H-Net ("Humanities & Social Sciences Online") is an interdisciplinary forum for scholars in the humanities and social sciences. It is best known for hosting electronic mailing lists organized by academic disciplines; according to the organization's website, H-Net lists reach over 200,000 subscribers in more than 90 countries.[1][2]

The H-Net Network has grown until it is now endorsed by many academic professional organizations. Its over 180 topic- or discipline-specific lists are often the primary internet forum for scholars. Individual lists are edited by a team of scholars and each has a board of editors.[3]

In addition to its email lists, H-Net provides three related online services:

  • H-Net Reviews: 46,000+ reviews of books and other publications, commissioned and published on its website and through its listservs[4]
  • H-Net Job Guide: academic position announcements, available on its website and through email[5]
  • H-Net Academic Announcements: announcements of academic conferences, calls for papers, and programs[6]

H-Net is hosted by the Department of History at Michigan State University.[7]

Available inEnglish
OwnerMichigan State University
Created byRichard Jensen

Discussion networks

Many of the lists deal with various areas of historical study. Within two years of its founding, H-Net was recognized as being "among the most dynamic and effective contributions" to the internationalization of scholarship.[8]


H-Net began in 1992 as an initiative of Prof. Richard J. Jensen of the History department at the University of Illinois at Chicago, to assist historians "to easily communicate current research and teaching interests; to discuss new approaches, methods and tools of analysis; to share information on access to library catalogs and other electronic databases; and to test new ideas and share comments on current historiography."[9] H-Net is now organized as an international consortium of scholars in the humanities and social sciences and its networks are hosted by Michigan State University.

In 2010, the H-Net president is historian Jean A. Stuntz of West Texas A&M University.

See also

  • hprints, an open access repository for Nordic academic research in the arts and humanities


  1. ^ "About H-Net". H-net.org. Retrieved 2018-12-13.
  2. ^ See "What's Happening at H-Net?" H-Net (2018)
  3. ^ Steven A. Leibo, "H-Net and the Internationalization of Scholarship," Perspectives: The Newsletter of the American Historical Association, 33: 5 (May–June 1995).
  4. ^ "H-Net Reviews". H-net.org. Retrieved 2018-12-13.
  5. ^ "H-Net Job Guide". H-net.org. Retrieved 2012-10-20.
  6. ^ "H-Net Academic Announcements". H-net.org. Retrieved 2018-12-13.
  7. ^ "The Department of History and Humanities Technology". Michigan State University. Archived from the original on 2012-10-18. Retrieved 2012-10-20. Michigan State is also the home of H-Net, an international academic organization that offers over a hundred email discussion lists along with the leading online repositories for book reviews, job postings, and academic announcements
  8. ^ Steven A. Leibo, "H-Net and the Internationalization of Scholarship," Perspectives: The Newsletter of the American Historical Association, 33: 5 (May–June 1995).
  9. ^ Richard Jensen, "H-Net announces 13 new scholarly lists in history," E-Mail of 24 Jun 1993; Thomas Zielke, "Official Introduction of The History Network " E-Mail on GRMNHIST - German History Forum, 23 Feb 93 Archived 2007-01-07 at the Wayback Machine


Matthew Gilmore, "H-Net: Digital Discussion for Historians", Perspectives: The Newsletter of the American Historical Association, 45: 5 (May 2007).
Richard Jensen, "Internet's Republic of Letters: H-Net for Scholars", (1997). A discussion of H-Net and its origins from the perspective of the founder.
Mark Lawrence Kornbluh, "H-Net: Humanities and Social Sciences OnLine," Perspectives: The Newsletter of the American Historical Association, 37: 2 (February 1999).
Joel D. Kitchens, "Clio on the Web: An Annotated Bibliography of Select E-Journals for History," Perspectives: The Newsletter of the American Historical Association, 38: 2 (Feb. 2000).
John McClymer, The AHA Guide to Teaching and Learning with New Media, (Washington: The American Historical Association), 2005.
Andrew McMichael, "The Historian, the Internet, and the Web: A Reassessment," Perspectives: The Newsletter of the American Historical Association, 36: 2 (Feb. 1998).
Jeremy D. Popkin, From Herodotus to H-Net: The Story of Historiography (Oxford UP, 2015).

