A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools. In its current meaning, it usually refers to secondary schools focused on preparing students to enter a university for advanced academic study. Before the 20th century, the system of gymnasiums was a widespread feature of educational system throughout many countries of central, north, eastern and southern Europe.
The word "γυμνάσιον" (gymnasion) was first used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual education of young men. The latter meaning of a place of intellectual education persisted in many European languages (including Greek, German, Russian, the Nordic languages, Dutch and Polish), whereas in English and Spanish the former meaning of a place for physical education was retained instead, more familiarly in the shortened form gym.
The gymnasium is a secondary school which prepares the student for higher education at a university. They are thus meant for the more academically minded students, who are sifted out at about the age of 10–13. In addition to the usual curriculum, students of a gymnasium often study Latin and Ancient Greek.
Some gymnasiums provide general education, while others have a specific focus. (This also differs from country to country.) The four traditional branches are:
Curricula differ from school to school but generally include literature, mathematics, informatics, physics, chemistry, biology, geography, art (as well as crafts and design), music, history, philosophy, civics/citizenship,[note 1] social sciences, and several foreign languages.
Schools concentrate not only on academic subjects, but also on producing well-rounded individuals, so physical education and religion or ethics are compulsory, even in non-denominational schools which are prevalent. For example, the German constitution guarantees the separation of church and state, so although religion or ethics classes are compulsory, students may choose to study a specific religion or none at all.
Today, a number of other areas of specialization exist, such as gymnasiums specializing in economics, technology or domestic sciences. In some countries, there is a notion of progymnasium, which is equivalent to beginning classes of the full gymnasium, with the rights to continue education in a gymnasium. Here, the prefix pro- is equivalent to pre-, indicating that this curriculum precedes normal gymnasium studies.
In the German-speaking, Central, Nordic, Benelux (Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg) and Baltic European countries, this meaning for "gymnasium" (that is a secondary school preparing the student for higher education at a university) has been the same at least since the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century. The term was derived from the classical Greek word "γυμνάσιον" (gymnasion), which was originally applied to an exercising ground in ancient Athens. Here teachers gathered and gave instruction between the hours devoted to physical exercises and sports, and thus the term became associated with and came to mean an institution of learning.
This use of the term did not prevail among the Romans, but was revived during the Renaissance in Italy, and from there passed into the Netherlands and Germany during the 15th century. In 1538, Johannes Sturm founded at Strasbourg the school which became the model of the modern German gymnasium. In 1812, a Prussian regulation ordered all schools with the right to send their students to the university to bear the name of gymnasium. By the 20th century, this practice was followed in almost the entire Austrian-Hungarian, German, and Russian Empires. In the modern era, many countries which have gymnasiums were once part of these three empires.
In Albania a gymnasium (Albanian: Gjimnaz) education takes three years following a compulsory nine-year elementary education and ending with a final aptitude test called Albanian: Matura Shtetërore. The final test is standardized at the state level and serves as an entrance qualification for universities.
These can be either public (state-run, tuition-free) or private (fee-paying). The subjects taught are mathematics, Albanian language, one to three foreign languages, history, geography, computer science, the natural sciences (biology, chemistry, physics), history of art, music, philosophy, logic, physical education and the social sciences (sociology, ethics, psychology, politics and economy).
The gymnasium is generally viewed as a destination for the best performing students and as the type of school that serves primarily to prepare students for university, while other students go to technical/vocational schools. Therefore, gymnasiums often base their admittance criteria on an entrance exam, elementary school grades or some combination of the two.
In Austria the Gymnasium has two stages, from the age of 11 to 14, and from 15 to 18, concluding with Matura. Historically, three types existed. The Humanistisches Gymnasium focuses on Ancient Greek and Latin. The Neusprachliches Gymnasium puts its focus on actively spoken languages. The usual combination is English, French and Latin; sometimes French can be swapped with another foreign language (like Italian, Spanish or Russian). The Realgymnasium puts its focus on science. In the last couple of decades more autonomy was granted to schools and various types were developed, focusing on sports, music or economics, for example.
In the Czech Republic and Slovakia, gymnázium (also spelled gymnasium) is a type of school that provides secondary education. Gymnázium leads to the maturita exam. There are different types of gymnázium distinguished by the length of study. In the Czech Republic there is eight-year, six-year and four-year types, and in Slovakia there are eight-year and four-year types, of which the latter is most common. Additionally Slovakia has bilingual (usually Slovak/French or Slovak/English) and private gymnáziums.
