Guru Nanak ([ˈɡʊɾu ˈnɑnək], pronunciation, IAST: Gurū Nānak) (29 November 1469 – 22 September 1539) was the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Sikh Gurus. His birth is celebrated worldwide as Guru Nanak Gurpurab on Kartik Pooranmashi, the full-moon day in the month of Katak, October–November.
Guru Nanak travelled far and wide teaching people the message of one God who dwells in every one of His creations and constitutes the eternal Truth. He set up a unique spiritual, social, and political platform based on equality, fraternal love, goodness, and virtue.
Guru Nanak's words are registered in the form of 974 poetic hymns in the holy text of Sikhism, the Guru Granth Sahib, with some of the major prayers being the Japji Sahib, the Asa di Var and the Sidh-Ghost. It is part of Sikh religious belief that the spirit of Guru Nanak's sanctity, divinity and religious authority descended upon each of the nine subsequent Gurus when the Guruship was devolved on to them.
Guru Nanak with Bhai Bala and Bhai Mardana and Sikh Gurus
29 November 1469
|Died||22 September 1539 (aged 69)|
|Resting place||Gurdwara Darbar Sahib Kartar Pur, Kartarpur, Pakistan|
|Parents||Mehta Kalu and Mata Tripta|
|Known for||Founder of Sikhism|
Guru Nanak was born on 29 November 1469 at Rāi Bhoi Kī Talvaṇḍī (present day Nankana Sahib, Punjab, Pakistan) near Lahore. His parents were Kalyan Chand Das Bedi, popularly shortened to Mehta Kalu, and Mata Tripta. His father was the local patwari (accountant) for crop revenue in the village of Talwandi. His parents were both Hindu Khatris and employed as merchants.
He had one sister, Bebe Nanaki, who was five years older than he was. In 1475 she married and moved to Sultanpur. Guru Nanak was attached to his sister and followed her to Sultanpur to live with her and her husband, Jai Ram. At the age of around 16 years, Nanak started working under Daulat Khan Lodi, employer of Nanaki's husband. This was a formative time for Nanak, as the Puratan (traditional) Janam Sakhi suggests, and in his numerous allusions to governmental structure in his hymns, most likely gained at this time.
According to Sikh traditions, the birth and early years of Guru Nanak's life were marked with many events that demonstrated that Nanak had been marked by divine grace. Commentaries on his life give details of his blossoming awareness from a young age. At the age of five, Nanak is said to have voiced interest in divine subjects. At age seven, his father enrolled him at the village school as was the custom. Notable lore recounts that as a child Nanak astonished his teacher by describing the implicit symbolism of the first letter of the alphabet, resembling the mathematical version of one, as denoting the unity or oneness of God. Other childhood accounts refer to strange and miraculous events about Nanak, such as one witnessed by Rai Bular, in which the sleeping child's head was shaded from the harsh sunlight, in one account, by the stationary shadow of a tree or, in another, by a venomous cobra.
On 24 September 1487 Nanak married Mata Sulakkhani, daughter of Mūl Chand and Chando Rāṇī, in the town of Batala. The couple had two sons, Sri Chand (8 September 1494 – 13 January 1629) and Lakhmi Chand (12 February 1497 – 9 April 1555). Sri Chand received enlightenment from Guru Nanak's teachings and went on to become the founder of the Udasi sect.
The earliest biographical sources on Nanak's life recognised today are the Janamsākhīs (life accounts). Bhai Gurdas, a scribe of the Gurū Granth Sahib, also wrote about Nanak's life in his vārs. Although these too were compiled some time after Nanak's time, they are less detailed than the Janamsākhīs. The Janamsākhīs recount in minute detail the circumstances of the birth of the guru.
Gyan-ratanavali is attributed to Bhai Mani Singh who wrote it with the express intention of correcting heretical accounts of Guru Nanak. Bhai Mani Singh was a disciple of Guru Gobind Singh who was approached by some Sikhs with a request that he should prepare an authentic account of Guru Nanak’s life.
One popular Janamsākhī was allegedly written by a close companion of the Guru, Bhai Bala. However, the writing style and language employed have left scholars, such as Max Arthur Macauliffe, certain that they were composed after his death. According to the scholars, there are good reasons to doubt the claim that the author was a close companion of Guru Nanak and accompanied him on many of his travels.
Nanak was a Guru (teacher), and founded Sikhism during the 15th century. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, unity of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life.
