Gulmarg is a town, a hill station, a popular skiing destination and a notified area committee in the Baramulla district of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. The town is situated in the Pir Panjal Range in the western Himalayas.
View of Gulmarg from Gulmarg Gondola
|State||Jammu and Kashmir|
|Elevation||2,650 m (8,690 ft)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
Originally called Gauri Marg (गौरी मार्ग) meaning (the path of Devi Gauri) it was renamed to Gulmarg ("meadow of flowers") by Sultan Yusuf Shah of the Chak Dynasty who frequented the place with his queen Habba khatoon in the 16th century. Wild flowers of 21 different varieties were collected by the Mughal emperor Jahangir for his gardens in Gulmarg. In the 19th century, British civil servants started using Gulmarg as a retreat to escape summers in North Indian plains. Hunting and golfing were their favorite pastime and three golf courses were established in Gulmarg including one exclusively for women. One of the golf courses survives and at an altitude of 2,650 metres (8,690 ft) is the world's highest golf course. In 1927, British established a ski club in Gulmarg and two annual ski events were hosted one each during Christmas and Easter. Central Asian explorer Aurel Stein also visited Gulmarg during this period.
After the end of London colonial rule, Gulmarg became a part of the independent princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. To ensure the accession of the princely state, Pakistan planned an invasion of the state called Operation Gulmarg. One of the routes used by the invading militia of Pathan tribesmen, armed and supported by Pakistani regular troops, passed through the Haji Pir pass and Gulmarg onto the state capital Srinagar. Gulmarg fell to the invading army, but the Indian army led by the 1 Sikh Regiment, which had been airlifted to Srinagar only after the Dogra ruler of the state Maharaja Hari Singh had signed an Instrument of Accession with India on 26 October 1947, successfully defended the outskirts of Srinagar. Thereafter, Indian counterattacks pushed the tribesmen back and many towns including Gulmarg were recaptured. In 1948, Indian Army established a ski school in Gulmarg which later became the High Altitude Warfare School of the Indian army specializing in snow–craft and winter warfare. On 1 January 1949, the war ended under UN supervision and a Ceasefire line (CFL), which was rechristened the Line of Control (LOC) by the Shimla Agreement of 1972, came into being close to Gulmarg.
After Indian Independence, Indian planners sought to develop a destination for Winter sports in India. The Department of Tourism of the Government of India invited Rudolph Matt, in 1960 to select a suitable location for such purpose. Matt zeroed in on Gulmarg as suitable location for development of a Winter sports destination in India. In 1968, Institute of Skiing and Mountaineering was established in Gulmarg to train ski instructors. Over the next decade Indian planners invested ₹30 million (US$430,000) to transform Gulmarg into a world-class ski destination. Gulmarg became a centre for skiers from Asian nations. In mid-1980s, heli-skiing was introduced in Gulmarg in collaboration with the Swiss skier Sylvain Saudan of Himalaya Heli-Ski Club of France.
In the 1990s, the rise of militancy in Jammu and Kashmir affected tourism in Gulmarg. With the abatement of terrorism in the area, tourism started to recover in late 1990s. Work on the cable car project between Gulmarg and Apharwat Peak, which was commissioned in 1988 by Government of Jammu and Kashmir but was subsequently abandoned due to militancy in 1990, was resumed in 1998. In May 1998, Phase 1 of the project, between Gulmarg and Kongdori, began its commercial operation. In May 2005, Phase 2 of the project was also inaugurated making it one of the longest and highest rope ways of Asia. The chairlift installed as a part of Phase 3 of the project began its operations in 2011. The National Winter Games were held in Gulmarg in 1998, 2004 and 2008. In 2014, Government of Jammu and Kashmir drafted a Master Plan–2032 for Gulmarg. The plan includes development of a solid-waste treatment plant on 20 acres of land close to Gulmarg.
