Gustavo Gutiérrez

Gustavo Gutiérrez Merino OP (born 8 June 1928) is a Peruvian philosopher, theologian, and Dominican priest regarded as one of the founders of liberation theology.[1] He currently holds the John Cardinal O'Hara Professorship of Theology at the University of Notre Dame, and has previously been a professor at the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru and a visiting professor at many major universities in North America and Europe.[2]

Gutiérrez is a member of the Peruvian Academy of Language, and a founder of Instituto Bartolomé de las Casas. In 1993, he was awarded the Legion of Honor by the French government for his tireless work. In 2002 Gutiérrez was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and in 2003 he received the Príncipe de Asturias award. In 2016, he received the Pacem in Terris Award from St. Ambrose University.[3]

Gustavo Gutiérrez

Gustavo gutierrez
Gutiérrez in 2007
Born8 June 1928 (age 90)
ResidenceUnited States
OccupationPriest, professor
EmployerUniversity of Notre Dame
Known forLiberation theology, preferential option for the poor
AwardsPacem in Terris Award, Príncipe de Asturias award, Legion of Honor, American Academy of Arts and Sciences

Early life and education

Gutiérrez was afflicted with osteomyelitis as an adolescent, and was frequently bed-ridden. He had to use a wheelchair from age 12 to 18.[4]

He began studying in the faculty of medicine of the National University of San Marcos in Peru in order to become a psychiatrist, then he realized he wanted to become a priest.[5] He completed his theological studies in the Theology Faculty of Leuven in Belgium and in Lyon in France, where he studied under Henri de Lubac, Yves Congar, Marie Dominique Chenu, Christian Ducoq, and several others.[6] It was also here where Gutiérrez was introduced to the Dominican and Jesuit ideologies, and was influenced by the work of Edward Schillebeeckx, Karl Rahner, Hans Küng, and Johann Baptist Metz.[7] His time in Europe influenced Gutiérrez to discuss the openness of the Church to the contemporary world. He was also influenced by Protestant theologians such as Karl Barth and social scientists such as François Perroux and his idea of development.[8][9] In 1959, Gutiérrez was ordained a priest.

Foundations of liberation theology

When he returned to Peru, Gutiérrez began to formulate his understanding of Latin American "reality" – the foundation and driving force of liberation theology.[10] He states: "I come from a continent in which more than 60% of the population lives in a state of poverty, and 82% of those find themselves in extreme poverty."[11] Gutiérrez focused his efforts on the rediscovery of love thy neighbor as the central axiom of Christian life.[12][13]

An outline of Gutiérrez's theological proposal was drafted in his conference "Towards a Theology of Liberation" during the Second Meeting of Priests and Laity in Chimbote, Peru, between 21 and 25 July 1968.[14] In this proposal, he cites on multiple occasions Vatican II's Gaudium et Spes and Paul VI's Populorum Progressio. To Gutiérrez, the source of the problems of Latin America was the sin manifested in an unjust social structure. His solution to this problem was to emphasize the dignity of the poor by prioritizing the glory of God present in them.[15] This perspective would be refined over the next five years, until Gutiérrez published A Theology of Liberation in 1973.

Liberation theology thus emerged as a biblical analysis of poverty. Gutiérrez distinguished two forms of poverty: a "scandalous state" and a "spiritual childhood." He noted that, while the former is abhorred by God, the second is valued. Gutiérrez identified that each form of poverty was present in Latin America, wherein one hungers for bread and for God. It is only through the manifestation of a committed faith that the purposes of God can be manifested to man, regardless of the color or social class under which he was born. Liberation theology insists on prioritizing the gift of life as the supreme manifestation of God.[16]