Danish gymnasia provide secondary education of a duration of three years, and qualify, on graduation, for entry into a university. Compared to the somewhat equivalent A-levels in the UK, Danish gymnasia have more mandatory subjects. The subjects are divided into levels, where A-levels run through all three years, B-levels two years and C-levels one year (apart from PE which exists as a C-level lasting tree years). There are three types of Gymnasiums:
German gymnasiums are selective schools. They offer the most academically promising youngsters a quality education that is free in all state-run schools (and generally not above €50/month cost in Church-run schools, though there are some expensive private schools). Gymnasiums may expel students who academically underperform their classmates or behave in a way that is seen as unacceptable.
Historically, the German Gymnasium also included in its overall accelerated curriculum postsecondary education at college level and the degree awarded substituted for the bachelor's degree (Baccalaureat) previously awarded by a college or university so that universities in Germany became exclusively graduate schools. In the United States, the German Gymnasium curriculum was used at a number of prestigious universities, such as the University of Michigan, as a model for their undergraduate college programs.
Pupils study subjects like German, mathematics, physics, chemistry, geography, biology, arts, music, physical education, religion, history and civics/citizenship/social sciences[note 2] and computer science. They are also required to study at least two foreign languages. The usual combinations are English and French or English and Latin, although many schools make it possible to combine English with another language, most often Spanish, Ancient Greek, or Russian. Religious education classes are a part of the curricula of all German schools, yet not compulsory; a student or their parents or guardians can conscientiously object to taking them, in which case the student (along with those whose religion is not being taught in the school) is taught ethics. In state schools, a student who is not baptised into either the Catholic or Protestant faiths is allowed to choose which of these classes to take. The only exception to this is in the state of Berlin, where the subject ethics is mandatory for all students and (Christian) religious studies can only be chosen additionally. A similar situation is found in Brandenburg where the subject life skills, ethics, and religious education (Lebensgestaltung, Ethik, Religionskunde, LER) is the primary subject but parents/guardians or students older than 13 can choose to replace it with (Christian) religious studies or take both. The intention behind LER is that students should get an objective insight on questions of personal development and ethics as well as on the major world religions.
For younger students nearly the entire curriculum of a Gymnasium is compulsory; in higher grades elective subjects are available and some of the formerly compulsory subjects can be dropped, but the choice is not as wide as in other school systems, like US high schools.
Although some specialist Gymnasiums have English or French as the language of instruction, at most Gymnasiums lessons (apart from foreign language courses) are conducted in Standard German.
The number of years of instruction at a Gymnasium differs between the states. It varies between six and seven years in Berlin and Brandenburg (primary school is six years in both as opposed to four years in the rest of Germany) and eight in Bavaria, Hesse and Baden-Württemberg among others. While in Saxony and Thuringia students have never been taught more than eight years in Gymnasium (by default), nearly all states now conduct the Abitur examinations, which complete the Gymnasium education, after 12 years of primary school and Gymnasium combined. In addition, some states still or again offer a 13-year curriculum leading to the Abitur. These final examinations are centrally drafted and controlled (Zentralabitur) in all German states except for Rhineland-Palatinate and provide a qualification to attend any German university.
In Italy originally the Ginnasio indicated a typology of five-year junior high school (age 11 to 16) and preparing to the three year Classical Lyceum (age 16 to 19), a high school focusing on classical studies and humanities. After the school reform that unified the junior high school system, the term Ginnasio stayed to indicate the first two year of Liceo Classico, now five years long. An Italian high school student who enrolls in Liceo Classico follows this study path: Quarta Ginnasio (gymnasium fourth year, age 14), Quinta Ginnasio (gymnasium fifth year, age 15), Prima Liceo (lyceum first year, age 16), Seconda Liceo (lyceum second year, age 17) and Terza Liceo (lyceum third year, age 18). Some
believe this still has some sense, since the two-year Ginnasio has a very different set of mind from the Liceo. Ginnasio students spend most of their time studying Greek and Latin grammar, laying the bases for the "higher" and more complicated set of studies of the Liceo, such as Greek and Latin literature and Philosophy.
