Horn is remembered as the last Communist Foreign Minister of Hungary who played a major role in the demolishing of the "Iron Curtain" for East Germans in 1989, contributing to the later unification of Germany, and for the Bokros package, the biggest fiscal austerity programme in post-communist Hungary, launched under his premiership, in 1995.
|Prime Minister of Hungary|
15 July 1994 – 6 July 1998
|Preceded by||Péter Boross|
|Succeeded by||Viktor Orbán|
|Member of the National Assembly|
2 May 1990 – 13 May 2010
|Minister of Foreign Affairs|
10 May 1989 – 23 May 1990
|Prime Minister||Miklós Németh|
|Preceded by||Péter Várkonyi|
|Succeeded by||Géza Jeszenszky|
|Born||5 July 1932|
|Died||19 June 2013 (aged 80)|
|Political party||MSZP (1989–2013)|
Horn was born in Budapest in 1932 as the third child of transport worker Géza Horn and factory worker Anna Csörnyei. They lived in conditions of poverty at the so-called "Barrack" estate between Nagyicce and Sashalom. There were seven brothers in the family: filmmaker Géza (1925–1956), Károly (1930–1946), Tibor (1935), Sándor (1939), Tamás (1942) and Dénes (1944).
After the German occupation of Hungary, his father was kidnapped by the Gestapo due to communist activities in 1944 and never returned home. Gyula Horn's niece is Szófia Havas (b. Szófia Horn, 1955), Member of Parliament between 2006 and 2010, whose father Géza, Jr. was killed under unclear circumstances during the 1956 revolution.
He first studied in a lower technicians' school in Hungary. He graduated from the Rostov-on-Don College of Economics and Finance in 1954. He finished the political academy of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party (MSZMP) in 1970. He received Candidate of Economic Sciences in 1977.
He married statistician Anna Király in February 1956 and had two children: Anna (1956) and Gyula, Jr. (1969).
In 1954 Horn joined the Hungarian communist party, then called the Hungarian Working People's Party (MDP). In November 1956, he helped reorganize the MDP into the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party (MSZMP), which under the leadership of János Kádár crushed the 1956 Hungarian revolution against Soviet occupation and communist rule.
Horn worked in the Ministry of Finance from 1954 to 1959. He got a job in the Foreign Ministry in 1959, first as an official in the independent Soviet department. In the 1960s he was a diplomat in the Hungarian embassies in Bulgaria and Yugoslavia.
In 1969 Horn became an official in the foreign affairs department of the MSZMP Central Committee. By 1983 he rose to the rank of department head. In 1985 he was appointed secretary of state (deputy minister) in the Foreign Ministry. In 1989 he stepped forward to become foreign minister in the country's last communist government led by Miklós Németh. By this time, Horn had become a prominent member of the party's reformist wing, which wanted to jettison the goulash Communism of Kádár in favour of Western-style democracy and a market economy.
As a minister he was in charge of foreign affairs when Hungary decided to open the western border (the "Iron Curtain") to East Germans wishing to emigrate to West Germany. He is often credited with having a major part in the decision and, consequently, a role in German unification.
He and his Austrian counterpart Alois Mock posed for cameras on 27 June 1989 to cut through a barbed wire frontier fence, in a largely symbolic act of rapprochement which had been planned months before. As foreign minister he ordered the border to be opened to allow East Germans gathered in Hungary by the thousands to cross into Austria, and from there to West Germany. With this act he greatly contributed to the later unification of Germany. Within weeks tens of thousands of East Germans, who travelled to Hungary with "tourist" visas, headed straight for the unfortified border and walked into the West. Horn outraged his East German counterparts when he told them that international treaties on refugees took precedence over a 1969 agreement between Budapest and East Berlin limiting freedom of movement. The fall of East German communism and the process of German unification had been launched. With dizzying speed, communist governments in the region succumbed to popular uprisings and sheer fatigue. Within a few years, the Soviet Union itself had evaporated.
Horn helped lead the transformation of the MSZMP into the Hungarian Socialist Party later in 1989. As foreign minister he prepared and signed the Hungarian-Soviet troop withdrawal agreement in March 1990. Among the politicians of the transitional era, including representatives of civil opposition, he was the first in Hungary who raised and suggested the issue of possible membership in NATO and the European Union.