Option for the poor

Gutiérrez calls for understanding the reality of the poor. Being poor is not simply lacking the economic resources for development. On the contrary, Gutiérrez understands poverty as "a way of living, of thinking, of loving, of praying, of believing and waiting, of spending free time, of fighting for life." On the other hand, the Dominican emphasizes that poverty is the result of society. While many theologians oversimplify poverty's social roots, for Gutiérrez the origin of poverty is much more complex. In Latin America, it originates from the times of the conquest and to that is added several political, geographical, and personal factors.[17]

The proclamation of the gospel in the midst of the unjust situation in Latin America leads to a praxis based on principles derived from the word of God. In the article Theology and Poverty, Gutiérrez recalls that this option should lead to three well-defined actions. The preferential option for the poor unfolds as a fundamental axis of the Christian life on three levels:

  1. The announcement and testimony of the reign of God denounces poverty.
  2. The intelligence of faith reveals essential aspects of God and provides a perspective for theological work.
  3. Walking in the footsteps of Jesus, otherwise known as spirituality, is, on the deepest level, the basis on which everything else rests.

The main biblical foundation for this praxis lies in the kenotic incarnation of Christ. To Gutiérrez, the ministry of Christ among the rejected and despised of his time is a clear example for the contemporary Church. Furthermore, "the incarnation is an act of love. Christ becomes man, dies and rises to liberate us, and makes us enjoy freedom. To die and be resurrected with Christ is to overcome death and enter into a new life. The cross and the resurrection seal our freedom." The freedom of Christ is seen by Gutiérrez as the source of spiritual and economic freedom.[18]

Theological reflection on liberation is not just a simple discourse without practical and concrete implications. Reflection on the situation of the poor leads to what liberation theologians call "liberating praxis", where they attempt to rectify the process by which the faith of the Church builds the economic, spiritual and intellectual liberation of socially oppressed peoples as fulfillment of the kingdom of God. The liberating praxis, then, has its basis in the love that God manifests for us and in the sense of solidarity and fellowship that should exist in interpersonal relationships among the children of God. These are concepts that Gutierrez developed in concert with fellow theologian Paulo Freire, whose 1971 seminal work Pedagogy of the Oppressed explored the concept of praxis and a preferential option for the poor.[19][20]


Liberation theology originated as a call to all believers in Latin America to resume the biblical commitment to the poor. Gutiérrez's continuous message on the reality of this world serves as a rebuke to those who have forgotten this sphere of Christian love. Gutiérrez's thought has marked, consciously or unconsciously, all of Latin American theology. This influence can be observed from the evangelical proposal of the "integral mission" developed years after the origin of liberation,[21] to the development of social ministries within the evangelical churches in the last decades.[22]

Among his most prominent followers are Hugo Echegaray and Luis Felipe Zegarra Russo. His friends include the German theologian Gerhard Ludwig Müller, the former Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. On the subject of Gustavo Gutiérrez's thought, of which he was a student, Müller stated: "The theology of Gustavo Gutiérrez, how it is considered, is orthodox because it is orthopractic and teaches us the correct Christian way of acting, since it derives from authentic faith."[23] On Gutierrez's 90th birthday, in 2018, Pope Francis thanked him for his contributions "to the church and humanity through your theological service and your preferential love for the poor and discarded of society."[24] While Gutierrez's positions were never censored by the Church, he had been asked to modify some of his propositions.[25]

