and using them to populate search-result pages.[2] In September 2010 Google announced their intention to surface hCard, hReview information in their local search results.[3] In February 2011, Facebook began using hCard to mark up event venues.[4]


Consider the HTML:

    <li>Joe Doe</li>
    <li>The Example Company</li>
    <li><a href="http://example.com/">http://example.com/</a></li>

With microformat markup, that becomes:

<link rel="profile" href="http://microformats.org/profile/hcard">
<ul class="vcard">
    <li class="fn">Joe Doe</li>
    <li class="nickname">Jo</li>
    <li class="org">The Example Company</li>
    <li class="tel">604-555-1234</li>
    <li><a class="url" href="http://example.com/">http://example.com/</a></li>

Here the properties fn,[5] org (organization), tel (telephone number) and url (web address) have been identified using specific class names; and the whole thing is wrapped in class="vcard" which indicates that the other classes form an hcard, and are not just coincidentally named. If the hCard is for an organization or venue, the fn and org classes are used on the same element, as in <span class="fn org">Wikipedia</span> or <span class="fn org">Wembley Stadium</span>. Other, optional, hCard classes also exist.

It is now possible for software, for example browser plug-ins, to extract the information, and transfer it to other applications, such as an address book.

Geo and adr

The Geo microformat is a part of the hCard specification, and is often used to include the coordinates of a location within an hCard.

The adr part of hCard can also be used as a stand-alone microformat.

Live example

Here are the Wikimedia Foundation's contact details as of September 2017, as a live hCard:

Wikimedia Foundation Inc.
149 New Montgomery Street, 3rd Floor
San Francisco, CA 94105
Phone: +1-415-839-6885
Fax: +1-415-882-0495

The mark-up (wrapped for clarity) used is:

<div class="vcard">
    <div class="fn org">Wikimedia Foundation Inc.</div>
    <div class="adr">
        <div class="street-address">149 New Montgomery Street, 3rd Floor</div>
        <div> <span class="locality">San Francisco</span>, <abbr class="region" title="California">CA</abbr> <span class="postal-code">94105</span></div>
        <div class="country-name">USA</div>
    <div>Phone: <span class="tel">+1-415-839-6885</span></div>
    <div>Email: <span class="email">info@wikimedia.org</span></div>
    <div class="tel">
        <span class="type">Fax</span>:
        <span class="value">+1-415-882-0495</span>

Note that, in this example, the fn and org properties are combined on one element, indicating that this is the hCard for an organization, not a person.

Other attributes

Other commonly used hCard attributes include

  • bday - a person's birth date
  • email
  • honorific-prefix
  • honorific-suffix
  • label - for non-granular addresses
  • logo
  • nickname
  • note - free text
  • photo
  • post-office-box

See also


  1. ^ Sikos, Leslie (2011). Web Standards: Mastering HTML5, CSS3, and XML. Apress. ISBN 978-1430240419. Retrieved 2013-05-10.
  2. ^ Goel, Kavi; Guha, Ramanathan V.; Hansson, Othar (2009-05-12). "Introducing Rich Snippets". Google Webmaster Central Blog. Google. Retrieved 2009-05-25.
  3. ^ Blumenthal, Mike (2010-09-22). "Google Announces Full Support for Microformats in Local". Understanding Google Maps. Retrieved 2010-09-30.
  4. ^ Protalinski, Emil (2011-02-18). "Facebook adds hCalendar and hCard microformats to Events". ZDNet. Retrieved 24 March 2011.
  5. ^ no friendly name defined in the specification http://microformats.org/wiki/hcard#Property_List, but one might think of it as "formal name", "formatted name", or "family name"
  • Allsopp, John (2007). Microformats: Empowering Your Markup for Web 2.0. Berkeley: Friendsof. p. 125. ISBN 1-59059-814-8.

External links


The domain name .tel is a top-level domain (TLD) in the Domain Name System (DNS) of the Internet. It was approved by ICANN as a sponsored top-level domain, and is operated by Telnic. Telnic announced in January 2011 that over 300,000 domains had been registered since the start of general availability on 24 March 2009. A substantial drop of mostly IDN .tels occurred at the beginning of 2014 - the current total registered .tels as of 21 July 2016 is 98,516 according to the daily domain name count at http://registrarstats.com/TLDDomainCounts.aspx.