He was elected to Parliament in 1990 and retained a seat until the 2010 parliamentary election. The Socialists were roundly defeated in that election, taking only 33 seats. He served as Chairman of the Parliamentary Committee on Foreign Affairs between 1990 and 1993, until his resignation. Also in 1990, he succeeded Rezső Nyers as chairman of the Socialist Party.
Between 1990 and 1995, he was a member of the Governing Board of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI). He also functioned as one of the vice presidents of the Socialist International from 1996 to 2003.
Horn led the Socialists to a comprehensive victory in the 1994 parliamentary election. The MSZP leaped from a paltry 33 seats in 1990 to 209, at the time the most that a Hungarian party has ever won in a free election. The size of the MSZP landslide took even Horn by surprise. Although the Socialists had more than enough seats to govern alone, Horn suspected he'd have trouble getting needed reforms past his own party's left wing. He also wanted to allay concerns both inside and outside Hungary of a former Communist party winning an absolute majority. With this in mind, he went into coalition with the liberal Alliance of Free Democrats, giving him a two-thirds majority. A few days before election day, Horn and his convoy suffered a major car accident between Emőd and Nyékládháza on the way back from a campaign closing event from Miskolc; Horn suffered a cervical fracture and was forced to wear a halo brace for months.
In 1995, Horn's government enacted the "Bokros package", a major austerity program. This was a difficult decision for a social democratic party, and Horn had to expend considerable effort to get most of his party to agree to it.
Although Horn relinquished leadership of the party after the Socialists lost the 1998 election to Viktor Orbán and Fidesz, he was for a long time considered to have considerable influence in the party, partly because of his personal popularity among elderly voters. However, after 2002 he went into semi-retirement. The Medgyessy Cabinet appointed him Special Rapporteur for the European Union. He received second place in the election list of the MSZP during the 2004 European Parliament election in Hungary, however Horn stated before the election that would not become an MEP.
Horn has received several awards for his achievements in foreign relations, among others the Charlemagne Award of the city of Aachen in 1990. He did not, however, get the Civil Division of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary in 2007, suggested by Ferenc Gyurcsány, as it was refused by Hungarian President László Sólyom, who explicitly stated Horn's views on the 1956 revolution as the reason.
According to a survey in 2011, Viktor Orbán was found to be Hungary's best prime minister since the transition to democracy, József Antall, the head of the first democratically elected government between 1990 and 1993, came second while Horn and Gordon Bajnai (2009–10) tied for the third place.
Although the fiscal austerity package under his rule eroded his popularity heavily, the most controversial part of his life is his role after the 1956 revolution, which started on 23 October and was crushed in the days following 4 November.
At the end of October he joined the National Guard, the armed body of the revolution consisting soldiers, policemen, and civic freedom fighters. In December he joined the "pufajkás" brigades (in German Steppjackenbrigade), a communist paramilitary body set up to help the invading Soviet troops restore the communist regime, and he served there until June 1957. His alleged role is controversial in some circles because such squads were accused of involvement in torturing, harassing and even executing civilians during and after the uprising.
According to him his elder brother was killed by the revolutionists during the uprising. However, his brother's death certificate states he died in a traffic accident in the countryside. His daughter was born on 30 October. "The conditions were bad. The uprising released many criminals who endangered public safety. In the pufajkás squad I defended the legal order," he told German paper Die Welt 50 years later. "First, I would like to make it clear that 1956 was not a fight against communism. Even the rebels did not want to wipe it out. This is incorrectly depicted today."
Horn's precise role in crushing the revolution is unclear as the reports of his brigade have gaps; however, in 1957 he received the award "For the Worker-Peasant Power", which was only granted to those whose services earned satisfaction. When decades later, already as a prime minister he was questioned and criticized over this part of his life, he only said: "I was a pufajkás. So what?"
In August 2007, Horn was taken to hospital with severe disease. Reportedly he was treated at Honvéd Hospital of Budapest for a sleeping disorder, but other sources told he had a serious brain malformation. Later reported his condition worsened so much that he could not leave the hospital, and thus omitted the World Political Forum which was held in Budapest, where former Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev also participated.
As of 2008, Gyula Horn was no longer able to recognise his family members and friends as he suffered from an illness similar to Alzheimer's disease. There were also reports that Horn was in good physical condition despite the fact that he lost significant weight. Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsány was one of the last senior party officials, who visited him then. On 5 July 2011, the day of Horn's 79th birthday Népszava reported his health condition had not deteriorated but also not improved, remained stable. During this time influential MSZP leaders gave a toast to Horn on the occasion of his birthday.
