The Hôtel Lambert (pronounced [otɛl lɑ̃bɛːʁ]) is a hôtel particulier, a grand mansion townhouse, on the Quai Anjou on the eastern tip of the Île Saint-Louis, in 4th arrondissement of Paris. In the 19th century, the name Hôtel Lambert also came to designate a political faction of Polish exiles associated with Prince Adam Jerzy Czartoryski, who had purchased the Hôtel Lambert.
The house, on an irregular site at the tip of the Île Saint-Louis in the heart of Paris, was designed by architect Louis Le Vau. It was built between 1640 and 1644, originally for the financier Jean-Baptiste Lambert (d. 1644) and continued by his younger brother Nicolas Lambert, later president of the Chambre des Comptes. For Nicolas Lambert, the interiors were decorated by Charles Le Brun, François Perrier, and Eustache Le Sueur, producing one of the finest, most-innovative, and iconographically coherent examples of mid-17th-century domestic architecture and decorative painting in France.
The entrance gives onto the central square courtyard, around which the hôtel was built. A wing extends to the right at the rear, embracing a walled garden. At the same time, Louis Le Vau constructed a residence for himself adjacent to the Hôtel Lambert. He lived there between 1642 and 1650. It was where all of his children were born and his mother died. After the architect's own death in 1670, his hôtel was bought by the La Haye family, who owned the other residence as well. Both buildings were then joined and their façades combined.
Both painters worked on the internal decoration for almost five years, producing the gallant allegories of Le Brun's grand Galerie d'Hercule (still in situ, but heavily damaged in the 2013 fire described below) and the small Cabinet des Muses, with five canvases by Le Sueur that were purchased for the royal collection (now in the Louvre) and the earlier ensemble, the Cabinet de l'Amour, which in its original configuration featured an alcove for a canopied bed upon which the lady of the house would receive visitors, according to the custom of the day. Significantly the alcove was eliminated about 1703. All the ensembles featured themes of love and marriage. However, the paintings have since been dispersed.
In the 1740s, the Marquise du Châtelet and Voltaire, her lover, used the Hôtel Lambert as their Paris residence when not at her country estate in Cirey. The marquise was famed for her salon there. Later, the Marquis du Châtelet sold the Lambert to Claude Dupin and his wife Louise-Marie Dupin, who continued the tradition of the salon. The Dupins were ancestors of writer George Sand, who, because of her relationship with the Polish composer Chopin, was also a frequent guest of the 19th-century Polish owners of the property.
In 1843, the hôtel particulier was bought by Prince Adam Jerzy Czartoryski, member of the powerful family of Polish magnates. He and his brother, Konstanty Adam, were leaders of the liberal aristocratic faction of the Great Emigration from Poland, following the collapse of the November Uprising of 1830–1831. A political group formed around Adam Czartoryski, and his palatial residence in central Paris, surrounded by the natural 'moat' of the river Seine, lent its name to his political faction.
The political beliefs of the Hôtel Lambert faction were derived from the 3 May Constitution, which its members had supported. The Hôtel Lambert played an important role in keeping the "Polish question" alive in European politics, by continually keeping the Polish cause on the agenda. It also served as a safe harbour for Polish emigés and royalists, exiled from their country after the unsuccessful uprising against Russia. Among other notable politicians who took part in the Hôtel Lambert's activities were Władysław Czartoryski, son of Adam, Józef Bem, Henryk Dembiński, Karol Kniaziewicz, Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz, Władysław Stanisław Zamoyski, Władysław Ostrowski and Leon Kaplinski.
Initially a political think tank and a discussion club, the political faction also worked on the preservation and promotion of Polish culture. An Historical and Literary Society began in 1832 and the idea of a Polish library, which exists to this day just along the Quai d'Orleans nearby, was conceived in the Hôtel Lambert in 1838. Plans laid for two schools teaching Polish (one for girls, one for boys) and were established in Batignolles. There was support for numerous commercial enterprises, especially in the fields of publication and printing. Over time, it became one of the most important hubs of Polish culture in the world, especially after the January Uprising, when Polish language and culture became heavily persecuted during the enforced Russification in the Russian Partition of Poland itself.
The Hôtel Lambert drew some renowned politicians and artists of the epoch, including Alexandre Walewski, Charles Forbes René de Montalembert, Frédéric Chopin, Zygmunt Krasiński, Alphonse de Lamartine, George Sand, Honoré de Balzac, Hector Berlioz, Franz Liszt, Eugène Delacroix, and Adam Mickiewicz. In fact, Chopin's "La Polonaise" was composed expressly for the Polish ball held there every year.