Selected works

  • On the Side of the Poor: The Theology of Liberation. Co-authored with Cardinal Gerhard Ludwig Müller. Orbis Books, 2015: ISBN 978-1626981157
  • In the Company of the Poor: conversations between Dr. Paul Farmer and Fr. Gustavo Gutierrez. Ed. Michael Griffin and Jennie Weiss Block. Orbis Books, 2013: ISBN 978-1626980501
  • Las Casas: In Search of the Poor of Jesus Christ, trans. Robert R. Barr (Maryknoll: Orbis, 1993). Originally published as En busca de los pobres de Jesucristo: El pensamiento de Bartolomé de las Casas (Lima: CEP, 1992).
  • The God of Life, trans. Matthew J. O'Connell (Maryknoll: Orbis, 1991). Originally published as El Dios de la vida (Lima: CEP, 1989).
  • On Job: God-Talk and the Suffering of the Innocent, trans. Matthew J. O'Connell (Maryknoll: Orbis, 1987). Originally published as Hablar de Dios desde el sufrimiento del inocente (Lima: CEP, 1986).
  • The Truth Shall Make You Free: Confrontations, trans. Matthew J. O'Connell (Maryknoll: Orbis, 1990). Originally published as La verdad los hará libres: Confrontaciones (Lima: CEP, 1986).
  • We Drink from Our Own Wells: The Spiritual Journey of a People, 20th anniversary ed., trans. Matthew J. O'Connell (Maryknoll: Orbis, 2003; 1st ed., Maryknoll: Orbis, 1984). Originally published as Beber en su propio pozo: En el itinerario espiritual de un pueblo (Lima: CEP, 1983).
  • A Theology of Liberation: History, Politics, and Salvation, 15th anniversary ed., trans. Caridad Inda and John Eagleson (Maryknoll: Orbis, 1988; 1st ed., Maryknoll: Orbis, 1973). Originally published as Teología de la liberación: Perspectivas (Lima: CEP, 1971).

See also


  1. ^ Cornell, George W. (6 August 1988). "Founder of liberation theology deals with acclaim and criticism". Lawrence Journal-World. Retrieved 1 September 2010.
  2. ^ "Gustavo Gutierrez, O.P." Department of Theology: People. University of Notre Dame. Retrieved 1 September 2010.
  3. ^ "Pacem in Terris Past Recipients". Catholic Diocese of Davenport. Retrieved 4 November 2016.
  4. ^ Hartnett, Daniel (3 February 2003). "Remembering the Poor: An Interview with Gustavo Gutiérrez". America Magazine. Retrieved 1 September 2010.
  5. ^ "Gustavo Gutierrez biography (spanish)". Gustavo Gutiérrez (1928). Steven Casadont. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
  6. ^ Botella Cubells, Vicente (8 de noviembre de 2011)). «Gustavo Gutiérrez, padre de la Teología de la Liberación». Facultad de Teología. Valencia.
  7. ^ Gutiérrez, Gustavo (2001) "Quehacer teológico y experiencia eclesial"; J.J.Tamayo y J.Bosch, eds., Panorama de la Teología Latinoamericana, Estella.
  8. ^ Gorringe, Timothy (12 August 1999), "Theology and Human Liberation", Karl Barth, Oxford University Press, pp. 268–290, doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198752462.003.0007, ISBN 9780198752462, retrieved 20 July 2018
  9. ^ Sagasti, Francisco R.; Alcalde, Gonzalo (1999). Development Cooperation in a Fractured Global Order: An Arduous Transition. IDRC. ISBN 9780889368897.
  10. ^ "Gustavo Gutierrez: Essential Writings"; Nickoloff, James. Fortress Press, 1996
  11. ^ Gutierrez, Gustavo (1991). "Juan de la Cruz desde America Latina". Retrieved 9 March 2015.
  12. ^ Hahnenberg, Edward P. (1 July 2010). Awakening Vocation: A Theology of Christian Call. Liturgical Press. ISBN 9780814657331.
  13. ^ "Gutiérrez highlights Pope's 'preferential option for the poor' // The Observer". The Observer. 26 September 2014. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
  14. ^ Gutiérrez, Gustavo (1968) "Hacia una teología de la liberación. Consultado el 23 de julio de 2014.
  15. ^ Botella Cubells, Vicente (8 de noviembre de 2011)). «Gustavo Gutiérrez, padre de la Teología de la Liberación». Facultad de Teología. Valencia.
  16. ^ "Gustavo Gutierrez and the preferential option for the poor". National Catholic Reporter. 8 November 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
  17. ^ Klaiber, Jeffery. "Prophets and Populists: Liberation Theology 1968-1988";Academy of American Franciscan History, 1989
  18. ^ Gutiérrez, Gustavo. Essential Writings. Fortress Press. p. 300. ISBN 9781451410242.
  19. ^ Smith, Christian."The Emergence of Liberation Theology". University of Chicago Press, 1989
  20. ^ Freire, Paulo; Macedo, Donaldo (1 September 2000). Pedagogy of the Oppressed, 30th Anniversary Edition. Translated by Ramos, Myra Bergman (30th Anniversary ed.). Continuum. ISBN 9780826412768.
  21. ^ "Latin America Consultation on Integral Mission | Micah Network". Retrieved 20 July 2018.
  22. ^ "Latin America — World Council of Churches". Retrieved 20 July 2018.
  23. ^ Vatican Insider: "Un teologo della liberazione al Santo Ufficio?" 15 October 2011
  24. ^ Arocho Esteves, Junno (7 June 2018), "Pope Francis wishes "father of liberation theology" happy birthday", America, retrieved 7 June 2018
  25. ^ Kirchgaessner, Stephanie; Watts, Jonathan (11 May 2015). "Catholic church warms to liberation theology as founder heads to Vatican". the Guardian. Retrieved 20 July 2018.