Horn became 80 years old on 5 July 2012, when Prime Minister Viktor Orbán greeted him in a letter. He wrote, "first of all we are Hungarians and we work towards prosperity of the nation based on our faith and the best of our knowledge. Therefore there are more links than divisions between us". The Hungarian Socialist Party also celebrated his round birthday.
Germany's Foreign Minister, Guido Westerwelle, said Horn's "courageous work as Hungarian foreign minister will remain unforgettable to us Germans." Reuters called Horn, whose picture taking a wire-cutter to the fence separating Hungary and Austria was iconic, the "man who tore the iron curtain". Domestic recognition was hampered by his communist history, and commendations voted on by the Hungarian parliament were defeated on the occasions of his 70th and 75th birthdays.
Attila Mesterházy, chairman of the Hungarian Socialist Party, sent a statement to news agency Magyar Távirati Iroda (MTI) in which he wrote that "Horn will be remembered as the most defining leaders of the modern Hungarian left, one of the most successful prime ministers of Hungary and had made one of the greatest impacts on Europe during its sweeping changes over two decades ago. Horn played a key role in reviving the left and the Socialist party." Former PM Gyurcsány called Horn the "most contradictory" and "most talented" of politicians, and added in his Facebook entry: "a great man has passed away."
The government party Fidesz expressed condolences to Horn's family and leadership of the Hungarian Socialist party. Politics Can Be Different's co-chair András Schiffer told MTI that "Horn was one of the most important personalities of the post-communist Hungary and is one of the few politicians whose names are likely to go down in Hungarian history." Schiffer said that "he could not identify with Horn's politics and political relations before the transition to democracy in Hungary, but it must be acknowledged that Horn had shown real humanity towards ordinary people." Gordon Bajnai, leader of the Together 2014, said that Hungary and Europe lost a "true statesman". He added that Horn was a "symbol of a peaceful and successful regime change, and, as prime minister, he had done much to help Hungary find an exit from the post-communist economic and social crisis." President János Áder also sent his condolences to Horn's widow and children.
Horn received a state funeral with military honors and was buried at Fiume Road National Graveyard on 8 July 2013. Thousands of people attended the funeral, many of whom laid red carnations beside the grave. European Parliament President Martin Schulz, former German Foreign Minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher, Hungarian President János Áder, former head of states László Sólyom and Pál Schmitt, Archbishop Péter Erdő and former house speaker Katalin Szili were also among the attendance, as well as representatives of the main parliamentary parties.
Prime Minister Viktor Orbán, former prime ministers Péter Boross, Péter Medgyessy, Ferenc Gyurcsány and Gordon Bajnai, as well as party chairman Attila Mesterházy paid tribute to the memory of Gyula Horn. When Orbán bowed his head, some in the crowd booed at the prime minister. Socialist lawmaker Ferenc Baja, a former minister in the Horn government, said in a Facebook entry that this was derogative to the event.
Béla Katona, who served as Speaker of the National Assembly from 2009 to 2010, said the "life of Gyula Horn itself encompassed the history of the twentieth century" and he shaped the "fate of both Hungary and Europe as a whole." Katona told "Horn as a prime minister and a statesman remained an ordinary man nevertheless. He was not perfect, he made some bad decisions, but the good decisions outnumbered the bad ones. He was a successful man and a true statesman".
| Minister of Foreign Affairs
| Prime Minister of Hungary
|Party political offices|
| Chairman of the Hungarian Socialist Party
Parliamentary elections were held in Hungary on 8 May 1994, with a second round of voting in 174 of the 176 single member constituencies on 29 May. They resulted in the return to power of the Hungarian Socialist Party, the former Communist party, under the leadership of Gyula Horn, who became Prime Minister. The Socialists achieved a remarkable revival, winning an overall majority of 209 seats out of 386, up from 33 in 1990. At the time, it was the most seats that a Hungarian party had ever won in a free election.
The governing Hungarian Democratic Forum was severely defeated, falling from 165 seats to 38 for third place. It was also a disappointment for the principal opposition party of the previous parliament, the Alliance of Free Democrats, which failed to capitalize on the government's unpopularity and lost seats. Poor economic performance, apparent government incompetence and a certain nostalgia for the social security of the communist era appear to be the main reasons for the result, together with significant reform of the Socialists' policies, with commitment to the expansion for the market economy and continued compensation for the victims of communism.