External links

Bengough, Saskatchewan

Bengough () is a town in the rural municipality of Bengough No. 40, in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. A southeastern Saskatchewan prairie town, Bengough is located east of Willow Bunch Lake on Highway 34 near Highway 705. It is named Bengough after cartoonist John Wilson Bengough. Bengough also plays host to the Gateway Festival which showcases various musicians and several other events through the weekend, usually taking place in late July.


Beverwijck ( BEV-ər-wik; Dutch: Beverwijck), often written using the pre-reform orthography Beverwyck, was a fur-trading community north of Fort Orange on the Hudson River in New Netherland that was renamed and developed as Albany, New York, after the English took control of the colony in 1664.

Business History Conference

The Business History Conference (BHC) is a scholarly organization devoted to encouraging all aspects of research, writing, and teaching about business history and about the environment in which businesses operate. Founded in 1954, the organization is now international in scope, with approximately 30 percent of its membership residing outside North America. The BHC is based at the Center for the History of Business, Technology, and Society at the Hagley Library and relies on Center Director Roger Horowitz and Center Coordinator Carol Lockman to manage the BHC's annual meetings, finances, membership, and other business. Horowitz also serves as the BHC's Secretary-Treasurer and Lockman as Managing Editor of the quarterly journal Enterprise & Society. In addition, the BHC publishes an online collection of abstracts and selected papers from its annual meeting, BEH On-Line. The organization also operates H-Business, one of the earliest H-Net discussion lists, and maintains an on-line full-text archives of its print proceedings journal, Business and Economic History. It also publishes The Exchange, a blog devoted to news of interest to business and economic historians. The BHC holds an annual meeting that provides a forum for discussing current research in business history and related fields and offers an opportunity for people with similar interests to meet and exchange ideas. Participation from overseas scholars is especially encouraged, and joint meetings with the European Business History Association are held regularly. The BHC sponsors a number of awards and prizes, including the Hagley Prize in Business History and the Cambridge Journals Article Prize; it endeavors to support scholars entering the field through its travel-to-meeting grants, its Doctoral Dissertation Colloquium, and its Krooss Dissertation Prize. Sub-groups within the organization promote the interests of women in business history, business historians teaching at business schools, and emerging scholars.

The BHC is a member of the International Economic History Association and is an affiliated organization of the American Historical Association and of H-Net.

Conference on Latin American History

Conference on Latin American History, (CLAH), founded in 1926, is the professional organization of Latin American historians affiliated with the American Historical Association. It publishes the journal The Hispanic American Historical Review.

Dial-up Internet access

Dial-up Internet access is a form of Internet access that uses the facilities of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) to establish a connection to an Internet service provider (ISP) by dialing a telephone number on a conventional telephone line. The user's computer or router uses an attached modem to encode and decode information into and from audio frequency signals, respectively.

In 1979, Tom Truscott and Steve Bellovin, graduates for Duke University, created an early predecessor to dial-up Internet access called the USENET. The USENET was a UNIX based system that used a dial-up connection to transfer data through telephone modems. Dial-up Internet has been around since the 1980s via public providers such as NSFNET-linked universities and was first offered commercially in July 1992 by Sprint. Despite losing ground to broadband since the mid-2000s, dial-up is still used where other forms are not available or where the cost is too high, such as in some rural or remote areas.


H-Soz-u-Kult (Humanities – Sozial und Kulturgeschichte) is an

online information and communication platform for historians which disseminates academic news and publications.

The project is committed to the principles of open access and community network. Since its founding in 1996 the central editorial office is located at the History Department of the Humboldt University of Berlin. H-Soz-u-Kult is part of H-Net and one of the most important online communication and information services for Historians in the German-speaking world. It is read by more than 20,000 email subscribers in over 70 countries. In 2012, around one million page views by up to 210,000 unique visitors were registered per month on the website.H-Soz-u-Kult publishes a wide range of book reviews, conference reports, job offers, scholarships, tables of contents of academic journals, literature reports and other news from the historical science community. Most publications are in German but the number of English publications continually increases. The book reviews are the main emphasis of H-Soz-u-Kult – more than 12,000 reviews were accessible on its website in 2013. H-Soz-u-Kult’s main editorial office at the Humboldt University of Berlin is supported by a pro bono editorial staff which consists of over 40 researchers from almost all fields of historical science.

H-Soz-u-Kult is a part of Clio-online, a partner in a wide range of other academic projects, and was supported by the German Research Foundation for many years. The editorial range has been augmented with contributions from the complementary forums history.transnational and zeitgeschichte-online since 2004 and infoclio.ch since 2009.