The Guru Granth Sahib is worshipped as the Supreme Authority of Sikhism and is considered the eleventh and final guru of Sikhism. As the first guru of Sikhism, Guru Nanak contributed a total of 974 hymns to the book.
There are two competing theories on Guru Nanak's teachings. One, according to Cole and Sambhi, is based on hagiographical Janamsakhis, and states that Nanak's teachings and Sikhism were a revelation from God, and not a social protest movement nor any attempt to reconcile Hinduism and Islam in the 15th century. The other states, Nanak was a Guru. According to Singha, "Sikhism does not subscribe to the theory of incarnation or the concept of prophethood. But it has a pivotal concept of Guru. He is not an incarnation of God, not even a prophet. He is an illumined soul."
The hagiographical Janamsakhis were not written by Nanak, but by later followers without regard for historical accuracy, and contain numerous legends and myths created to show respect for Nanak. The term revelation, clarify Cole and Sambhi, in Sikhism is not limited to the teachings of Nanak, they include all Sikh Gurus, as well as the words of past, present and future men and women, who possess divine knowledge intuitively through meditation. The Sikh revelations include the words of non-Sikh bhagats, some who lived and died before the birth of Nanak, and whose teachings are part of the Sikh scriptures. The Adi Granth and successive Sikh Gurus repeatedly emphasised, states Mandair, that Sikhism is "not about hearing voices from God, but it is about changing the nature of the human mind, and anyone can achieve direct experience and spiritual perfection at any time". Guru Nanak emphasised that all human beings can have direct access to God without rituals or priests.
The concept of man as elaborated by Guru Nanak, states Arvind-pal Singh Mandair, refines and negates the "monotheistic concept of self/God", and "monotheism becomes almost redundant in the movement and crossings of love". The goal of man, taught the Sikh Gurus, is to end all dualities of "self and other, I and not-I", attain the "attendant balance of separation-fusion, self-other, action-inaction, attachment-detachment, in the course of daily life".
Guru Nanak, and other Sikh Gurus emphasised Bhakti, and taught that the spiritual life and secular householder life are intertwined. In Sikh worldview, the everyday world is part of the Infinite Reality, increased spiritual awareness leads to increased and vibrant participation in the everyday world. Guru Nanak, states Sonali Marwaha, described living an "active, creative, and practical life" of "truthfulness, fidelity, self-control and purity" as being higher than the metaphysical truth.
Through popular tradition, Nanak’s teaching is understood to be practised in three ways:
Nanak was raised in a Hindu family and belonged to the Bhakti Sant tradition. Scholars state that in its origins, Guru Nanak and Sikhism were influenced by the nirguni (formless God) tradition of Bhakti movement in medieval India. However, Sikhism was not simply an extension of the Bhakti movement. Sikhism, for instance, disagreed with some views of Bhakti saints Kabir and Ravidas.
The roots of the Sikh tradition are, states Louis Fenech, perhaps in the Sant-tradition of India whose ideology grew to become the Bhakti tradition. Furthermore, adds Fenech, "Indic mythology permeates the Sikh sacred canon, the Guru Granth Sahib and the secondary canon, the Dasam Granth and adds delicate nuance and substance to the sacred symbolic universe of the Sikhs of today and of their past ancestors".
Guru Nanak travelled extensively during his lifetime. Some modern accounts state that he visited Tibet, most of South Asia and Arabia starting in 1496, at age 27, when he left his family for a thirty-year period. These claims include Guru Nanak visiting the Mount Sumeru of Indian mythology, as well as Mecca, Baghdad, Achal Batala and Multan, in these places he debated religious ideas with competing groups. These stories became widely popular in the 19th and 20th century, and exist in many versions.
The hagiographic details is a subject of dispute, with modern scholarship questioning the details and authenticity of many claims. For example, Callewaert and Snell state that early Sikh texts do not contain these stories, and after these travel stories first appear in hagiographic accounts of Guru Nanak centuries after his death, they continue to become more sophisticated over time, with the late phase Puratan version describing four missionary journeys (udasis), which however differs from the Miharban version. Some of the stories about Guru Nanak's extensive travels first appear in the 19th-century versions of janam-sakhi in the Puratan version. Further, stories about Guru Nanak's travel to Baghdad is absent from even the early 19th-century Puratan version. These embellishments and insertion of new stories, according to Callewaert and Snell, closely parallel claims of miracles by Islamic pirs found in Sufi tazkiras of the same era, and these legends may have been written in a competition.