While the Socialists had enough seats to govern alone, Horn decided to form a coalition with the Free Democrats, giving him a two-thirds majority. This was partly to assuage public concerns inside and outside Hungary over an ex-Communist party with an absolute majority, and partly to get his reform package past his own party's left wing.1998 Hungarian parliamentary election
Parliamentary elections were held in Hungary on 10 May 1998, with a second round of voting in 175 of the 176 single member constituencies on 24 May.Although the Hungarian Socialist Party received the most votes, the then-liberal conservative Fidesz won the most seats. The successful breakthrough into parliament by the extreme right-wing Hungarian Justice and Life Party was also a major shock. After the election, Fidesz formed a centre-right coalition government with the Independent Smallholders Party and Hungarian Democratic Forum.2013 in Hungary
The following events took place in the year 2013 in Hungary.Bokros package
The Bokros package (Hungarian: Bokros-csomag; named after the then-Minister of Finance Lajos Bokros) was a series of austerity measures announced by the Cabinet of Prime Minister Gyula Horn in Hungary on 12 March 1995.Charlemagne Prize
The Charlemagne Prize (German: Karlspreis; full name originally Internationaler Karlspreis der Stadt Aachen, International Charlemagne Prize of the City of Aachen, since 1988 Internationaler Karlspreis zu Aachen, International Charlemagne Prize of Aachen) is a prize awarded for work done in the service of European unification. It has been awarded annually since 1950 by the German city of Aachen. It commemorates Charlemagne, ruler of the Frankish Empire and founder of what became the Holy Roman Empire, who resided and is buried at Aachen. Traditionally the award is given to the recipient on Ascension Day in a ceremony in the town hall of Aachen. In April 2008, the organisers of the Charlemagne Prize and the European Parliament jointly created a new European Charlemagne Youth Prize, which recognises contributions by young people towards the process of European integration. Patrons of the foundation are King Philippe of Belgium, King Felipe VI of Spain, and Henri, the Grand Duke of Luxembourg.Germany–Hungary relations
Germany–Hungary relations are the relations between Germany and Hungary, two member states of the European Union and the NATO. Both countries have a long shared history. Germany has an embassy in Budapest. Hungary has an embassy in Berlin, two general consulates (in Düsseldorf and Munich) and nine honorary consulates (in Bremerhaven, Erfurt, Hamburg, Nürnberg, Schwerin, Dresden, Essen, Frankfurt and Stuttgart). The Agreement between the Federal Republic of Germany and the Republic of Hungary on 'Friendly Cooperation and Partnership in Europe' concluded on 6 February 1992 is one of the principal cornerstones of today’s bilateral relations.Hungary set down an important marker for future bilateral relations in September 1989 when it opened up its border with Austria to refugees from East Germany, thus making a special contribution towards German reunification (1990) and the political transformation in Central and Eastern Europe. On the evening of 10 September 1989, Magyar Televízió broadcast that the Government of Hungary had decided to open that border at midnight. Three weeks ago, the Pan-European Picnic on the Austrian-Hungarian border near Sopron had taken place; about 660 citizens of East Germany had taken the opportunity to cross the Iron Curtain. On 25 August 1989, Hungary's prime minister Miklós Németh and his foreign minister Gyula Horn had secretly visited the German chancellor Helmut Kohl and foreign minister Genscher.Géza Jeszenszky
Géza Jeszenszky (born 10 November 1941) is a Hungarian politician and associate professor, former Minister of Foreign Affairs and a former ambassador to the United States. He was ambassador of Hungary to Norway and Iceland from 2011 to 2014.Henrik Havas
Henrik Havas (b. 25 June 1949 as Henrik Rokobauer) is a Hungarian journalist who served as spokesman of the Hungarian government from 1 November 1995 to 7 November 1995.
He worked as news editor of the Magyar Rádió between 1979 and 1986 and as anchorman of the Krónika magazine from 1985. He left the radio in 1995. He received a Táncsics Mihály Prize in 1999.
Havas was the anchorman of the Nap TV's only program, Nap-kelte from 1989. He was also fired during the Media Crisis in 1994, but shortly after he was taken back. In the next year Gyula Horn appointed him state secretary in a charge of communicational affairs of the Prime Minister's Office (de facto government spokesman). However, soon it turned out that one of his inferiors, Endre Mihályi was involved in an embezzlement case. As a result, Havas had to resign together with his staff after just six days.
