Gurilynia is a genus of enantiornithine birds.[1] One species is known, G. nessovi. It lived during the Maastrichtian stage of the Late Cretaceous period, between 70 and 66 mya.[2] Gurilynia is known from fragmentary fossils found at the Gurilyn Tsav locality of the Nemegt Formation in south Gobi, Mongolia.

The fossil material includes three partial bones. The holotype is the proximal end of a right humerus, catalog number PIN 4499-12. A paratype is the distal end of a left humerus, catalog number PIN 4499-14. The last paratype is the shoulder end of a left coracoid, catalog number PIN 4499-13. All three fossils are in the collection of the Paleontological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The material is depicted in the journal with both photographs and illustrations. The humeral head is around 29mm wide. The largest enantiornithine from the Early Cretaceous is Pengornis, with a humeral head width of (17mm).[3]

Kurochkin also mentions that "The additional distal portions of the ulna, radius, and carpometacarpus from the same beds also very probably belong to the Enantiornithes." This passage may describe PIN 4499-1, which was later assigned to Teviornis. Kurochkin also adds that G. nessovi demonstrates that there were large Enantiornithids in Central Asia as well as the Americas at the end of the Cretaceous.[1]

Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 70–66 Ma
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Enantiornithes
Genus: Gurilynia
Kurochkin, 1999
G. nessovi
Binomial name
Gurilynia nessovi
Kurochkin, 1999


  1. ^ a b Kurochkin, E.N. (1999) "A new large enantiornithid from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia." In I. Darevskii and A. Averianov (editors), "Materials on the History of Fauna of Eurasia. Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint-Petersburg" 277: 132–147. QL1 .A4253 v.277 1999[in Russian]
  2. ^ Clarke, Julia A., Norell, Mark A. (2004) "New Avialan Remains and a Review of the Late Cretaceous Nemegt Formation of Mongolia" "American Museum Novitates" Number 3447, 12pp. June 2, 2004
  3. ^ "Insight into diversity, body size and morphological evolution from the largest Early Cretaceous enantiornithine bird" Zhonghe Zhou, Julia Clarke, Fucheng Zhang "Journal of Anatomy" (2008) 212, pp565–577. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7580.2008.00880.x

Abavornis is the name given to a genus of primitive birds from the Late Cretaceous, containing the single species A. bonaparti (named in honor of the Argentine paleontologist José Bonaparte). It was probably a member of the Enantiornithes, but as it is only known from a single broken coracoid (TsNIGRI 56/11915), which, however, looks typically enantiornithine, that assignment is tentative. The fossil is from Late Cretaceous Bissekty Formation (Coniacian, 89–86 MYA) in the Kyzylkum, Uzbekistan. Another partial coracoid (PO 4605) is very similar and is referred to as Abavornis sp.; it might belong to A. bonaparti and if so show some features which are damaged in the holotype.


Catenoleimus is a prehistoric bird genus from the Late Cretaceous. It lived during the mid-late Turonian stage, around 90 million years ago. A single species Catenoleimus anachoretus has been described, and this is only known from one piece of coracoid (specimen PO 4606), found in the Bissekty Formation of the Kyzyl Kum in present-day Uzbekistan.This bird appears to be a mid-sized enantiornithine, perhaps 20–25 cm long in life. The morphology of the bone is rather plesiomorphic compared to contemporary Enantiornithes.


Dapingfangornis was an enantiornithine bird. It lived during the Early Cretaceous and is known from fossils—including a complete skeleton—found in the Jiufotang Formation in Liaoning province, People's Republic of China. Small to medium-sized, it had a sternum with both long and short lateral processes, and a unique thorn-like process on its nares.


Enantiophoenix is a genus of enantiornithine birds. Fossil remains were recovered from Lebanon. Lumps of amber preserved with one specimen indicate it may have fed on tree sap.


Eocathayornis is a genus of enantiornithean birds that was probably more basal or "primitive" than related genera Sinornis and Cathayornis. These birds lived during the Early Cretaceous in today's People's Republic of China.The holotype IVPP 10916 was in 1994 found in the Boluochi quarry by Zhou Zhonghe in a layer of the Jiufotang Formation dating from the late Aptian. It consists of the skull and the top half of the postcranial skeleton on a plate and counterplate. The bones have only been preserved as impressions. In 2002, Zhou named and described the type species Eocathayornis walkeri. The generic name combines a Greek ἠώς, eos, "dawn", with Cathayormis, referring to the more basal build compared to the latter genus. The specific name honours Cyril Alexander Walker for his contributions to the study of the Enantiornithes.Zhou in 2002 placed Eocathayornis in the Cathayornithidae.


Flexomornis (meaning "flexed shoulder bird") is a genus of enantiornithean birds known from fossils found in Texas rocks belonging to the Woodbine Formation (Lewisville Member) dating to the middle Cenomanian age of the late Cretaceous period. It contains a single species, Flexomornis howei, named for the amateur fossil hunter Kris Howe, who discovered the site where the fossils were found.