Further reading

  • Christian Smith (2002). "Las Casas as Theological Counteroffensive: An Interpretation of Gustavo Gutiérrez's Las Casas: In Search of the Poor of Jesus Christ". Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. 41: 69–73. doi:10.1111/1468-5906.00100.
  • Alexander Nava (2001). The Mystical and Prophetic Thought of Simone Weil and Gustavo Gutiérrez: Reflections on the Mystery and Hiddenness of God. SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-5177-1.
  • Robert McAffee Brown (1980). Gustavo Gutierrez: Makers of Contemporary Theology. John Knox. ISBN 0-8042-0651-1.

External links

1969 South American Championships in Athletics

The 1969 South American Championships in Athletics were held in Quito, Ecuador.

1971 South American Championships in Athletics

The 1971 South American Championships in Athletics were held in Lima, Peru between 9–17 October 1971.

2009 South American Championships in Athletics – Results

These are the official results of the 2009 South American Championships in Athletics which took place on 19–21 June 2009 in Lima, Peru.

Athletics at the 1970 Bolivarian Games

Athletics competitions at the 1970 Bolivarian Games were held at the Estadio Olímpico in Maracaibo, Venezuela, between August 25 - September 6, 1970.

A detailed history of the early editions of the Bolivarian Games between 1938

and 1989 was published in a book written (in Spanish) by José Gamarra

Zorrilla, former president of the Bolivian Olympic Committee, and first

president (1976-1982) of ODESUR. Gold medal winners from Ecuador were published by the Comité Olímpico Ecuatoriano.A total of 32 events were contested, 22 by men and 10 by women.

Carlos Castillo Mattasoglio

Carlos Gustavo Castillo Mattasoglio (born 28 February 1950) is Peruvian prelate of the Catholic Church whom Pope Francis named Archbishop of Lima on 25 January 2019.

Episcopal Conference of Latin America

The Latin American Episcopal Council (Spanish: Consejo Episcopal Latinoamericano), better known as CELAM, is a council of the Roman Catholic bishops of Latin America, created in 1955 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Based in Bogotá (Colombia), CELAM pushed the Second Vatican Council (1962–65) toward a more progressive stance. During the four next years, CELAM prepared 1968 Medellín Conference, in Colombia, officially supporting "base ecclesiastic communities" and the liberation theology propounded by Gustavo Gutiérrez in his 1972 essay, A Theology of Liberation: History, Politics and Salvation. In 1968, Bishop Samuel Ruiz of Chiapas, Mexico, was named president of the Department of Missions of CELAM.