Current articles from the academic world can be accessed via H-Soz-u-Kult’s website, email and RSS-feeds.

H-Soz-u-Kult is the official media partner of the German Union of Historians.

Historians of American Communism

Historians of American Communism (HOAC) is a national academic association, established in 1982, bringing together historians, political scientists, and independent scholars interested in the study of the Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) and other communist and anti-communist organizations in the United States. The society publishes a semi-annual journal, American Communist History, produced by the British academic publisher Routledge. The organization also maintains an internet newsgroup on H-Net.

Historical archive on tourism

The Historical Archive on Tourism (HAT, German: Historisches Archiv zum Tourismus) is sited in the city of Berlin at the Technische Universität Berlin where it is housed at the Center for Metropolitan Studies (CMS) and the Zentrum Technik und Gesellschaft (ZTG). The HAT had been founded in 1986/87 at the Freie Universität Berlin; in 2011 international protests helped to avert a planned shut-down of the archive and the following year it moved from the Free to the Technical University. Since 1999 the HAT is headed by the historian Hasso Spode and co-financed by the Willy-Scharnow-Foundation.

Step by step the collection was enlarged with material about historical travel and tourism research. Today the length of the shelves amounts to some 600 running meter. The focus of the material is not so much on "travel" generally but on "tourism" as a special sort of travelling. The HAT is gathering various materials ranging from Baedekers to private photo albums, in particular there is an extensive collection of flyers and other so-called ephemera. Mainly the material stems from Central Europe, in particular from Germany, but nearly all other parts of the world are also represented, e.g. Southern Africa or USA.

Over 50,000 leaflets are stored, and more than 250 journals and some 12,000 books are registered. In addition statistics, posters and maps are gathered. The bulk of the material is from the 19th and 20th century, some books date back to around 1600. No OPAC is installed but lists of titles are published in the Internet.

LGBT rights in Japan

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) rights in Japan are relatively progressive by Asian standards, although LGBT people lack full legal equality. Same-sex sexual activity was criminalised only briefly in Japan's history between 1872 and 1880, after which a localised version of the Napoleonic Penal Code was adopted with an equal age of consent. Same-sex couples and households headed by same-sex couples are ineligible for the legal protections available to opposite-sex couples, although since 2015 some cities offer "partnership certificates" to recognise the relationships of same-sex couples.

Japan's culture and major religions do not have a history of hostility towards homosexuality. A majority of Japanese citizens are reportedly in favor of accepting homosexuality, with a 2013 poll indicating that 54 percent agreed that homosexuality should be accepted by society, while 36 percent disagreed, with a large age gap. Although many political parties have not openly supported or opposed LGBT rights, there are several openly LGBT politicians in office. A law allowing transgender individuals to change their legal gender post-sex reassignment surgery was passed in 2002. Discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity is banned in certain cities, including Tokyo.Tokyo Rainbow Pride has been held annually since 2012, with attendance increasing every year. A 2015 opinion poll found that a majority of Japanese support the legalisation of same-sex marriage.

New York Age

The New York Age was a black newspaper produced from 1887 to 1960, and was one of the most influential black newspapers of its time.

Oral history

Oral history is the collection and study of historical information about individuals, families, important events, or everyday life using audiotapes, videotapes, or transcriptions of planned interviews. These interviews are conducted with people who participated in or observed past events and whose memories and perceptions of these are to be preserved as an aural record for future generations. Oral history strives to obtain information from different perspectives and most of these cannot be found in written sources. Oral history also refers to information gathered in this manner and to a written work (published or unpublished) based on such data, often preserved in archives and large libraries. Knowledge presented by Oral History (OH) is unique in that it shares the tacit perspective, thoughts, opinions and understanding of the interviewee in its primary form.The term is sometimes used in a more general sense to refer to any information about past events that people who experienced them tell anybody else, but professional historians usually consider this to be oral tradition. However, as the Columbia Encyclopedia explains:

Primitive societies have long relied on oral tradition to preserve a record of the past in the absence of written histories. In Western society, the use of oral material goes back to the early Greek historians Herodotus and Thucydides, both of whom made extensive use of oral reports from witnesses. The modern concept of oral history was developed in the 1940s by Allan Nevins and his associates at Columbia University.

Paulina Pedroso

Paulina Pedroso (1845 - 1925) was the most prominent female leader in the Cuban War of Independence. She worked directly with Jose Marti.