Another source of dispute has been the Baghdad stone inscription in a Turkish script, which some interpret saying Baba Nanak Fakir was there in 1511-1512, other interpret it stating 1521-1522 (and that he lived in the Middle East for 11 years away from his family), while others particularly Western scholars stating that the stone inscription is from the 19th century and the stone is not a reliable evidence that Guru Nanak visited Baghdad in early 16th century. Further, beyond the stone, no evidence or mention of Guru Nanak's journey in the Middle East has been found in any other Middle Eastern textual or epigraphical records. Claims have been asserted of additional inscriptions, but no one has been able to locate and verify them. The Baghdad inscription remains the basis of writing by Indian scholars that Guru Nanak journeyed in the Middle East, with some claiming he visited Jerusalem, Mecca, Vatican, Azerbaijan and Sudan.
Novel claims about his travels, as well as claims such as Guru Nanak's body vanishing after his death, are also found in later versions and these are similar to the miracle stories in Sufi literature about their pirs. Other direct and indirect borrowings in the Sikh janam-sakhis relating to legends around Guru Nanak's journeys are from Hindu epics and Puranas and Buddhist Jataka stories.
Guru Nanak appointed Bhai Lehna as the successor Guru, renaming him as Guru Angad, meaning "one’s very own" or "part of you". Shortly after proclaiming Bhai Lehna as his successor, Guru Nanak died on 22 September 1539 in Kartarpur, at the age of 70.
| Sikh Guru
20 August 1507 – 7 September 1539
Gurdip Singh Randhawa (unknown - 29 August 2015) was an Indian academic who served as Vice-Chancellor of Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar and as Principal of Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Khalsa College, Delhi. He received Padma Bhushan, the third-highest civilian award of India, in 2009 in science and engineering.Randhawa was professor of English Literature at Khalsa College and also served as the Principal of the college from 1971 to 1988. He later chaired the position of Vice-Chancellor of Guru Nanak Dev University from 1989 to 1997 serving for almost three tenures. He was known for initiating various infrastructural changes in the university and also for starting the maximum number of academic programmes.He died on 29th August 2015 at Chandigarh at the age of 90.Guru Angad
Guru Angad was the second of the ten Sikh gurus. He was born in a Hindu family, with the birth name as Lehna, in the village of Harike (now Sarae Naga, near Muktsar) in northwest Indian subcontinent. Bhai Lehna grew up in a Khatri family, his father was a small scale trader, he himself worked as a pujari (priest) and religious teacher centered around goddess Durga. He met Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism, and became a Sikh. He served and worked with Guru Nanak for many years. Guru Nanak gave Bhai Lehna the name Angad ("my own limb), chose Angad as the second Sikh Guru instead of his own sons.After the death of Guru Nanak in 1539, Guru Angad led the Sikh tradition. He is remembered in Sikhism for adopting and formalizing the Gurmukhi alphabet from pre-existing Indo-European scripts such as the Tankre of the Himalayan region. He began the process of collecting the hymns of Nanak, contributed 62 or 63 hymns of his own. Instead of his own son, he chose a Vaishnava Hindu Amar Das as his successor and the third Guru of Sikhism.Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College is an engineering institution situated at Gill Park, Ludhiana, Punjab, India. It is one of the oldest engineering institutions in the northern region, established in 1956. Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College was established by the Nankana Sahib Education Trust.Guru Nanak Dev University
Guru Nanak Dev University (G.N.D.U.) was established at Amritsar, Punjab, India on 24 November 1969 to commemorate Guru Nanak Dev's birth quincentenary celebrations. Guru Nanak Dev University campus is spread over 500 acres (2 km²) near village of Kot Khalsa, nearly 8 km west of the Amritsar, next to Khalsa College, Amritsar. G.N.D.U. is both a residential and an affiliating university. In conceiving its future course, the objectives enshrined in the Act 1969 emphasized that the new university would make provision for imparting education and promoting research in the humanities, learned professions, sciences, especially of applied nature and technology. Studies and research on the life and teachings of Guru Nanak, in addition to working towards the promotion of Punjabi language and spreading education among educationally backward classes and communities were the other commitments.Guru Nanak English School, Varanasi
Guru Nanak English School is situated on NH-56 at Shivpur, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh 221003, India. It is affiliated to CBSE New Delhi and educates Kindergarten to class 10+2.