The Hôtel Lambert was discreetly split into several luxurious apartments. It was once the home of actress Michèle Morgan, Mona von Bismarck, and of Alexis von Rosenberg, Baron de Redé, who rented the ground floor from 1947 until his death.[n 1] De Redé entertained his lover Arturo Lopez-Willshaw (1900–1962), who continued to maintain a formal residence with wife Patricia in Neuilly. Redé and Lopez-Willshaw's dinner parties and balls were at the center of le tout Paris. In 1969 de Redé staged his most famous ball, the Bal Oriental, with guests such as Jacqueline de Ribes, Guy de Rothschild, Salvador Dalí, Brigitte Bardot, Dolores Guinness, and Margrethe II of Denmark.
In September 2007, the Hôtel Lambert was sold by the Rothschilds to Prince Abdullah bin Khalifa al-Thani, brother of the Emir of Qatar for the purported sum of 80 million euros ($111 million). A UNESCO World Heritage-listed building, it was in need of restoration, as parts of its wooden structure were rotting, staircases were sagging, and paint was cracked and discoloured.
The Prince's plan for a comprehensive overhaul of the building sparked controversy and became the subject of legal action brought by French conservationists. The scheme included plans to install air-conditioning, elevators, an underground car park with an exit through the notable curved garden wall, and a number of security measures. This involved digging under the garden and raising the 17th-century garden wall 80 cm. One heritage architect claimed the plans had "the aesthetics of a James Bond villa". Former tenant Michèle Morgan suggested that super-rich clients wanting a tailor-made luxury modern residence should consider a larger site on the outskirts of Paris rather than a cramped position limited on all sides by the river Seine and listed monuments. However, Alain-Charles Perrot, the architect in charge of the project, suggested that there was an element of racism in the objections.[n 2]
After several years of wrangling, a truce was overseen by the Ministry of Culture and Paris City Hall, and the renovation was given the go-ahead under the supervision of Bâtiments de France, which safeguards historic monuments. Work began in 2010.
On 10 July 2013 a portion of the building was severely damaged by a fire which started in the roof during renovation work. The Cabinet des Bains with a series of ceiling frescoes by Eustache Le Sueur was completely destroyed, and another series of frescoes by Charles Le Brun in the Gallery of Hercules was heavily damaged by smoke and water. The restoration and renovation took a further three years.
Prince Adam Jerzy Czartoryski (Polish pronunciation: [ˈadam ˈjɛʐɨ t͡ʂartɔˈrɨskʲi], Lithuanian: Аdomas Jurgis Čartoriskis, also known as Adam George Czartoryski in English; 14 January 1770 – 15 July 1861) was a Polish nobleman, statesman and author. He was the son of Prince Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski and Izabela Flemming.
Czartoryski held the distinction of having been part, at different times, of the governments of two mutually hostile countries. He was de facto Chairman of the Russian Council of Ministers (1804–6), and President of the Polish National Government during the November 1830 Uprising against Imperial Russia.Alexis von Rosenberg, Baron de Redé
Oskar Dieter Alex von Rosenberg-Redé, 3rd Baron von Rosenberg-Redé (4 February 1922 – 8 July 2004), also known as Alexis, Baron de Redé, was a prominent French banker, aristocrat, aesthete, collector, and socialite. In 2003, he was appointed a commandeur of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres for his restoration of the Hôtel Lambert, where he was known for hosting opulent costume balls. Involved in horse racing, in 1972 he won the Prix de Diane and came in second at the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe.Antoni Aleksander Iliński
Antoni Aleksander Iliński, also known as Iskender Pasha (Turkish: Mehmet İskender Paşa; 1814–1861), was a Polish-Ottoman military officer and general. A Polish independence activist and insurgent, he took part in the independence struggles of Poles and Hungarians against the Austrian-Russian alliance. He converted to Islam in 1844 and subsequently served in various commanding posts in the Ottoman Army during the reign of Abdulmejid I (1839–1861) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Danube, Crimea, Transcaucasia, and Baghdad. He was promoted to the rank of Pasha (General) during the Crimean War in 1855.Czartoryski
Czartoryski (feminine form: Czartoryska, plural: Czartoryscy; Ukrainian: Чарторийські, Chartoryisky; Чорторийські, Chortoryisky; Lithuanian: Čartoriskiai) is a Polish princely family of Lithuanian-Ruthenian origin, also known as the Familia. The family, which derived their kin from the Gediminids dynasty, by the mid-17th century had split into two branches, based in the Klevan Castle and the Korets Castle, respectively. They used the Czartoryski coat of arms and were a noble family of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in the 18th century.Czartoryski Museum
The Czartoryski Museum and Library (Polish: Muzeum Książąt Czartoryskich w Krakowie [muˈzɛum ˈkɕɔ̃ʐɔnt tʂartɔˈrɨskʲix f kraˈkɔvjɛ]) is a museum located in Kraków, Poland, founded in Puławy in 1796 by Princess Izabela Czartoryska. The Puławy collections were partly destroyed after the November uprising of 1830–1831 and the subsequent confiscation of the Czartoryskis' property by the Russians. Most of the museum holdings, however, were saved and moved to Paris, where they reposed at the Hôtel Lambert. In 1870 Prince Władysław Czartoryski decided to move the collections to Kraków, where they arrived in 1876. The city had been granted a degree of autonomy following the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867.
