Hōen (保延) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō,, lit. "year name") after Chōshō and before Eiji. This period spanned the years from September 1135 through July 1141.[1] The reigning emperor was Sutoku-tennō (崇徳天皇).[2]

Change of Era

  • February 15, 1035 Hōen gannen (保延元年): The new era name Hōen was created to mark an event or a series of events. The previous era ended and the new one commenced in Chōshō 4, on the 27th day of the 4th month of 1135.[3]

Events of the Hōen Era

  • 1136 (Hōen 2, 3rd month): The former-Emperor Toba hosted a grand dinner party.[4]
  • 1136 (Hōen 2, 5th month): The sadaijin Fujiwara Ieyetada died at age 75.[4]
  • 1136 (Hōen 2, 12th month): The udaijin Minamoto no Arihito was named sadaijin; and the naidaijin Fujiwara Munetada was named udaijin.[4]
  • 1136 (Hōen 2, 12th month): Fujiwara Yorinaga was appointed Minister of the Center (naidaijin) at the age of 17.[4]
  • 1138 (Hōen 4, 2nd month): The udaijin Munetada shaved his head at age 77; and he became a Buddhist priest.[4]
  • 1138 (Hōen 4, 9th month): The former-Emperor Toba went to Mount Hiei, where he stayed for seven days.[4]
  • May 2, 1140 (Hōen 6, 14th day of the 4th month): The priests of the Buddhist temples on Mount Hiei banded together to burn down the Mii-dera again.[5]


  1. ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Hōen" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 339, p. 339, at Google Books; n.b., Louis-Frédéric is pseudonym of Louis-Frédéric Nussbaum, see Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Authority File.
  2. ^ Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des emepereurs du japon, pp. 181-185; Brown, Delmer et al. (1979). Gukanshō, pp. 322-324; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, pp. 204-205.
  3. ^ Brown, p. 323.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Titsingh, p. 184.
  5. ^ Brown, p. 324; Titsingh, p. 185.


  • Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds. (1979). Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0; OCLC 251325323
  • Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 58053128
  • Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Nihon Odai Ichiran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691
  • Varley, H. Paul. (1980). A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns: Jinnō Shōtōki of Kitabatake Chikafusa. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231049405; OCLC 6042764

External links

Preceded by
Era or nengō

Succeeded by

Year 1135 (MCXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.


Year 1136 (MCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.


Year 1137 (MCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.


Year 1138 (MCXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.


Year 1139 (MCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.


Year 1140 (MCXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.


Year 1141 (MCXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.


Chōshō (長承) was a Japanese era name (年号,, nengō,, lit. "year name") after Tenshō and before Hōen. This period spanned the years from August 1132 through November 1135. The reigning emperor was Sutoku-tennō (崇徳天皇).


Eiji (えいじ, エイジ) is a common masculine Japanese given name.

Eiji (era)

Eiji (永治) was a Japanese era name (年号,, nengō,, lit. "year name") after Hōen and before Kōji. This period spanned the year from July 1141 through April 1142. The reigning emperors were Sutoku-tennō (崇徳天皇) and Konoe-tennō (近衛天皇).

Emperor Sutoku

Emperor Sutoku (崇徳天皇, Sutoku-tennō, July 7, 1119 – September 14, 1164) was the 75th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.Sutoku's reign spanned the years from 1123 through 1142.


Hoen is a surname of Dutch or Norwegian origin. A variant form in Dutch is "'t Hoen" ("the hen"). People with this surname include:

August Hoen (1817–1886), American lithographer

Borger Kristoffersson Hoen (1799–1877), Norwegian politician

Christopher Borgersen Hoen (1767–1845), Norwegian farmer and politician

Cornelis Hoen (c.1440–1524), Dutch theologian

Herman Hoen (1340–1404), first lord of Hoensbroek, son of Nicolaes

Nicolaes Hoen (died 1371), Limburgian founder of the Van Hoensbroeck family

Paul Hoen, American director and producer

Ragnar Hoen (1940-2019), Norwegian chess player

Steinar Hoen (born 1971), Norwegian high jumper't HoenEllen 't Hoen (born 1960), Dutch health researcher and humanitarian

Evert-Jan 't Hoen (born 1975), Dutch baseball player

Pieter 't Hoen (1744–1828), Dutch Patriot journalistVan HoenMark Van Hoen (born 1966), English musician

Japanese era name

The Japanese era name (年号, nengō, "year name"), also known as gengō (元号), is the first of the two elements that identify years in the Japanese era calendar scheme. The second element is a number which indicates the year number within the era (with the first year being "gan (元)"), followed by the literal "nen (年)" meaning "year".

As elsewhere in East Asia, the use of nengō was originally derived from Chinese Imperial practice, although the Japanese system is independent of the Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese era-naming systems. Unlike some of these other similar systems, Japanese era names are still in use. Government offices usually require era names and years for official papers.

The four era names used since the end of the Edo period in 1868 can be abbreviated by taking the first letter of their romanized names. For example, S55 means Shōwa 55 (i.e. 1980), and H22 stands for Heisei 22 (2010). At 62 years and 2 weeks, Shōwa is the longest era to date.