His employer since 1999 has been the RTL Klub. He was one of the seven performers of the Heti hetes talk show (Hungarian version of 7 Tage, 7 Köpfe).
He has been diagnosed with bipolar disorder.Horn (surname)
Horn is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:
House of Hornes
Alan F. Horn (born 1943), American entertainment industry executive
Alfred Aloysius "Trader" Horn (1861–1931), trader in Africa during the "Scramble for Africa"
Alfred Horn (1918–2001), American mathematician
Andrew Horn (died 1328) fishmonger, of Bridge Street, London, Chamberlain of the City (1320-8), author of Liber Horn
Andrew Horn (filmmaker) (born 1952), American film producer, director and writer
Anton Ludwig Ernst Horn (1774-1848), German physician
Count Arvid Horn (1664–1742), Swedish statesman
Blair Horn, Canadian rower
Bob Horn (broadcaster) (1916–1966), American radio and television personality
Brita Horn (1745-1791), Swedish courtier and letter writer
Bruce Horn (born 1960), American programmer
Carl von Horn (1847–1923), Bavarian general and War Minister
Carl von Horn (1903–1989), Swedish general
Charles Edward Horn (1786-1849), English composer
Cody Horn (born 1988), American actress and model
Corran Horn, fictional character in Star Wars Legends
Dave van Horn (born 1960), American baseball coach
David Horn (1901–1969), British historian
Dimitris Horn (1921–1998), Greek actor
Don Horn (born 1945), American football quarterback
Evert Horn (1585-1615), Swedish soldier
Frederick W. Horn, American lawyer and politician
Frederik Winkel-Horn (1756–1837), Danish writer
Frederik Winkel Horn (1845–1898), Danish writer and translator
Gabriel Horn (1927–2012), British biologist
George Henry Horn (1840–1897), U.S. entomologist
Greg Horn, American comic book artist
Guildo Horn (born 1963), German singer
Gustav Horn, Count of Pori (1592–1657), Swedish/Finnish soldier and politician
Gyula Horn (1932–2013), Prime Minister of Hungary 1994–98
Hassa Horn Jr. (1873–1968), Norwegian engineer and industrialist
Jeff Horn, Australian boxer
Jeremy Horn (born 1975), American mixed martial artist
Jim Horn (born 1940), American musician
Joan Kelly Horn (born 1936), Missourian politician
Joe Horn (born 1972), American football player
Joseph M. Horn, American psychologist
Julian Horn-Smith, British businessman
Kaniehtiio Horn (born 1986), Canadian actress
Karl Friedrich Horn (1762-1830), English composer
Keith Van Horn (born 1975), American basketball player
Laurence R. Horn (born 1945), American linguist
Lawrence Horn (died 2017), American record producer
Marie-Louise Horn (1912–1991), German tennis player
Michael "J" Horn (born 1979), American musician and musical director
Michelle Horn (born 1987), American actress
Michiel Horn (born 1939), Canadian historian
Mike Horn (born 1966), Swiss explorer and adventurer
Milton Horn (1906–1995), Russian-American sculptor
Noel Van Horn (born 1968), American born Canadian comic book artist
Paul Horn (musician) (1930–2014), merican jazz flautist and saxophonist
Paul Horn (computer scientist) (born 1946), American computer scientist and solid state physicist
Philippe Emanuel de Hornes
Rebecca Horn (born 1944), German installation artist
Roni Horn (born 1955), American visual artist and writer
Roy Horn (born 1944), German-American entertainer
Rudolf Horn (born 1954), Austrian biathlete and cross-country skier
Sally P. Horn (born 1958), American geographer
Sam Horn (born 1963), American baseball player
Shifra Horn (born 1951), Israeli author
Shirley Horn (1934–2005), American jazz singer and musician
Siegbert Horn (1950–2016), East German slalom canoeist
Siegfried Horn (1908–1993), American archaeologist and Bible scholar
Steve Horn (1931–2011), university president and U.S. Congressman
Taylor Horn (born 1992), American singer
Ted Horn (1919–1948), American race car driver
Timo Horn (born 1993), German professional footballer
Tom Horn (1860–1903), American scout
Tor Egil Horn (born 1976), Norwegian footballer
Trevor Horn (born 1949), British musician
Wade Horn (born 1976), American psychologist
Walter Horn (1908–1995), German-born US academic
Walther Hermann Richard Horn (1871–1939), German entomologist
Welby Van Horn (1920–2014), American tennis player
Werner D. Horn, American politician
William Horn (1841–1922), Australian mining magnate, pastoralist, politician, author, sculptor and philanthropist
William Van Horn (born 1939), American comic book artistHungarian Socialist Party
The Hungarian Socialist Party (Hungarian: Magyar Szocialista Párt), known mostly by its acronym MSZP, is a social-democratic political party in Hungary.