Fencing at the 1952 Summer Olympics – Men's sabre

The men's sabre was one of seven fencing events on the fencing at the 1952 Summer Olympics programme. It was the twelfth appearance of the event. The competition was held from 31 July 1952 to 1 August 1952. 66 fencers from 26 nations competed.

Fencing at the 1952 Summer Olympics – Men's team sabre

The men's team sabre was one of seven fencing events on the fencing at the 1952 Summer Olympics programme. It was the ninth appearance of the event. The competition was held from 29 July 1952, to 30 July 1952. 85 fencers from 19 nations competed.

Fencing at the 1952 Summer Olympics – Men's épée

The men's épée was one of seven fencing events on the fencing at the 1952 Summer Olympics programme. It was the eleventh appearance of the event. The competition was held from 27 July 1952 to 28 July 1952. 76 fencers from 29 nations competed.

Governor of Quintana Roo

Governors of the Mexican state of Quintana Roo since statehood in 1975:

Governors of the Free and Sovereign State of Quintana RooNote: In 2001 Mario E. Villanueva was sentenced to prison due to corruption involving Mexican drug war during his time as governor, the length of his sentence has been extended multiple times as more of his past crimes emerged after his capture.

Note: In June 5, 2017; Roberto Borge was sentenced to prison due to corruption involving during his time as governor. He was the third ex-governor from the PRI, to be sentenced in 2017 following the captures of Tomas Yarrington (Tamaulipas) and Javier Duarte (Veracruz).Pre-statehood

Political Chiefs of the Federal Territory of Quintana Roo1902 – 1903: José María de la Vega

1903 – 1911: Ignacio A. Bravo

1911 – 1912: Manuel Sánchez Rivera

1912: Rafael Egealiz

1912 – 1913: Alfredo Cámara Vales

1913: Isidro Escobar Garrido

1913: Alfonso Carrera Carbó

1913: Víctor M. Morón

1913: Arturo Garcilazo Juárez

1913 – 1915: Annexed to Yucatán

1915 – 1916: Carlos Plank

1916 – 1917: Carlos A. VidalGovernors of the Federal Territory of Quintana Roo1917 – 1918: Carlos A. Vidal

1918 – 1921: Octaviano Solís Aguirre

1921: Pascual Coral Heredia

1921 – 1923: Librado Abitia

1923: Camilo E. Félix

1923 – 1924: Anastasio Rojas

1924: Librado Abitia

1924 – 1925: Enrique Barocio Barrios

1925: Amado Aguirre Santiago

1925: Enrique Barocio Barrios

1925 – 1926: Candelario Garza

1926: Malrubio de la Chapa

1926 – 1927: Antonio Ancona Albertos

1927 – 1930: José Siurob

1930 – 1931: Arturo Campillo Seyde

1931: J. Félix Bañuelos

1931 – 1935: Annexed to Yucatán and Campeche

1935 – 1940: Rafael E. Melgar

1940 – 1944: Gabriel R. Guevara

1944 – 1959: Margarito Ramírez

1959 – 1964: Aarón Merino Fernández

1965 – 1967: Rufo Figueroa Figueroa

1967 – 1970: Javier Rojo Gómez

1971 – 1974: David Gustavo Gutiérrez

Gustavo Gutiérrez (athlete)

Gustavo Gutiérrez (aka Papi Gusta) was born in Mulalillo, Ecuador on September 26, 1939. He began his training when he was fifteen years old.

Gustavo is a three-time winner of the biggest race in Ecuador, Quito Ultimas Noticias (El Circuito de los Barrios) in 1963, 1967, and again in 1968.

In 1967 he was named athlete of the year in Ecuador.

He was the first Ecuadorian athlete to qualify for the Olympics. In 1968 he represented Ecuador in the 1968 Summer Olympics, in Mexico City, competing in the marathon. See official results at, Athletics at the 1968 Summer Olympics – Men's marathon.

In 1969 he broke the South American record for the half marathon completing it in one hour, eight minutes, and fifteen seconds.