The school was established in 1990 and is managed by Managing Committee of Guru Nanak English School, Varanasi.Guru Nanak Gurpurab
Guru Nanak Gurpurab, also known as Guru Nanak's Prakash Utsav and Guru Nanak Jayanti, celebrates the birth of the first Sikh Guru and Sindhi Community in Guru Guru Nanak. This is one of the most sacred festivals in Sikhism, or Sikhi and Sindhis.The festivities in the Sikh religion revolve around the anniversaries of the 10 Sikh Gurus.These Gurus were responsible for shaping the beliefs of the Sikhs and Sindhi Hindus. Their birthdays, known as Gurpurab, are occasions for celebration and prayer among the Sikhs and Sindhi.
Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism, was born on Puranmashi of Kattak |1469|} Kattak 1526 Bikrami) in Rai-Bhoi-di Talwandi in the present Shekhupura District of Pakistan, now Nankana Sahib. It is a Gazetted holiday in India.
According to the controversial Bhai Bala Janamsakhi, it claims Guru Nanak was born on the Full Moon (Pooranmashi) of the Indian Lunar Month Katik. The Sikhs have been celebrating Guru Nanak's Gurpurab around November for this reason and has it been ingrained in Sikh and Sindhi Traditions.However, some scholars and organizations believe the Birthday should be celebrated on Vaisakhi, which falls on April 14 according to the original Nanakshahi Calendar passed by Sri Akal Takht in 2003. However, many people and organizations would like to keep the traditional date by celebrating on the Full Moon Day (Pooranmashi or Purnima) of the Lunar Month Kartik. The original Nanakshahi Calendar follows the tradition and celebrates it on Kartik Purnima due to demands by various Sikh Saints.Guru Nanak Institute of Technology
Guru Nanak Institute of Technology (GNIT) is a private engineering institution established by JIS Group in 2003, located in in Panihati, Sodpur, a suburb of Kolkata in the state of West Bengal, India. The college is an AICTE-approved institution and is affiliated to West Bengal University of Technology.. The college in accredited by NAAC with overall institutional CGPA of 2.54Guru Nanak Nishkam Sevak Jatha
The Gurdwara Sahib was built in the late 1970s under the spiritual guidance of Puran Singh (d. 1983) and the leadership of Norang Singh (d. 1995). The Spiritual leadership of the jatha is now continued through the vision of Mohinder Singh.
The gurdwara spans an area of about 25,000 square meters and the building is four stories high. There are five main Darbar Halls and three Langar Halls. There are approximately 100 rooms, most of which are for the sangat who want to stay at the Gurdwara for the night and have facilities for sleeping and washing.
The main Darbar is used for continuous Akhand Path recital. A new Paath is started on Monday, Wednesday and Friday mornings, unless a Samagam "community meeting" is under way.
At Samagam programs, there is Sampat Paath recitation of a shabda: each line of the gurbani is followed by a sampat. Sampath Paath usually takes eleven days of continuous reading.Guru Nanak Stadium
Guru Nanak Stadium is a football stadium in Ludhiana, India. It hosted the opening and closing ceremonies of the 2001 National Games of India. It also hosted JCT FC of the I-League. It has seating capacity of 15,000 spectators. There is a provision of 8 lane synthetic track with a two lane warming up track. The track conforms to international standards for conduct of any national or international meet. It has a well maintained football ground which hosts the Annual National Football League matches.Japji Sahib
Jap ji is a prayer at the beginning of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib, considered the holy scripture of Sikhs. It was composed by Guru Nanak Dev Ji, the first Guru in the line of ten Sikh Gurus.
Jap ji begins with Mool Mantra and is followed by 38 pauris (stanzas) and ends with a final Salok at the end of this composition.Jap ji is believed to be the first composition of Guru Nanak, and is now considered the comprehensive essence of Sikh faith. It is regarded amongst the most important Bani or 'set of verses' by the Sikhs, as it is the first Bani in Nitnem.
Notable is Nanak's discourse on 'what is true worship' and what is the nature of God'. In Jap ji it is stated that God is indescribable; the only true form of worship is worship of Nam (inner Word, Sound, Power), realization of God, and to remain always in the Holy Will of that loving God, accomplished with the grace of the True Guru.Related to Jap ji is the Jaapu Sahib (Punjabi: :ਜਾਪੁ), the latter is found at the start of Dasam Granth and was composed by Guru Gobind Singh.Japji is chanted in the Sikh tradition at the initiation ceremony and during the cremation ceremony.Labasa
Labasa (pronounced [lamˈbasa]) is a town in Fiji with a population of 27,949 at the most recent census held in 2007.
