GB standards are the Chinese national standards issued by the Standardization Administration of China (SAC), the Chinese National Committee of the ISO and IEC. GB stands for Guobiao (simplified Chinese: 国标; traditional Chinese: 國標; pinyin: Guóbiāo), Chinese for national standard.
Mandatory standards are prefixed "GB". Recommended standards are prefixed "GB/T" (T from Chinese language 推荐; tuījiàn; 'recommended'). A standard number follows "GB" or "GB/T".
GB standards are the basis for the product testing which products must undergo during the China Compulsory Certificate (CCC) certification. If there is no corresponding GB Standard, CCC is not required.
A non-exhaustive list of National Standards of the People's Republic of China is listed as follows, accompanied with similar international standards of ISO, marked as identical (IDT), equivalent (EQV), or non-equivalent (NEQ).
|GB 2099.1‐2008||AC power mains plugs and sockets|
|GB 1002‐2008||AC power mains plugs and sockets|
|GB 2312-1980||Code of Chinese graphic character set for information interchange, primary set; see also GBK, a common extension of GB 2312|
|GB 3100-1993||EQV ISO 1000:1992||SI units and recommendations for the use of their multiples and of certain other units|
|GB 3101-1993||EQV ISO 31-0:1992||General principles concerning quantities, units and symbols|
|GB 3259-1992||Transliterating rules of Chinese phonetic alphabet on titles for books and periodicals in Chinese|
|GB 3304-1991||Names of nationalities of China in romanization with codes|
|GB 5768-2009||Road traffic signs and markings|
|GB 6513-1986||Character set for bibliographic information interchange on mathematical coding of characters|
|GB 7714-1987||Descriptive rules for bibliographic references|
|GB 8045-1987||Mongolian 7-bit and 8-bit coded graphic character sets for information processing interchange|
|GB 12050-1989||Information processing – Uighur coded graphic character sets for information interchange|
|GB 12052-1989||Korean character coded character sets for information interchange|
|GB 12200.1-1990||Chinese information processing – Vocabulary – Part 1: Fundamental terms|
|GB 13000-2010||IDT ISO/IEC 10646:2003||Information technology – Universal multiple-octet coded character set (UCS)|
|GB 14887-2003||Road traffic signals|
|GB 18030-2005||Information technology – Chinese ideograms coded character set for information interchange – Extension for the basic set|
|GB 500011-2001||Civil engineering – Code for seismic design of buildings|
|GB 50223-2008||Civil engineering – Standard for classification of seismic protection of building constructions|
|GB/T 148-1997||NEQ ISO 216:1975||Writing paper and certain classes of printed matter – Trimmed sizes-A and B series|
|GB/T 1988-1998||EQV ISO/IEC 646:1991||Information technology – 7-bit coded character set for information interchange|
|GB/T 2311-2000||IDT ISO/IEC 2022:1994||Information technology – Character code structure and extension techniques|
|GB/T 2260-2007||Codes for the administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China|
|GB/T 2261-1980||None but similar to ISO 5218||Codes for sexual distinction of human beings|
|GB/T 2659-2000||EQV ISO 3166-1:1997||Codes for the representation of names of countries and regions|
|GB/T 4880-1991||EQV ISO 639:1988||Codes for the representation of names of languages|
|GB/T 4880.2-2000||EQV ISO 639-2:1998||Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 2: Alpha-3 code|
|GB/T 4881-1985||Code of Chinese languages|
|GB/T 5795-2002||EQV ISO 2108:1992||China standard book numbering|
|GB/T 7408-1994||EQV ISO 8601:1988||Data elements and interchange formats – Information interchange – Representation of dates and times|
|GB/T 7589-1987||Code of Chinese ideogram set for information interchange – 2nd supplementary set|
|GB/T 7590-1987||Code of Chinese ideogram set for information interchange – 4th supplementary set|
|GB/T 12200.2-1994||Chinese information processing – Vocabulary – Part 2: Chinese and Chinese character|
|GB/T 12345-1990||Code of Chinese graphic character set for information interchange, supplementary set|