It was founded on 7 October 1989 as a post-communist evolution and one of two legal successors of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party (MSZMP). Along with its conservative rival Fidesz, MSZP was one of the two most dominant parties in Hungarian politics until 2010; however, the party lost much of its popular support as a result of the Őszöd speech, the consequent 2006 protests, and then the 2008 financial crisis. Following the 2010 election, MSZP became the largest opposition party in parliament, a position it held until 2018, when it was overtaken by the far-right Jobbik.Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party
The Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party (Hungarian: Magyar Szocialista Munkáspárt, MSzMP) was the ruling Marxist–Leninist party of the Hungarian People's Republic between 1956 and 1989. It was organised from elements of the Hungarian Working People's Party during the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, with János Kádár as general secretary. The party also controlled its armed forces, the Hungarian People's Army.
Like all other Eastern Bloc parties, the MSzMP was organized on the basis of democratic centralism, a principle conceived by Vladimir Lenin that entails democratic and open discussion of issues within the party followed by the requirement of total unity in upholding the agreed policies. The highest body within the MSzMP was the party Congress, which convened every five years. When the Congress was not in session, the Central Committee of the MSzMP was the highest body. Because the Central Committee met twice a year, most day-to-day duties and responsibilities were vested in the Politburo. The party leader was the head of government and held the office of either General Secretary, Premier or head of state, or some of the three offices concurrently—but never all three at the same time. The party leader was the de facto chairman of the Politburo and chief executive of Hungary.Kim Lane Scheppele
Kim Lane Scheppele is the Laurance S. Rockefeller Professor of Sociology and International Affairs in the Woodrow Wilson School and in the University Center for Human Values at Princeton University. Scheppele joined the Princeton faculty in 2005, after nearly a decade as the John J. O'Brien Professor of Comparative Law and Professor of Sociology at the University of Pennsylvania Law School, where she is still a faculty fellow. Scheppele was at the University of Michigan from 1984 to 1996, and was an Arthur F. Thurnau Professor from 1993 until her departure for Penn. She received her PhD in sociology from the University of Chicago (1985) and her A.B. in urban studies from Barnard College (1975).
Scheppele is an expert on authoritarian regimes, as well as Hungarian politics and law.Scheppele worked in Hungary in the 1990s, during which she met Viktor Orbán. During the socialist-liberal coalition government of Gyula Horn, she was a researcher at the Constitutional Court and served as an expert advisor to the constitutional drafting committee of the Hungarian Parliament in 1995-1996. She was the founding Co-Director of the MA Program in Gender and Culture at Central European University, when the program was first accredited. She does not speak Hungarian.Now a leading critic of the right-wing Viktor Orbán government, she has called its actions as creating an "unconstitutional constitution,", and that Hungarian democracy is in jeopardy. She called Tünde Handó a "judicial Czar" whose role damaged the independence of the Hungarian judiciary. Scheppele also called a proposed constitutional rewrite in 2013 "a toxic waste dump of bad constitutional ideas", which prompted Fidesz MEP György Schöpflin to attack her claims on the basis of political animosity. In the name of the governing Fidesz party, Gergely Gulyás published an open letter to her, claiming that the reasons for her aversion towards the legislation of the Fidesz "are mostly personal and political." She worked together with Hungarian opposition parties to bring down the Orbán government.In 2013, she testified before the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, repeating her thesis, that Hungary is slenting towards an authoritarian and oligarchic regime.