The domain's purpose is to provide a single name space for Internet communications services. Subdomain registrations serve as a single point of contact for individuals and businesses, providing a global contact directory service by hosting all types of contact information directly in the Domain Name System, without the need to build, host or manage a traditional web service. Additionally, as of July 2010, every tel domain acts as an OpenID and an increasing number of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) clients can address a tel domain name directly. The TLD implementation also supports the hCard micro-format.

Acct (protocol)

The acct URI scheme is a proposed internet standard published by the Internet Engineering Task Force, defined by RFC 7565. The purpose of the scheme is to identify, rather than interact, with user accounts hosted by a service provider. This scheme differs from the DNS name which specifies the service provider.The acct URI was intended to be the single URI scheme that would return information about a person (or possibly a thing) that holds an account at a given domain.

Brian Suda

Brian Suda (born 29 May 1979, St. Louis, Missouri) is an American informatician living in Reykjavík, Iceland.

Suda received a bachelor's degree in computer science from St. Louis University in 2001 and a master's degree in informatics from the University of Edinburgh in 2003. Much of his adult life has been spent abroad, first in Scotland and then in Iceland, where in 2008 he was one of three founders of Skólapúlsinn, a company that helps Icelandic schools measure the engagement, academic ability, and well-being of students.Suda was an invited expert in the W3C's GRDDL working group in 2008, co-author of the hCard microformat specification, and in 2010 wrote a book, A Practical Guide to Designing with Data, published by Five Simple Steps. He has written for many online and print publications including A List Apart, Linux Format, Viðskiptablaðið, and SitePoint.

Charles Sturt University Faculty of Arts

The Charles Sturt University Faculty of Arts is part of the Charles Sturt University in Australia.

It is a diverse faculty covering a broad range of disciplines including performing and visual arts, art history, communications, human services, justice studies, policing and law enforcement, theology, psychology, sociology, literature, philosophy and history.

The faculty is made up of seven schools:

Australian Graduate School of Policing


Humanities and Social Sciences

Policing Studies

Social Science and Liberal Studies


Visual and Performing ArtsCourses in the Faculty of Arts have earned a reputation for innovation and excellence.

The Faculty of Arts pioneered the implementation of microformat hCard staff details into the online environment at Charles Sturt University.


GRDDL (pronounced "griddle") is a markup format for Gleaning Resource Descriptions from Dialects of Languages. It is a W3C Recommendation, and enables users to obtain RDF triples out of XML documents, including XHTML. The GRDDL specification shows examples using XSLT, however it was intended to be abstract enough to allow for other implementations as well. It became a Recommendation on September 11, 2007.

Geo (microformat)

Geo is a microformat used for marking up WGS84 geographical coordinates (latitude;longitude) in (X)HTML. Although termed a "draft" specification, this is a formality, and the format is stable and in widespread use; not least as a sub-set of the published hCalendar and hCard microformat specifications, neither of which is still a draft.Use of Geo allows parsing tools (for example other websites, or Firefox's Operator extension) to extract the locations, and display them using some other website or mapping tool, or to load them into a GPS device, index or aggregate them, or convert them into an alternative format.


hCalendar (short for HTML iCalendar) is a microformat standard for displaying a semantic (X)HTML representation of iCalendar-format calendar information about an event, on web pages, using HTML classes and rel attributes.

It allows parsing tools (for example other websites, or browser add-ons like Firefox's Operator extension) to extract the details of the event, and display them using some other website, index or search them, or to load them into a calendar or diary program, for instance. Multiple instances can be displayed as timelines.


hProduct is a microformat for publishing details of products, on web pages, using (X)HTML classes and rel attributes.On 12 May 2009, Google announced that they would be parsing the hProduct, hCard and hReview microformats, and using them to populate search result pages.


hRecipe is a draft microformat for publishing details of recipes using (X)HTML on web pages, using HTML classes and rel attributes. In its simplest form, it can be used to identify individual foodstuffs, because the only required properties are fn ("formatted name") and an ingredient, which can be the same:



hResume is a microformat for publishing résumé or Curriculum Vitae (CV) information using (X)HTML on web pages. Like many other microformats, hResume uses HTML classes and rel attributes to make an otherwise non-semantic document more meaningful. A document containing resume information could be modified to use hResume without altering the appearance to the browser.


hReview is a microformat for publishing reviews of books, music, films, restaurants, businesses, holidays, etc. using (X)HTML on web pages, using HTML classes and rel attributes.

On 12 May 2009, Google announced that they would be parsing the hReview, hCard and hProduct microformats, and using them to populate search result pages.