|GB/T 12406-1996||IDT ISO 4217:1990||Codes for the representation of currencies and funds|
|GB/T 13131-1991||Code of Chinese ideogram set for information interchange – The 3rd supplementary set|
|GB/T 13132-1991||Code of Chinese ideogram set for information interchange – The 5th supplementary set|
|GB/T 13134-1991||Yi coded character set for information interchange|
|GB/T 15273||IDT ISO/IEC 8859||Information processing – 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets|
|GB/T 15834-2011||Use of punctuation marks|
|GB/T 15835-1995||General rules for writing numerals in publications|
|GB/T 16159-2012||Basic rules for Hanyu Pinyin Orthography|
|GB/T 16831-1997||IDT ISO 6709:1983||Standard representation of latitude, longitude and altitude for geographic point locations|
|GB/T 17742-1999||China Seismic Intensity Scale, or liedu|
|GB/T 19000-2000||IDT ISO 9000:2000||Quality management systems – Fundamentals and vocabulary|
|GB/T 20234-2015||Electrical vehicle charging, including GB/T 20234.2-2015 AC-charging standard|
|GB/T 20542-2006||Tibetan Coded Character Set Extension A|
|GB/T 24001-1996||IDT ISO 14001:1996||Environmental management systems – Specification with guidance for use|
|GB/T 22238-2008||Tibetan Coded Character Set Extension B|
|GB/T 32960-2016||Technical Specification of Remote Service and Management System for Electric Vehicles|
|GB/T 33661-2017||Calculation and promulgation of the Chinese calendar|
Changes are made frequently within the regulatory system of Chinese GB Standards. New standards are released, existing standards are changed or updated. In 2014, GB Standard 15084-2013 for rear view mirrors as well as GB Standard 14166:2013 (“Safety-belts, restraint systems, child restraint systems and ISOFIX child restraint systems for occupants of power-driven vehicles”) will be revised and implemented. Above that, GB Standard 27887-2011 “Restraining devices for child occupants of power-driven vehicles” will become mandatory.
The China Compulsory Certificate mark, commonly known as a CCC Mark, is a compulsory safety mark for many products imported, sold or used in the Chinese market. It was implemented on May 1, 2002 and became fully effective on August 1, 2003.It is the result of the integration of China's two previous compulsory inspection systems, namely "CCIB" (Safety Mark, introduced in 1989 and required for products in 47 product categories) and "CCEE" (also known as "Great Wall" Mark, for electrical commodities in 7 product categories), into a single procedure.China seismic intensity scale
The China seismic intensity scale (CSIS) is a national standard in the People's Republic of China used to measure seismic intensity. Similar to EMS-92 on which CSIS drew reference, seismic impacts are classified into 12 degrees of intensity, or liedu (Chinese: 烈度; pinyin: lièdù, literally "degrees of violence") in Roman numerals from I for insensible to XII for landscape reshaping.
The scale was initially formalized by the China Earthquake Administration (CEA) in 1980, therefore often referred to by its original title as "China Seismic Intensity Scale (1980)". It was later revised, and adopted as a national standard, or Guobiao, series GB/T 17742-1999 by then National Quality and Technology Supervision Administration (now General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection, and Quarantine of P.R.C., AQSIQ) in 1999.
The standard was set for revision not long before the 2008 Sichuan earthquake.GB 18030
GB 18030 is a Chinese government standard, described as Information Technology — Chinese coded character set and defines the required language and character support necessary for software in China. GB18030 is the registered Internet name for the official character set of the People's Republic of China (PRC) superseding GB2312. As a Unicode Transformation Format (i.e. an encoding of all Unicode code points), GB18030 supports both simplified and traditional Chinese characters. It is also compatible with legacy encodings including GB2312, CP936, and GBK 1.0.