The most renowned painting on display at the museum was the Lady with an Ermine by Leonardo da Vinci, one of his best-known works. Other highlights of the collection are two works by Rembrandt, several antiquities, including sculptures, Renaissance tapestries as well as decorative arts, and paintings by Hans Holbein, Jacob Jordaens, Luca Giordano, Pieter Brueghel the Younger, Dieric Bouts, Joos van Cleve, Lorenzo Lotto, Lucas Cranach the Younger, Lorenzo Monaco, Andrea Mantegna, Alessandro Magnasco and the Master of the Female Half-Lengths. The museum has been closed since 2010, but it may be reopened in 2019. Some parts of the collection are displayed in other venues.Eustachy Stanisław Sanguszko
Prince Eustachy Stanisław Sanguszko (28 August 1842 – 2 April 1903) was a Polish noble (szlachcic), conservative politician.
Eustachy educated in Poland and Paris in 1859–1860. He studied law on the Jagiellonian University from 1862 to 1864. He sympathized with the insurgents of the January Uprising of 1863–1864 and took part in meetings in Goszcz. In April 1863 he traveled with a secret correspondence for the "Hôtel Lambert" to Paris, and stayed there until the end of the Uprising. From 1873 until 1901 member and from 14 October 1890 to 9 February 1895 Marshal of the National Sejm in Galicia. He was member of the Herrenhaus and member of the Austrian Council of the State from 27 October 1879. Successor of Kazimierz Feliks Badeni in the office of governor of Galicia from 1895 until 1898.František Zach
František Zach (Czech pronunciation: [ˈfrancɪʃɛk ˈzax]; Serbian: Франтишек Зах/František Zah; 1 May 1807 – 14 January 1892), known as Franjo Zah (Фрањо Зах), was a Czech-born soldier and military theorist, best known for being the first acting General and Chief of the General Staff of the Principality of Serbia from 1876 to 1877.
Zach was known for being a flamboyant freedom fighter and Pan-Slavist, fighting in both the November Uprising in Poland of 1830, as well as in Serbia during the latter half of the 19th century. He played a vital role in the formation of the Načertanije in 1844, which later served as a guideline for the unification of Serbs divided by Ottoman and Austria-Hungary rule.Henryk Dembiński
Henryk Dembiński (16 January 1791 – 13 July 1864) was a Polish engineer, traveler and general.
Dembiński was born in Strzałków, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship. In 1809 he entered the Polish army of the Duchy of Warsaw and took part in most of the Napoleonic campaigns in the East. Among others, he took part in the Battle of Leipzig in 1813. After the fall of Napoleon Bonaparte he remained in Poland and became one of the members of the Sejm of the Congress Poland.
In the Polish November Uprising of 1830, he was a successful leader of the Polish forces. In 1831, after his victorious campaign in Lithuania, he was promoted to generał dywizji and for a brief period became the Polish Commander-in-Chief. He took part in the battles of Dębe Wielkie and Ostrołęka.After the fall of the revolution in 1833 he emigrated to France, where he became one of the prominent politicians of the Hôtel Lambert, a group of supporters of Adam Jerzy Czartoryski.
In the Hungarian revolution of 1848 he was appointed the commanding officer of the Northern Army. After his successes he was soon promoted and Lajos Kossuth appointed him the Hungarian commander-in-chief. He was hampered by the jealousy of Artúr Görgey and after the defeat at the Battle of Kápolna, he resigned. After the Battle of Temesvár (where he was commander until the arrival of Józef Bem) and Kossuth's resignation, he fled to Turkey, where he (together with many other prominent Polish officers) entered the service of sultan Mahmud II. However, in 1850 he returned to Paris, where he died.Karol Kniaziewicz
Baron Karol Otto Kniaziewicz (4 May 1762 in Assiten, Courland (now Asīte, Latvia) – 9 May 1842 in Paris) was a Polish general and political activist.