In the Netherlands, gymnasium is the highest variant of secondary education, offering the academically most promising youngsters (top 5%) a quality education that is in most cases free (and in other cases at low cost). It consists of six years, after 8 years (including kindergarten) of primary school, in which pupils study the same subjects as their German counterparts, with the addition of compulsory Ancient Greek, Latin and Klassieke Culturele Vorming (Classical Cultural Education), history of the Ancient Greek and Roman culture and literature. Schools have some freedom in choosing their specific curriculum, with for example Spanish, Philosophy and Technasium, a very technical and highly demanding course, being available as final exams. Usually schools will have all classes mandatory in switching combinations for the first three or so years (with the exception of Technasium which is a free choice from the second year onwards), after which students will choose their subjects in the directions of Economics and Society, Culture and Society, Nature and Health, Nature and Technology or Technology. The equivalent without classical languages is called Atheneum, and gives access to the same university studies (although some extra classes are needed when starting a degree in classical languages or theology). All are government-funded. See Voorbereidend wetenschappelijk onderwijs for the full article on Dutch "preparatory scientific education".
In Denmark, Estonia, the Faroe Islands, Finland, Greenland, Latvia, Norway and Sweden, gymnasium consists of three years, usually starting at the year the students turn 16 years old after nine or ten years of primary school. In Iceland and Lithuania the gymnasium usually consists of four years of schooling starting at the age of 15–16, the last year roughly corresponding to the first year of college.
In the Nordic countries, education is meant to be free. This includes not only primary school, but most gymnasiums and universities as well. Furthermore, to help decrease the heritage of historic social injustice, all countries except Iceland have universal grants for students. However, entrance is competitive and based on merit.
In Denmark, there are four kinds of gymnasiums: STX (Regular Examination Programme), HHX (Higher Business Examination Programme), HTX (Higher Technical Examination Programme) and HF (Higher Preparatory Examination Programme). HF is only two years, instead of the three required for STX, HHX, and HTX. All four type of gymnasiums theoretically gives the same eligibility for university. However, because of different subjects offered, students may be better qualified in an area of further study. E.g. HHX students have subjects that make them more eligible for studies such as business studies or economics at university. There is also EUX, which takes four years and ends with both the STX exam and status as a journeyman of a craft. 
In Sweden, there are two different kinds of branches of studies: the first branch focuses on giving a vocational education while the second branch focuses on giving preparation for higher education. While students from both branches can go on to study at a university, students of the vocational branch graduate with a degree within their attended program. There are 18 national programs, 12 vocational and 6 preparatory.
In the Faroe Islands, there are also four kinds of gymnasiums, which are equivalents to the Danish programmes: Studentaskúli (equivalent to STX), Handilsskúli (HHX), Tekniski skúli (HTX) and HF (HF). Studentaskúli and HF are usually located at the same institutions as can be seen in the name of the institute in Eysturoy: Studentaskúlin og HF-skeiðið í Eysturoy.
In Greenland, there is a single kind of gymnasium, Den Gymnasiale Uddannelse(Ilinniarnertuunngorniarneq), that replaced the earlier Greenlandic Secondary Education Programme (GU), the Greenland Higher Commercial Examination Programme (HHX) and the Greenland education to Higher Technical Examination Programme (HTX), which were based on the Danish system. This programme allows a more flexible Greenland gymnasium, where students based on a common foundation course can choose between different fields of study that meets the individual student's abilities and interests. The course is offered in Aasiaat, Nuuk, Sisimiut and Qaqortoq, with one in Ilulissat to be opened in 2015, latest in 2016 if approved by Inatsisartut.
In Finland, the admissions to gymnasiums are competitive, the accepted people comprising 51% of the age group. The gymnasiums concludes with the matriculation examination, an exam whose grades are the main criteria for university admissions.
In Switzerland, gymnasia (Gymnasien, gymnases) are selective schools that provide a three- or four-year course of advanced secondary education intended to prepare students to attend university. They conclude with a nationally standardized exam, the maturité or Maturität, often shortened to "Matura", which if passed allows students to attend a Swiss university. The gymnasia are operated by the cantons of Switzerland, and accordingly in many cantons they are called Kantonsschule (cantonal school).
In Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, Republic of Macedonia, Serbia, and Slovenia, a gymnasium education takes four years following a compulsory eight or nine-year elementary education and ending with a final aptitude test called Matura. In these countries the final test is standardized at the state level and can serve as an entrance qualification for universities.
There are both public (state-run and tuition-free) and private (fee-paying) gymnasium schools in these countries.
The subjects taught are mathematics, the native language, one to three foreign languages, history, geography, informatics (computers), the natural sciences (biology, chemistry, physics), history of art, music, philosophy, logic, physical education and the social sciences (sociology, ethics or religious education, psychology, politics and economy). Religious studies are optional. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, Serbia and Macedonia, Latin is also a mandatory subject in all gymnasiums, just as Ancient Greek is, with Latin, in a certain type of gymnasiums called Classical Gymnasiums (klasična gimnazija).
In all of the countries, the gymnasium (Gimnazija/Gjimnazi) is generally viewed as a destination for best-performing students and as the type of school that serves primarily to prepare students for university studies, while other students go to technical/vocational schools. Therefore, gymnasiums often base their admittance criteria on an entrance exam, elementary school grades or a combination of the two.
Depending on country, the final degree (if any) is called Abitur, Artium, Diploma, Matura, Maturita or Student and it usually opens the way to professional schools directly. However, these degrees are occasionally not fully accredited internationally, so students wanting to attend a foreign university often have to submit to further exams to be permitted access to them.
In countries like Austria, most university faculties only accept students from secondary schools that last four years (rather than three). This includes all Gymnasium students but only a part of vocational high schools, in effect making Gymnasium the preferred choice for all pupils aiming for university diplomas.
In Germany, other types of secondary school are called Realschule, Hauptschule and Gesamtschule. These are attended by about two thirds of the students and the first two are practically unknown in other parts of the world. A Gesamtschule largely corresponds to a British or American comprehensive school. However, it offers the same school-leaving certificates as the other three types—the Hauptschulabschluss (school-leaving certificate of a Hauptschule after 9th grade or in Berlin and North Rhine-Westphalia after 10th grade), the Realschulabschluss (also called Mittlere Reife, school-leaving certificate of a Realschule after 10th Grade) and Abitur (also called Hochschulreife, school-leaving certificate after 12th Grade). Students who graduate from Hauptschule or Realschule may continue their schooling at a vocational school until they have full job qualifications. It is also possible to get an erweiterter Realschulabschluss after 10th grade that allows the students to continue their education at the Oberstufe of a gymnasium and get an Abitur. There are two types of vocational school in Germany: the Berufsschule, a part-time vocational school and a part of Germany's dual education system, and the Berufsfachschule, a full-time vocational school outside the dual education system. Students who graduate from a vocational school and students who graduate with a good grade point average from a Realschule can continue their schooling at another type of German secondary school, the Fachhochschulreife, a vocational high school. The school leaving exam of this type of school, the Fachhochschulreife, enables the graduate to start studying at a Fachhochschule (polytechnic) and in Hesse also at a university within the state. Students who have graduated from vocational school and have been working in a job for at least three years can go to Berufsoberschule to get either a Fachabitur (meaning they may go to university, but they can only study the subjects belonging to the "branch" (economical, technical, social) they studied in at Berufschule) after one year, or the normal Abitur (after two years), which gives them complete access to universities.
Events from the year 1788 in Sweden1866 in Sweden
Events from the year 1866 in Sweden1898 in Sweden
Events from the year 1898 in SwedenAbendgymnasium
An Abendgymnasium or "Evening Gymnasium" is a German class of secondary school for adults over the age of 19 which allows them to gain the Abitur. Classes are usually held after 17:30 at night, although some classes may be held in the mornings for parents with school-age children. Lessons are taught in a similar fashion to those at a typical German Gymnasium and students will often remain at the school for 4 years before taking their final exams. Some institutions allow for online learning whereby students can complete the coursework for the Abitur at home and only need attend the school two nights a week. Tuition is typically free of charge for Germans at these schools.Aufbaugymnasium
The Aufbaugymnasium ("Structured Grammar School") is a school for mature students in Germany and Austria. It serves students who graduated from a Hauptschule or Realschule and are headed for the Abitur.