In addition to the "GB18030 character encoding", this standard contains requirements about which scripts must be supported, font support, etc.GB 2312
GB/T 2312-1980 is a key official character set of the People's Republic of China, used for simplified Chinese characters. GB2312 is the registered internet name for EUC-CN, which is its usual encoded form. GB abbreviates Guojia Biaozhun (国家标准), which means national standard in Chinese. GB2312 (1980) has been superseded by GBK and GB18030, which include additional characters, but GB2312 remains in widespread use as a subset of those encodings.
According to a National Standard Bulletin of the People's Republic of China, the National Standard GB 2312-1980 is no longer mandatory, and its standard code is modified to GB/T 2312-1980.While GB2312 covers over 99% of the characters of contemporary usage, historical texts and many names remain out of scope. GB2312 includes 6,763 Chinese characters (on two levels: the first is arranged by reading, the second by radical then number of strokes), along with symbols and punctuation, Japanese kana, the Greek and Cyrillic alphabets, Zhuyin, and a double-byte set of Pinyin letters with tone marks. As of February 2018, 0.3% of all web pages use GB2312, a drop from 3.5% in January 2010.There is an analogous character set known as GB/T 12345, closely related to GB2312, but with traditional character forms replacing simplified forms, and some extra 62 supplemental characters. GB-encoded fonts often come in pairs, one with the GB 2312 (simplified) character set and the other with the GB/T 12345 (traditional) character set.List of codecs
The following is a list of compression formats and related codecs.Safety sign
Safety signs are a type of sign designed to warn of hazards, indicate mandatory actions or required use of Personal protective equipment, prohibit actions or objects, identify the location of firefighting or safety equipment, or marking of exit routes.
In addition to being encountered in industrial facilities; safety signs are also found in public places and communities, at electrical pylons and Electrical substations, cliffs, beaches, bodies of water, on motorized equipment, such as lawn mowers, and areas closed for construction or demolition.Standardization Administration of China
The Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of China (SAC; Chinese: 国家标准化管理委员会; pinyin: guójiā biāozhǔnhuà guǎnlǐ wěiyuánhuì) is the standards organization authorized by the State Council of China to exercise administrative responsibilities by undertaking unified management, supervision and overall coordination of standardization work in China. The SAC represents China within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and other international and regional standardization organizations; the SAC is responsible for organizing the activities of the Chinese National Committee for ISO and IEC; the SAC approves and organizes the implementation of international cooperation and the exchange of projects on standardization.
The SAC is headquartered in Haidian District, Beijing.Vehicle regulation
Vehicle regulations are requirements that automobiles must satisfy in order to be approved for sale or use in a particular country or region. They are usually mandated by legislation, and administered by a government body. The regulations concern aspects such as lighting, controls, crashworthiness, environment protection and theft protection.Voluntary CQC Mark Certification
The Voluntary CQC Mark Certification is a voluntary product certification for Chinese products or products that are imported to China. The Voluntary CQC Mark Certification can be applied for products which are not in the China Compulsory Certification product catalogue and thus cannot receive a China Compulsory Certificate (CCC Certificate). The CQC Mark guarantees the conformity of the product with the Chinese standards (Guobiao standards) regarding safety, quality, environmental and energy efficiencies. Products marked with the CQC Mark are less likely to be detained at Chinese customs. In addition, the CQC Mark raises the competitiveness of a product in the Chinese market.
The whole certification process is similar to the Compulsory China Certificate (CCC) certification process.WLAN Authentication and Privacy Infrastructure
WLAN Authentication and Privacy Infrastructure (WAPI) is a Chinese National Standard for Wireless LANs (GB 15629.11-2003).
Although it was allegedly designed to operate on top of WiFi, compatibility with the security protocol used by the 802.11 wireless networking standard developed by the IEEE is in dispute. Due to the limited access of the standard (only eleven Chinese companies had access), it was the focus of a U.S.-China trade dispute. Following this it was submitted to, and rejected by the ISO. It was resubmitted to ISO in 2010, but was cancelled as a project on 21 November 2011 after being withdrawn by China.
|Trade and infrastructure|
|Law and regulations|
|Finance and banking|
|National economic initiatives|
|Regional economic initiatives|