Karol attended the Knight School in Warsaw. He participated in the Polish-Russian war of 1792 and the Kościuszko Uprising in the rank of a Major-General in 1794. He distinguished himself during the Napoleonic Wars in the Polish Legions as commander of the 1st Legion. In 1799 he was appointed to the position of a Brigadier General. From 1799 until 1801 he organized and commanded the "Danube Legion" (Legia Naddunajska), he distinguished himself during the Battle of Hohenlinden.
Since 1812 Brigadier General in the Duchy of Warsaw. He participated in the Russian Campaign of 1812. In 1814 he left Poland for France. During the November Uprising in 1830–1831 he served as representative of the "Polish National Government" in Paris. In emigration Karol was politically tied with the "Hôtel Lambert" and Adam Jerzy Czartoryski. He was co-founder of the Polish Library in Paris.Louis Le Vau
Louis Le Vau (1612 – 11 October 1670) was a French Classical Baroque architect, who worked for Louis XIV of France. He was born and died in Paris.
He was responsible, with André Le Nôtre and Charles Le Brun, for the redesign of the château of Vaux-le-Vicomte. His later works included the Palace of Versailles and his collaboration with Claude Perrault on the Palais du Louvre. Le Vau also designed two mirroring additions across the Parterre to the evergrowing Château de Vincennes, the Château du Raincy, the Hotel Tambonneau, the Collège des Quatre-Nations (now housing the Institut de France), the church of St. Sulpice, and Hôtel Lambert, on the Île Saint-Louis, Paris.Marie-Hélène de Rothschild
Marie-Hélène Naila Stephanie Josina de Rothschild (pronounced [maʁi elɛn də ʁɔt.ʃild]; November 17, 1927 – March 1, 1996) was a French socialite who became a doyenne of Parisian high-society and was a member of the prominent Rothschild banking family of France.María Amparo Muñoz, 1st Countess of Vista Alegre
Doña María Amparo Muñoz y Borbón, 1st Countess of Vista Alegre (17 November 1834 – 19 August 1864) was the daughter of María Christina of the Two Sicilies, queen dowager and regent of Spain, and her morganatic second husband, Agustín Fernando Muñoz (afterwards Duke of Riánsares). Her full title was María de los Desamparados Muñoz y de Borbón, condesa de Vista Alegre.
Her mother, María Christina, had been the fourth queen consort of Ferdinand VII of Spain, a maternal uncle with whom she had had two daughters; the elder, Infanta María Isabel Luisa, was proclaimed Queen Isabella II of Spain at the age of three upon her father's death on 29 September 1833. His widow, María Christina (then regent), married a sergeant from the guard a few months later, on 28 December 1833, and María Amparo was their first child, born in Madrid in 1834. In 1840 María Amparo went with her parents into exile in France. In 1842 her mother purchased the Château de Malmaison, where María Amparo and her siblings grew up.
On 1 March 1855, María Amparo was married at Malmaison to Władysław Czartoryski, a Polish prince living in exile in France. They lived at the Hôtel Lambert, the Czartoryski family's base of operations during the Second French Empire. She and Prince Władysław had a son, August Franciszek Czartoryski, born on 2 August 1858.Michał Czajkowski
Michał Czajkowski (Ukrainian: Mykhailo Chaikovsky; 29 September 1804 – 18 January 1886), also known in Turkey as Mehmet Sadyk Pasha (Turkish: Mehmet Sadık Paşa), was a Polish writer and political émigré of distant Cossack heritage who worked both for the resurrection of Poland and also for the reestablishment of a Cossack state.Polonaise
The polonaise (, French: [pɔlɔnɛz]; Polish: polonez) is a dance of Polish origin, in 34 time. Its name is French for "Polish."
The polonaise has a rhythm quite close to that of the Swedish semiquaver or sixteenth-note polska, and the two dances have a common origin.
The polonaise is a widespread dance in carnival parties. The polonaise is always a first dance at a studniówka ("hundred-days"), the Polish equivalent of the senior prom that occurs approximately 100 days before exams.Teofil Kwiatkowski
Teofil Antoni Jaksa of Griffins Kwiatkowski (February 21, 1809 in Pułtusk – August 14, 1891 in Avallon, France) was a Polish painter.Valerian Kalinka
Valerian Kalinka (or Walerian Kalinka) (1826–1886) was a Polish priest and historian.