Internationalized Resource Identifier

The Internationalized Resource Identifier (IRI) – is an internet protocol standard which extends the ASCII characters subset of the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) protocol. It was defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) in 2005 as a new internet standard to extend the existing URI scheme. The primary standard is defined by the RFC 3987. While URIs are limited to a subset of the ASCII character set, IRIs may contain characters from the Universal Character Set (Unicode/ISO 10646), including Chinese or Japanese kanji, Korean, Cyrillic characters, and so forth.


A microformat (sometimes abbreviated μF) is a World Wide Web-based approach to semantic markup which uses HTML/XHTML tags supported for other purposes to convey additional metadata and other attributes in web pages and other contexts that support (X)HTML, such as RSS. This approach allows software to process information intended for end-users (such as contact information, geographic coordinates, calendar events, and similar information) automatically.

Although the content of web pages has been capable of some "automated processing" since the inception of the web, such processing is difficult because the markup tags used to display information on the web do not describe what the information means. Microformats can bridge this gap by attaching semantics, and thereby obviate other, more complicated, methods of automated processing, such as natural language processing or screen scraping. The use, adoption and processing of microformats enables data items to be indexed, searched for, saved or cross-referenced, so that information can be reused or combined.As of 2013 microformats allow the encoding and extraction of event details, contact information, social relationships and similar information.

Operator (extension)

Operator is an extension for the Mozilla Firefox web browser. It parses and acts upon a number of microformats, as well as validating them.Operator lets the user access microformats through a number of methods, all of which are optional: a toolbar, a toolbar button, a status bar icon, a location bar icon, or a sidebar.

It has native support for several microformats:

adr (adr spec) (postal addresses)

hCard (contact/ address information)

hCalendar (events)

Geo (geographic coordinates)

rel-tagand is extensible, in that users can add new actions for the included microformats, or specify additional microformat recognition.

Operator was written by Mike Kaply of IBM. It forms the basis for Firefox 3's microformats API, allowing native support, but has no direct user interface, due to lack of consensus on the implementation in the GUI.


TEL may refer to:

TE Connectivity, a global electronics component manufacturer by NYSE stick ticker symbol

Technology-Enhanced Learning

TEL oncogene, another symbol for ETV6

Test of Economic Literacy, a standardized test of economics nationally norm-referenced in the United States for use in upper-grade levels of high schools

Tetraethyllead, a gasoline additive to make leaded gasoline

The European Library, an Internet service that allows access to the resources of 48 European national libraries and an increasing number of research libraries

Tokyo Electron, a semiconductor equipment manufacturer

Transporter erector launcher, a mobile missile launch platform

Thomson-East Coast MRT Line of the Singapore MRT.Tel may refer to:

Telescopium, a southern constellation

Tel, alternate name of Tall-e Nemat, a village in Iran

tel, a URI scheme used e.g. on the Web to link to telephone numbers

.tel domain name

tel parameter in the hCard microformat

Tel Aviv, major Israeli city

Tel, Azerbaijan, a village in Khachmaz Rayon

Tel river, a tributary of the river Mahanadi in Orissa, India

an abbreviation for telephone

Tell (archaeology), a type of archaeological mound created by human occupation

Telugu language, language code ISO 639-2 and 639-3 code

El Tel, or Tel, nickname for Terry Venables, English football manager


vCard, also known as VCF (Virtual Contact File), is a file format standard for electronic business cards. vCards are often attached to e-mail messages, but can be exchanged in other ways, such as Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), on the World Wide Web, instant messaging or through QR code. They can contain name and address information, telephone numbers, e-mail addresses, URLs, logos, photographs, and audio clips.

vCard is used as data interchange format in personal digital assistants (PDAs), personal information managers (PIMs) and customer relationship management (CRMs). To accomplish these data interchange applications, other "vCard variants" have been used and proposed as "variant standards", each for its specific niche: XML representation, JSON representation, or web pages.

XHTML Friends Network

XHTML Friends Network (XFN) is an HTML microformat developed by Global Multimedia Protocols Group that provides a simple way to represent human relationships using links. XFN enables web authors to indicate relationships to the people in their blogrolls by adding one or more keywords as the rel attribute to their links. XFN was the first microformat, introduced in December 2003.


XHTML Meta Data Profiles (XMDP) is a format for defining metadata 'profiles' or formats in a machine-readable fashion, while also enabling people to see a description of the definition visually in a web browser. XMDP definitions are expressed in XHTML (or possibly HTML). Examples of applications that use XMDP include XFN and hCard.

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