It is not to be confused with a traditional Gymnasium, which serves young students who have not graduated from another secondary school before.Betty Pettersson
Betty Maria Carolina Pettersson (Visby 14 September 1838–7 February Stockholm 1885), was a Swedish teacher. She became the first official female university student in Sweden in 1871. She was the first female student of Uppsala University, the first woman in Sweden to have graduated from a university, and the first woman to have been a teacher at a gymnasium.Collège Saint-Michel
Collège Saint-Michel (German: Kollegium St. Michael) is a Gymnasium school located in Fribourg, Switzerland. It was established in 1582 by the Jesuit order as a boys' school.Deutsch-Französische Gymnasium
There are three German-French international senior high schools known as Deutsch-Französische Gymnasium (DFG) or Lycée Franco-Allemand (LFA). They were established as a result of the 1963 Élysée Treaty between France and West Germany.In France:
DFG / LFA BucIn Germany:
DFG / LFA Freiburg
DFG LFA SaarbrückenDruga Gimnazija (Sarajevo)
Druga gimnazija Sarajevo is a Sarajevo gymnasium school in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Located in the center area of Sarajevo and has great connections with public transport. It enrolls approximately 200 boys and girls annually. Although most of the students are from Sarajevo, the school also attracts students from the region as well as children of international diplomats. The school's approximate number of students is 900. The school offers international and national study programmes.Gymnasium
Gymnasium may refer to:
Gymnasium (ancient Greece), educational and sporting institution
Gymnasium (school), type of secondary school that prepares students for higher education
Gymnasium UNT, high school of the National University of Tucumán, Argentina
Gymnasium (Russia); see Education in Russia
Gym, place for physical exercise
Gymnasium F.C., Douglas on the Isle of Man
"Gymnasium" (song), a 1984 song by Stephen CummingsGymnasium School No. 1 (Isfana)
Gymnasium School No. 1 (Kyrgyz: №1-гимназия; Russian: Гимназия №1) is a gymnasium and boarding school located in Isfana, Kyrgyzstan. The official name of the school is Gymnasium School No. 1 (Kyrgyz: №1-мектеп-гимназия; Russian: Школа-гимназия №1). Since the medium of instruction at Gymnasium School No. 1 is Kyrgyz, it is also colloquially called the Kyrgyz Gymnasium.
Education is free at Gymnasium School No. 1. Classes are offered for grades five through eleven. The school usually accepts more academically-inclined students. Some of the students, who mainly come from villages located in Leilek District, live in the school boarding house during the academic year. The current school building was completed in 1961.Karel Domin
Karel Domin (4 May 1882, Kutná Hora, Kingdom of Bohemia – 10 June 1953, Prague) was a Czech botanist and politician.
After gymnasium school studies in Příbram, he studied botany at the Charles University in Prague, and graduated in 1906. Between 1911 and 1913 he published several important articles on Australian taxonomy. In 1916 he was named as professor of botany. Domin specialised in phytogeography, geobotany and plant taxonomy. He became a member at the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, published many scientific works and founded a botany institute at the university. The Domin scale, a commonly used means of classifying a standard area by the number of plant species found in that area, is named after him.
In the academic year 1933-34 he was rector of Charles University and was one of the participants of a struggle for ancient academic insignia between the Czech and German universities of Prague (the insigniáda) that resulted in street-fights and looting. From 1935 to 1939 he was a member of parliament; after the Munich Agreement, he co-founded a traditionalist political movement (Akce národní obrody).
He is considered the man who is the most responsible the creation of Tatra National Park.National Library of Armenia
The National Library of Armenia (Armenian: Հայաստանի Ազգային Գրադարան (Hayastani Azgayin Gradaran)) is a national public library in Yerevan, Armenia. It was founded in 1832 as part of the state gymnasium-school of Yerevan. It is the official cultural deposit for the entire republic.
The current building of the library dating back to 1939, is on Teryan street of Kentron district. It was designed by architect Alexander Tamanyan to house around seven million books. Between 1925 and 1990, the library was named after Aleksandr Myasnikyan.
Currently, the library is home to a collection of 6.6 million books.Studentexamen
Studentexamen (Swedish for "students' examination" or "students' degree"), earlier also mogenhetsexamen ("maturity examination") was the name of the university entrance examination in Sweden from the 17th century until 1968, during the period 1862–1968 taken as a final written and oral exam on graduation from gymnasium (secondary school). In Finland the examination (Finnish: Ylioppilastutkinto) still exists (Finland parted from Sweden 1809).