Rape of Belgium

The Rape of Belgium was the German mistreatment of civilians during the invasion and subsequent occupation of Belgium during World War I.

The neutrality of Belgium had been guaranteed by the Treaty of London (1839), which had been signed by Prussia. However, the German Schlieffen Plan required that German armed forces pass through Belgium (thus violating Belgium’s neutrality) in order to outflank the French Army, concentrated in eastern France. The German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg dismissed the treaty of 1839 as a "scrap of paper". Throughout the beginning of the war, the German army engaged in numerous atrocities against the civilian population of Belgium, including the destruction of civilian property; 6,000 Belgians were killed, and 17,700 died during expulsion, deportation, imprisonment, or death sentence by court. Another 3,000 Belgian civilians died due to electric fences the German Army put up to prevent civilians from fleeing the country, and 120,000 became forced laborers, with half of that number deported to Germany. 25,000 homes and other buildings in 837 communities were destroyed in 1914 alone, and 1.5 million Belgians (20% of the entire population) fled from the invading German army.

Richard J. Jensen

Richard Joseph Jensen (born October 24, 1941) is an American historian, who was professor of history at the University of Illinois, Chicago, from 1973 to 1996. He has worked on American political, social, military, and economic history as well as historiography and quantitative and computer methods. His work includes the Midwestern electoral history, The Winning of the Midwest and Historian's Guide to Statistics.

Robert Buswell Jr.

Robert Evans Buswell Jr. is an American academic, author and scholar of Korean Buddhism and Chinese Buddhism as well as Korean religions in general. He is Professor of Buddhist Studies at the University of California, Los Angeles and founding director of the Academy of Buddhist Studies (불교 학술원) at Dongguk University, Korea's main Buddhist university.


A common definition of separatism is that it is the advocacy of a state of cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial, governmental or gender separation from the larger group. While it often refers to full political secession, separatist groups may seek nothing more than greater autonomy. While some critics may equate separatism with religious segregation, racist segregation, or sexist segregation, most separatists argue that separation by choice may serve useful purposes and is not the same as government-enforced segregation. There is some academic debate about this definition, and in particular how it relates to secessionism, as has been discussed online.Separatist groups practice a form of identity politics, or political activity and theorizing founded in the shared experiences of injustice visited upon members of certain social groups. Such groups believe attempts at integration with dominant groups compromise their identity and ability to pursue greater self-determination. However, economic and political factors usually are critical in creating strong separatist movements as opposed to less ambitious identity movements.

The Myth of the Eastern Front

The Myth of the Eastern Front: The Nazi-Soviet War in American Popular Culture is a 2008 book by the American historians Ronald Smelser and Edward J. Davies of the University of Utah. It discusses perceptions of the Eastern Front of World War II in the United States in the context of historical revisionism. The book traces the foundation of the post-war myth of the clean Wehrmacht, its support by U.S. military officials, and the impact of Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS mythology on American popular culture, up to the time of its publication.

The book garnered mixed reviews. The positive reviews commended its thorough analysis on the creation of the myth by German ex-participants and its entry into American culture. One reviewer described the book as a "tour de force of cultural historiography", and another observed that it "present[s] a discomforting portrait of the American views of the Eastern Front". It was also praised by several reviewers for its compelling analysis of contemporary war-romancing trends. Negative reviews noted its lack of perspective, failure to make its case, and a tendency to whitewash Red Army crimes on the Eastern Front. Other reviewers criticised the authors' analysis as lacking in important respects, particularly in its discussion on the myth's role in the contemporary culture, and its impact on popular perceptions of the Eastern Front, outside of a few select groups.

Vicki Butler-Henderson

Victoria "Vicki" Jemma Butler-Henderson (born (1972-02-16)16 February 1972) is a British racing driver and television presenter.

William Friedkin

William Friedkin (; born August 29, 1935) is an American film and television director, producer and screenwriter closely identified with the "New Hollywood" movement of the 1970s. Beginning his career in documentaries in the early 1960s, he is perhaps best known for directing The French Connection (1971) and The Exorcist (1973), the former of which won five Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Adapted Screenplay and Best Director. Some of his other films include the pioneering queer drama The Boys in the Band (1970), the international suspense thriller Sorcerer (1977), the highly controversial 1980 crime film Cruising (1980), the action thriller To Live and Die in L.A. (1985), the psychological horror film Bug (2006), and the dark comedy Killer Joe (2011).

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