Gettyia is a genus of enantiornithine bird from the Late Cretaceous of North America.


Junornis is a bird genus, belonging to the Enantiornithes, that during the Early Cretaceous lived in the area of present China.


Kizylkumavis is a genus of enantiornithine birds which lived during the Late Cretaceous and is known from fossils found in the Bissekty Formation of the Kyzyl Kum, Uzbekistan.


Kuszholia (meaning "Milky Way bird" after the Kazakh term for the Milky Way, kus zholi) is the name given to a genus of primitive birds or bird-like dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous. They were possibly coelurosaurs close to the ancestry of birds, although most scientists have considered it an avialan (either a primitive ornithuran or enantiornithine). Fossils were found in the Bissekty Formation in the Kyzyl Kum desert of Uzbekistan.

The genus contains a single species, K. mengi; a separate family has been erected for it (Kuszholiidae). It is known only from a series of small vertebrae, with prominent hollow chambers (pneumaticity).


Lenesornis is a genus of enantiornithine birds which lived during the Late Cretaceous about 78 mya and is known from fossils found in the Bissekty Formation in the Kyzyl Kum, Uzbekistan.


Longusunguis is an extinct genus of bohaiornithid enantiornithean dinosaur known from the Early Cretaceous of Liaoning Province, northeastern China. It contains a single species, Longusunguis kurochkini.


Noguerornis is a genus of enantiornithine bird possibly related to Iberomesornis. It lived during the Early Cretaceous (early Barremian age) about 130 mya and is known from fossils found at El Montsec, Spain.


Pengornis is the largest known enantiornithine bird from the Early Cretaceous of northeast China. The name derives from "Peng", which refers to a mythological bird from Chinese folklore, and "-ornis", which means bird in Greek.

Pengornis is known from a single adult fossil, described by Zhou et al. in 2008. This holotype is in the collection of the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology in Beijing China. Its accession number is IVPP V15336. It was collected from the Jiufotang Formation, at Dapingfang, Chaoyang, Liaoning China. A second, juvenile specimen was described by Hu, Zhou, and O'Connor in 2014.

Pengornis shows characters of the humeral head, acromion, and anterior cervical vertebrae, that were previously known only in members of the Ornithurae. A phylogenetic analysis by Zhou et al. reduces to just three the number of characters that support enantiornithine monophyly. Thus, Pengornis supports the possibility that enantiornithines and Ornithurines may not be distinct clades.(see Apsaravis)


Qiliania (from the Xiongnu qilian, "heaven") is an extinct genus of early bird from the lower Cretaceous (Aptian stage) about 120 million years ago. It is an enantiornithean which lived in what is now Gansu Province, north-western China. It is known from two incomplete, semi-articulated and three-dimensionally preserved skeletons, which were found in the Xiagou Formation of the Changma Basin. It was first named by Ji Shu-An, Jessie Atterholt, Jingmai O'Connor, Matthew Lamanna, Jerry Harrs, Li Da-Qing, You Hai-Lu and Peter Dodson in 2011 and the type species is Qiliania graffini. The species was named for Greg Graffin, a paleontologist and member of the punk rock group Bad Religion, at the suggestion of coauthor Jingmai O'Connor, a longtime fan of the band.


Sazavis was an enantiornithine bird from the Late Cretaceous. It might have been related to Alexornis and Kizylkumavis and lived in what is now the Kyzyl Kum of Uzbekistan.

There is a single species known to date, Sazavis prisca. It is only known from a single piece of tibiotarsus.

The bone has been found in the Bissekty Formation. The bird was approximately some 18.5 cm (c.7 in) long in life, excluding the tail [1].


Shenqiornis is a bird genus of the Enantiornithes. It was found in the Qiaotou Member of the Huajiying Formation of Hebei Province, China, and is therefore of uncertain age. The Qiaotou Member may correlate with the more well-known Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation, and so probably is dated to the Aptian, around 122 million years ago.The type species Shenqiornis mengi was in 2010 named and described by Wang Xuri, Jingmai Kathleen O'Connor, Zhao Bo, Luis María Chiappe, Gao Chunling and Cheng Xiaodong. The generic name combines a reference to Shenzhou 7 with a Greek ornis, "bird". The specific name honours Meng Qingjin, the former director of the Dalian Natural History Museum. The holotype is DNHM D2950-2951, a plate and counterplate containing a largely complete skeleton of a subaldult.


Xiangornis is an enantiornithine bird from the Lower Cretaceous of Western Liaoning, China.


Zhouornis is an extinct genus of enantiornithine dinosaur known from the Early Cretaceous Jehol Group (Aptian stage) of western Liaoning Province, northeastern China. Zhouornis was first named by Zihui Zhang, Luis M. Chiappe, Gang Han and Anusuya Chinsamy in 2013 and the type species is Zhouornis hani.

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