The exam traces its origin to the academic statutes from 1655 requiring the dean to examine students arriving at university before allowing matriculation. According to the school reglement of 1693, a prospective student was to have gone through both a final examination at school and an entrance examination at university. The school reglement of 1724 allowed students without a final examination from school to enroll at university, provided a person known at the university would guarantee their behaviour, which led to it becoming common for students (called sponsionsstudenter or kautionsstudenter) from wealthy families to be matriculated at a very young age, accompanied by a private tutor. Although these were not actually supposed to be allowed to graduate, this rule was not always strictly upheld.
Attempts at a reform of the system led to the proposition in 1828 of the so-called Large Commission on Education, allowing students who had not completed a studentexamen to matriculate but disallowing them both from taking a degree or receiving any form of scholarship. The proposition also defined nine disciplines: Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Modern languages, Theology, Philosophy, Mathematics, History with Geography and Natural history, of which the prospective student had to have a grade of approbatur (Latin; in Swedish godkänd) in six and admittitur (a lower grade, in Swedish called försvarlig) in the three other to be allowed to enter university. These examinations were all oral, but a few years later, written examinations were introduced in Swedish and Latin.
In 1864, the studentexamen was moved from the universities to the secondary schools. It was thus changed from being primarily an entrance examination to academic studies to being a graduation diploma from the gymnasium or läroverk. In order to retain some academic control over the standard, a system was conceived where the Crown would appoint "censors" from the universities to take part in the examinations, and, if necessary, to fail a student passed by the teachers. The name of the examination was changed to mogenhetsprövning or mogenhetsexamen ("maturity examination"), and was known under this name until 1905, when the name studentexamen was restored.
With the new secondary school system (the gymnasieskola or "gymnasium school") introduced in 1968, the final examination or studentexamen was abolished, but the word is in colloquial use for the completion of secondary school, known as gymnasieexamen, based on grades from cumulative courses.The Piggott School
The Piggott School is a Church of England academy secondary school in Wargrave in Berkshire, England. The school has approximately 1,516 pupils and around 185 teaching staff. The school specialises in Modern Languages and Humanities. It has been awarded International school status by the British Council. The most recent inspection from ofsted achieved a rating of 'Good' in all categories except pupil behaviour which was given 'Outstanding'.The Piggott School has a long established exchange programme with the Ville Gymnasium School der Erftstadt, North Rhine, Westphalia, Germany and a more recent link with Wyndhams School in Boston, Massachusetts. It is a partner school of the EU organised Comenius project. The Piggott School is also the only church of England secondary school in the Reading, Twyford area. Many of its students come from Robert Piggott Junior in Wargrave and Colleton Primary School in Twyford. The Piggott School is one of the best performing secondary schools in the Wokingham District.Thomanerchor
The Thomanerchor (English: St. Thomas Choir of Leipzig) is a boys' choir in Leipzig, Germany. The choir was founded in 1212. At present, the choir consists of about 90 boys from 9 to 18 years of age. The members, called Thomaner, live in a boarding school, the Thomasalumnat, and attend the Thomasschule zu Leipzig, a Gymnasium school with a linguistic profile and a focus on musical education. The younger members attend the primary school 76. Grundschule in der Manetstraße. Johann Sebastian Bach served as Thomaskantor, director of the choir and church music in Leipzig, from 1723 to 1750.Tiraspol Math and Liberal Arts Gymnasium (School 6)
The Tiraspol Math and Liberal Arts Gymnasium (also known as School 6) is the oldest educational institution in Tiraspol, Transnistria.Wallinska skolan
Wallinska skolan (Wallin School) or Wallinska flickskolan (Wallin Girls' School), was a Swedish girls' school in Stockholm, active from 1831 until 1939. It was one of the first five schools in Sweden to offer serious academic education and secondary education to female students. In 1870, it became the first Gymnasium (school) for females in Sweden, and in 1874, it became the first girls' school permitted to administer the Studentexamen to females.Yizhar Shai
Yizhar Nitzan Shai (Hebrew: יזהר ניצן שי, born 16 July 1963) is an Israeli businessman and politician who currently serves as a member of the Knesset for the Blue and White alliance.
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