December, 2017 in an interview in the Hungarian weekly, HVG, Scheppele stated that an opposition cooperation is needed to bring down the Orbán-regime in the 2018 Hungarian elections, but the leftist opposition parties are divided, and it is possible that the Fidesz-government blackmails some of the socialist politicians. The only party which could put an end to the Orbán regime is the Jobbik, and she expressed her disapproval of the government attacks on this party. In her understanding "the electoral system has been designed in a way that makes it impossible for the opposition parties to win unless they all unite". She described Viktor Orbán as a charismatic leader "who melts people's brain by focusing his attention on them."Also a critic of the Trump administration, Scheppele underlined that the markers of a falling democracy — "politicizing independent institutions, spreading disinformation, amassing executive power, quashing dissent, and corrupting elections—form a sort of authoritarian playbook, mirroring what scholars have observed in declining democracies around the world, in countries such as Hungary, Poland, Turkey, and Venezuela" (page 29) could also be found in the actions of president Donald Trump, and tried to "illuminate similarities in the hopes that we can recognize them early enough to prevent the United States from drifting any further down these roads"(page 37).Károly Grósz
Károly Grósz [ˈkaːroj ˈɡroːs] (August 1, 1930 – January 7, 1996) was a Hungarian communist politician, who served as the General Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party from 1988 to 1989.László Kovács (politician)
László Kovács (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈlaːsloː ˈkovaːt͡ʃ]; born 3 July 1939) is a Hungarian politician and diplomat, former European Commissioner for Taxation and Customs Union. He was the foreign minister of Hungary twice, from 1994 to 1998 and from 2002 to 2004. He also served as chairman of the Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP) from 1998 to 2004.László Pál
László Pál (5 September 1942 – 21 November 2017) was a Hungarian politician and electrical engineer, who served as Minister of Industry and Trade in the cabinet of Prime Minister Gyula Horn from 1994 to 1995. He was also a Member of Parliament for the Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP) from 1990 until his resignation in 1997. He was appointed CEO of the Hungarian Electrical Works Ltd. (MVM) in 2002.Pál died on 21 November 2017 after a long illness, aged 75.Péter Boross
Péter Boross (born 27 August 1928) is a Hungarian politician, former member of the Hungarian Democratic Forum (MDF), who served as Prime Minister of Hungary from December 1993 to July 1994. He assumed the position upon the death of his predecessor, József Antall, and held the office until his right-wing coalition was defeated in election by the Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP), which was led by his successor Gyula Horn. Prior to his premiership, Boross functioned as Minister of Civilian Intelligence Services (1990) and Minister of the Interior (1990–1993). He was also a Member of Parliament from 1994 to 1998 and from 2006 to 2009.Péter Várkonyi
Péter Várkonyi (3 April 1931 – 14 October 2008) was a Hungarian politician, who served as Minister of Foreign Affairs between 1983 and 1989. After that he was the ambassador to the United States until 1990.Péter Ákos Bod
Péter Ákos Bod (born 28 July 1951) is a Hungarian politician and economist, who served as Minister of Industry and Trade in the cabinet of József Antall from 1990 to 1991 then Governor of the Hungarian National Bank from 1991 to 1994, when he resigned under the pressure of the Socialist Gyula Horn cabinet. He was also a Member of Parliament for the Hungarian Democratic Forum (MDF) from 1990 until his resignation in 1991. In 1996, he joined the Hungarian Democratic People's Party (MDNP) and was elected to its leadership.Before the second round of the 2006 parliamentary election, when MDF made it clear that they would not support Viktor Orbán's Fidesz, Orbán tried to get their support by declaring that he withdrew from Prime Minister candidacy, and sought a compromise candidate, Péter Ákos Bod. However MDF maintains its position and Fidesz lost the election by the ruling left-wing coalition parties.His ancestor was Péter Bod (1712–1769), a Transylvanian Calvinist pastor, historian, "the greatest Hungarian scientist in the late-Baroque decades."Removal of Hungary's border fence with Austria
The removal of Hungary's border fence with Austria occurred in 1989 during the collapse of communism in Hungary, which was part of a broad wave of revolutions in various communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The dismantling of the electric fence along Hungary's 240 kilometres (149 mi) long border with Austria was the first fissure in the "Iron Curtain" that had divided Europe for more than 40 years, since the end of World War II, and caused a chain reaction in East Germany that ultimately resulted in the demise of the Berlin Wall.
|Revolution of 1848|
Italics indicates interim holder.
Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Hungary since 1848
|Revolution of 1848|
|Kingdom of Hungary|
|Republic of Hungary|
Recipients of the Charlemagne Prize
1 Received extraordinary prize.