The current era is Reiwa (令和), which began on 1 May 2019, following the 31st (and final) year of the Heisei era (平成31年). While the Heisei era (平成) started on the day after the death of the Emperor Hirohito (8 January 1989), the Reiwa era (令和) began the day after the planned and voluntary abdication of the 125th Emperor Akihito. Emperor Akihito received special one-time permission to abdicate, rather than serving in his role until his death, as is the rule. His elder son, Naruhito, ascended to the throne as the 126th Emperor of Japan on 1 May 2019.

List of Case Closed volumes (61–80)

Case Closed, known as Meitantei Conan (名探偵コナン, lit. Great Detective Conan, officially translated as Detective Conan) in Japan, is written by Gosho Aoyama and serialized in Shogakukan's Weekly Shōnen Sunday. The series began its serialization on January 19, 1994. Since Case Closed's premiere, over 800 chapters have been released in Japan, making it the 21st longest running manga series. Several adaptations based on Case Closed have been made, including an anime series and animated films. A database consisting of all the cases from the manga was launched in 2007. Viz Media announced its licensing of the series on June 1, 2004, and following Funimation Entertainment's English localization, released the series under the name Case Closed with renamed characters. The series follows high school detective Jimmy Kudo who was transformed into a child after being forced to swallow a poison.

Tankōbon volume 61 to 80 encapsulates all the chapters 630 to 850.

Ryukyu Islands

The Ryukyu Islands (琉球諸島, Ryūkyū-shotō), also known as the Nansei Islands (南西諸島, Nansei-shotō, lit. "Southwest Islands") or the Ryukyu Arc (琉球弧, Ryūkyū-ko), are a chain of Japanese islands that stretch southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan: the Ōsumi, Tokara, Amami, Okinawa, and Sakishima Islands (further divided into the Miyako and Yaeyama Islands), with Yonaguni the westernmost. The larger are mostly high islands and the smaller mostly coral. The largest is Okinawa Island.

The climate of the islands ranges from humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) in the north to tropical rainforest climate (Köppen climate classification Af) in the south. Precipitation is very high and is affected by the rainy season and typhoons. Except the outlying Daitō Islands, the island chain has two major geologic boundaries, the Tokara Strait (between the Tokara and Amami Islands) and the Kerama Gap (between the Okinawa and Miyako Islands). The islands beyond the Tokara Strait are characterized by their coral reefs.

The Ōsumi and Tokara Islands, the northernmost of the islands, fall under the cultural sphere of the Kyushu region of Japan; the people are ethnically Japanese and speak a variation of the Kagoshima dialect of Japanese. The Amami, Okinawa, Miyako, and Yaeyama Islands have a native population collectively called the Ryukyuan people, named for the former Ryukyu Kingdom that ruled them. The varied Ryukyuan languages are traditionally spoken on these islands, and the major islands have their own distinct languages. In modern times, the Japanese language is the primary language of the islands, with the Okinawan Japanese dialect prevalently spoken. The outlying Daitō Islands were uninhabited until the Meiji period, when their development was started mainly by people from the Izu Islands south of Tokyo, with the people there speaking the Hachijō language.

Administratively, the islands are divided into Kagoshima Prefecture (specifically the islands administered by Kagoshima District, Kumage Subprefecture/District, and Ōshima Subprefecture/District) in the north and Okinawa Prefecture in the south, with the divide between the Amami and Okinawa Islands, with the Daitō Islands part of Okinawa Prefecture. The northern (Kagoshima) islands are collectively called the Satsunan Islands, while the southern part of the chain (Okinawa Prefecture) are called the Ryukyu Islands in Chinese.


Seungsahn Haengwon (Korean: 숭산행원대선사; Hanja: 崇山行願大禪師; RR: Sungsan Haeng'weon Daeseonsa, August 1, 1927 – November 30, 2004), born Duk-In Lee, was a Korean Seon master of the Jogye Order and founder of the international Kwan Um School of Zen. He was the seventy-eighth Patriarch in his lineage. As one of the early Korean Zen masters to settle in the United States, he opened many temples and practice groups across the globe. He was known for his charismatic style and direct presentation of Zen, which was well tailored for the Western audience.

Known by students for his many correspondences with them through letters, his utilization of dharma combat and expressions such as "only don't know" or "only go straight" in teachings, he was conferred the honorific title of Dae Jong Sa in June 2004 by the Jogye Order for a lifetime of achievements. Considered the highest honor to have bestowed upon one in the order, the title translates "Great Lineage Master" and was bestowed for his establishment of the World Wide Kwan Um School of Zen. He died in November that year at Hwagaesa in Seoul, South Korea, at age 77.

Thirteen Buddhas of Chichibu

The Thirteen Buddhas of Chichibu(秩父十三仏霊場, Chichibu jūsan butsu reijō)are a group of 13 Buddhist sacred sites in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. (Chichibu Province (知々夫国, Chichibu no kuni) was an old province of Japan in the area that is today the western part of Saitama Prefecture.) The temples are dedicated to the Thirteen Buddhas.

Zuiryū-ji (Toyama)

Zuiryū-ji (瑞龍寺)) is a Buddhist temple in Takaoka, Toyama Prefecture, Japan. The temple belongs to the Sōtō-school of Japanese Zen Buddhism.


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