Labasa is located in Macuata Province, in the north-eastern part of the island of Vanua Levu, and is the largest town on the island. The town itself is located on a delta formed by three rivers – the Wailevu, the Labasa (after which the town is named), and the Qawa. The latter two are connected by an 8-kilometre canal. The main street of Labasa prides itself for having the first set of traffic lights in the entire island.List of gurdwaras
A gurdwara (Punjabi: ਗੁਰਦੁਆਰਾ, gurdu'ārā or ਗੁਰਦਵਾਰਾ, gurdvārā, meaning "the doorway to the Guru") is the Sikh place of worship and may be referred to as a Sikh temple.Nanakshahi calendar
The Nanakshahi (Punjabi: ਨਾਨਕਸ਼ਾਹੀ, nānakashāhī) calendar is a tropical solar calendar which is used in Sikhism and is based on the 'Barah Maha' (Punjabi: ਬਾਰਹ ਮਾਹਾ). Barah Maha was composed by the Sikh Gurus and translates as the "Twelve Months". It is a poem reflecting the changes in nature which are conveyed in the twelve-month cycle of the Year. The year begins with the month of Chet, with 1 Chet corresponding to 14 March. The first year of the Nanakshahi Calendar starts in 1469 CE: the year of the birth of Guru Nanak Dev.Nankana Sahib
Nankana Sahib (Urdu and Punjabi: ننكانہ صاحِب) is a city and capital of Nankana Sahib District in the Punjab province of Pakistan. It is named after the first Guru of the Sikhs, Guru Nanak, who was born in the city and first began preaching here. Today it is a city of high historic and religious value and a popular pilgrimage site for Sikhs from all over the world. It is located about 91 km (57 mi) west of Lahore and about 75 km (47 mi) east of Faisalabad. The city has a population of approximately 70,000.Nankana Sahib District
Nankana Sahib District (Punjabi and Urdu: ضِلع ننكانہ صاحِب) is a district in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Nankana Sahib is the seat of the district government, and Shahkot is the largest urban center. The district of Nankana Sahib is located about 75 kilometres (47 mi) west of Lahore and about 55 kilometres (34 mi) east of Faisalabad.
According to the 1998 census results, the most widely spoken first language in the Nankana Sahib Tehsil was Punjabi, accounting for 98.6% of the population, while Urdu was the native language of 0.41%. According 2017 census, total district population is 1,356,774 of which 1,110,321 residing in rural area and 246,053 in urban area.Outline of Sikhism
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Sikhism:
Sikhism – monotheistic religion founded in the fifteenth century upon the teachings of Guru Nanak and ten succeeding Gurus (the last one being the sacred text Guru Granth Sahib), emphasizing universal, selfless love and brotherhood. "Only those who selflessly love everyone, they alone shall find God". Guru Granth Sahib teaches the humans how to unite with the all cosmic soul, with the creator. It is the fifth-largest organized religion in the world and one of the fastest-growing.Sikhism in Iraq
Sikhism in Iraq does not have a permanent population, but has a historical presence because of travels by Guru Nanak and Sikh soldiers stationed in Iraq during World War I and World War II.It is likely that some Sikhs may be still be in Iraq but their numbers may be very small.Sri Guru Nanak Dev Khalsa College
Sri Guru Nanak Dev Khalsa College is a constituent college of University of Delhi which offers courses in Commerce and Humanities at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The College was established in 1973 and is named after first Guru of the Sikhs and functions under the able management of Delhi Sikh Gurudwara Management Committee. The college has been granted minority status by the National Commission for Minority Education institutions. The College is located in Guru Ravi Das Marg, Block 4, Dev Nagar, Karol Bagh, New Delhi, Delhi 110005.
Previously, it was known as Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Khalsa College (Evening).Sultanpur Lodhi
Sultanpur Lodhi is a city and a Municipal Council in Kapurthala district in the Indian state of Punjab. The town is named after its founder, Sultan Khan Lodhi, who was a general of Mahmud of Ghazni in 1103 AD, which has been also mentioned in Ain-e-Akbari. Sultanpur Lodhi is located on the south bank of a seasonal rivulet called Kali Bein, which runs 6 miles (9.7 km) north of the intersection of Beas and Sutlej Rivers, two of the Five Rivers of Punjab. The word Punj - ab, literally means five river - land.
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