Twenty years after his third victory in the Quito Ultimas Noticias his daughter Pilar Gutierrez and grandson Iver Paredes ran in the 2008 Quito Ultimas Noticias. Papi Gusta ran the final five kilometers alongside his daughter.

Gustavo Gutiérrez (fencer)

Gustavo Gutiérrez (born 7 April 1933) is a Venezuelan fencer. He competed in five events at the 1952 Summer Olympics.

Jesús Martínez Ross

Jesús Martínez Ross (born 7 May 1934) is a Mexican politician belonging to the Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI).

From 1973 to 1975, he held a seat in the Chamber of Deputies, representing Quintana Roo's First District.

Between 1975 and 1981 he served as the first elected governor of Quintana Roo following statehood.

Liberation theology

Liberation theology is a synthesis of Christian theology and Marxist socio-economic analyses that emphasizes social concern for the poor and the political liberation for oppressed peoples. In the 1950s and the 1960s, liberation theology was the political praxis of Latin American theologians, such as Gustavo Gutiérrez of Peru, Leonardo Boff of Brazil, Juan Luis Segundo of Uruguay, and Jon Sobrino of Spain, who popularized the phrase "Preferential option for the poor".

The Latin American context also produced Evangelical advocates of liberation theology, such as C. René Padilla of Ecuador, Samuel Escobar of Peru, and Orlando E. Costas of Puerto Rico, who, in the 1970s, called for integral mission, emphasizing evangelism and social responsibility.

Theologies of liberation have developed in other parts of the world such as Black theology in the United States and South Africa, Palestinian liberation theology, Dalit theology in India, and Minjung theology in South Korea.

Objetivo Fama (season 3)

The third season of Objetivo Fama, the Puerto Rican singing talent contest, began on February 11, 2006. This season the judges are Roberto Sueiro, Hilda Ramos, and Fernando Allende. The show was hosted by Mexican singer Yuri.

Open water swimming at the 2015 World Aquatics Championships – Men's 5 km

The Men's 5 km competition of the open water swimming events at the 2015 World Aquatics Championships was held on 25 July 2015.

Pacem in Terris Award

The Pacem in Terris Peace and Freedom Award is a Catholic peace award which has been given annually since 1964, in commemoration of the 1963 encyclical letter Pacem in terris (Peace on Earth) of Pope John XXIII. It is awarded "to honor a person for their achievements in peace and justice, not only in their country but in the world."The award was begun in 1963 by the Davenport Catholic Interracial Council of the Diocese of Davenport in the U.S. state of Iowa. Since 1976, the award has been presented each year by the Quad Cities Pacem in Terris Coalition. In 2010, sponsors of the award were the Diocese of Davenport, St. Ambrose University, Augustana College, Churches United of the Quad-Cities, Pax Christi, The Catholic Messenger, the Congregation of the Humility of Mary, the Sisters of St. Benedict, the Muslim Community of the Quad Cities, and the Sisters of St. Francis.Six recipients have also received a Nobel Peace Prize.

Peru at the 2015 World Aquatics Championships

Peru competed at the 2015 World Aquatics Championships in Kazan, Russia from 24 July to 9 August 2015.

Venezuela at the 1952 Summer Olympics

Venezuela competed at the 1952 Summer Olympics held in Helsinki, Finland. 38 competitors, 36 men and 2 women, were selected by the Comité Olímpico Venezolano to take part in 37 events in 8 sports. For the first time, women took part in a Venezuelan representation in the Summer Olympics. These were the fencers Gerda Muller and Ursula Selle, both competing in individual foil. Women's were absent of Venezuelan representations in four occasions including next summer games held in Melbourne. The 1952 Games were considered a great step forward in sports in Venezuela since previous Venezuelan delegation was of only one athlete. Asnoldo Devonish won the nation's first ever Olympic medal and to date only Olympic Medallist in Athletics.


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