Kalinka was born near Cracow, but fled from Poland in 1846 on account of political entanglements and his involvement in the Krakow Uprising. Kalinka was the founder of the Polish branch of the Resurrectionist Order. He worked on the "Czas" newspaper in 1848, but finally took refuge in Paris, where his first work was written -- Galicia und Cracoio, an historical and social picture of the country from 1772 to 1850. He afterwards thought of writing a history of Polish emigration, but eventually chose to edit a weekly periodical entitled "Political Polish News", the principal contributors to which were himself and Julian Klaczko. Though forbidden everywhere but in Posen, it existed for four years, and dealt with every aspect of Polish national life. Kalinka's articles show an acquaintance with law, administration, history, and statistics, and had mostly to do with the inner life of Poland. He became an activist in the Hôtel Lambert group.
After 1863, when searching for documents for a life of Prince Adam Czartoryski, he stumbled on important papers which he published in two volumes as The Last Years of Stanislaus Augustus (1787–95). This work placed him at once in the first rank of Polish writers. Poland had not yet had such an historian, especially in the province of diplomacy and foreign politics. Józef Szujski, though unknown to Kalinka, was at the same time working in the same direction. Both were accused of undermining patriotic self-respect, of lowering Poland in foreign eyes, and of destroying veneration for the past. In the preface to this work, Kalinka had already answered these charges. A Pole, he said, is not less a Pole when he learns from past errors how to serve his country better.
About this time Kalinka entered the novitiate of the Resurrection Fathers in Rome, where, save for a few visits to Galicia, he subsequently resided until in 1877, after a visit to the Catholic missions in Bulgaria, he became chaplain of a convent in Jarosław. Here in 1880 appeared the first volume of his Sejmczteroletni (The Four Years Diet). To the criticism it received, Kalinka replied: "History calls first for truth; nor can truth harm patriotism." The second volume, appeared in 1886, the end of the thirty years he spent writing. He died in Jarosław.Wincenty Budzyński
Wincenty Budzyński (Budzinski, Budzinsky) (1815, Volhynia – 5 May 1866, Paris) was a Polish politician agent and Polish–French chess master.
Born into a Polish noble family in Volhynia, he graduated from the Liceum Krzemienieckie. Then he fought against Russians in the November Uprising in 1831. After being injured in a battle, he went to Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, where was arrested by Austrians and expelled two years later. He arrived in England, then in Belgium, and finally in France. He became a political agent of Adam Jerzy Czartoryski - a prominent Polish-émigre political figure, head of a political faction accordingly called the Hôtel Lambert - in the 1840s. After a collapse of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, he married a French woman in 1850, and withdrew from political activity.He played chess at the famous Café de la Régence in Paris, where - among others - lost casual and formal matches to Lionel Kieseritzky (1 : 2) in 1850, Serafino Dubois (6.5 : 13.5) in 1855, Paul Morphy (1.5 : 5.5, Morphy gave odds of pawn and move) in 1858 and (0 : 7) in 1859, and beat Daniel Harrwitz (3 : 1, Harrwitz gave odds of pawn and move) in 1859.Władysław Plater
Władysław Plater (also Broel-Plater; Vilnius, November 7, 1808 – April 22, 1889, Broelberg, Kilchberg, near Zurich, Switzerland) was a Polish count, brother of Cezary Plater, and a relative of Emilia Plater. With Agaton Giller, he founded the Polish National Museum in Rapperswil, Switzerland.Władysław Stanisław Zamoyski
Count Władysław Stanisław Zamoyski (1803–1868) was a Polish nobleman, politician, and general.
Zamoyski was the owner of estates in Cewków. He served as aide-de-camp to Grand Duke Constantine, commander-in-chief of the army and de facto viceroy of Congress Poland. He took part in the November Uprising of 1830–1831. Working with Adam Jerzy Czartoryski he became one of the main activists in the Hôtel Lambert group. He emigrated to England, where he represented the interests of Czartoryski's government-in-exile. In 1848–1849 he organized Polish units in Italy, serving with the Sardinian Army to fight against the Austrians (1848–49), and later, in 1855, he led a Polish cavalry division in the Ottoman Army during the Crimean War.
In March 1831, Zamoyski was awarded the Gold Cross of the Virtuti Militari.He was married to Jadwiga Działyńska and had four children: Władysław Zamoyski, Witold Zamoyski, Maria Zamoyska (1857-1857) and Maria Zamoyska (1860-1937).
He died in 1868 and was buried in Paris.