Gulmarg lies in a cup shaped valley in the Pir Panjal Range of the Himalayas, at an altitude of 2,650 m (8,694 ft), 56 km from Srinagar. The soil in Gulmarg comprises glacial deposits, lacustrine deposits and moraines of Pleistocene age covering shales, limestones, sandstones, schists and other varieties of rocks. The natural meadows of Gulmarg, which are covered with snow in winter, allow the growth of wild flowers such as daisies, forget-me-nots and buttercups during spring and summer. The meadows are interspersed by enclosed parks and small lakes, and surrounded by forests of green pine and fir. Skiing and other winter sports in Gulmarg are carried out on the slopes of Apharwat peak at a height of 4,267 m (13,999 ft). Many points on Apharwat peak and Khilanmarg offer a panoramic view of Nanga Parbat and Harmukh mountains.
Due to its high elevation, Gulmarg has a humid continental climate where the wet winter season sees heavy snowfall, especially for its latitude. Summers are moderate in temperature and length, whereas shoulder seasons are relatively cool.
At the 2011 Indian census, Gulmarg had a total population of 1,965 over 77 households. Male population in the town stood at 1,957 while there were only eight females and no children between the ages of 0 and 6 years. Gulmarg had an average literacy rate of 99.24%, compared to the state average of 67.16%, of which male literacy was 99.23% and female literacy was 100%. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes constituted 0.61% and 0.15% of the population respectively. Gulmarg has few permanent residents with most residents being tourists or those involved in the tourism industry.
The road climbs uphill in the last 12 kilometres to Gulmarg passing through forests of pine and fir. Winter sports like skiing, tobogganing, snowboarding and heli-skiing take place on the slopes of Mount Apharwat reachable by a Gondola lift.
Maharani Temple (commonly known as Shiv Temple of Gulmarg) was built by a Hindu ruler Maharaja Hari singh for his wife Maharani Mohini Bai Sisodia who ruled till 1915. This temple was considered as the stately possession of Dogra Kings. The temple is dedicated to Shiva and Parvati. This temple is situated on a slight hill top with greenery. This temple is visible from all corners of Gulmarg.
The Roman Catholic St Mary's Church is located in the valley of Shepherds in Gulmarg. It was built in 1902, during the period of British rule, and was constructed in a British style. Made of grey brick with a green roof and decorated wooden interior walls, it has been described as a "Victorian architectural wonder". In 1920 the church saw the wedding of the brother of Bruce Bairnsfather; Miss Eleanor Hardy Tipping married Capt. T. D. Bairnsfather, with newspapers describing the church as "very prettily decorated" and with the service conducted by Rev Canon Buckwell in the presence of both organ and a full choir.
St Mary's was closed for years, but was renovated and reopened in 2003, holding its first Christmas service there for 14 years. The church belongs to the Diocese of Amritsar, Church Of North India.
Built by the French company Pomagalski, the Gulmarg Gondola is one of the highest in the world reaching 3,979 metres. The two-stage ropeway ferries about 600 people per hour between Gulmarg and a shoulder of nearby Apharwat Peak (4,200 metres (13,800 ft)). The first stage transfers from Gulmarg at 2,600 metres (8,500 ft) to Kongdoori at 3,080 metres (10,100 ft). The second stage which has 36 cabins and 18 towers, takes passengers to a height of 3,950 metres (12,960 ft) on the Apharwat Peak 4,200 metres (13,800 ft). A chair lift system connects Kongdoori with Mary's shoulder for taking skiers to higher altitude. The high inflow of tourists has had an effect on the fragile eco-system of Gulmarg and activists have demanded tighter regulation to save the environment of the area from over tourism.
An accident occurred on 15 June 2017 due to an enormous pine tree being uprooted by a gust of wind and breaking the perspex windows on one of the gondola cabins, causing it to swing violently and its seven occupants to fall 100 ft (30 m) to the ground.
Situated at an altitude of 2,650 m, it is the highest green golf course in the world. The historic Gulmarg Golf Club was started in 1911 by the British who used the place as a holiday resort. The origin of Gulmarg as the golfing centre of India goes back to the late 19th century when a 6-hole course was made in 1890-91 by Colonel Neville Chamberlain. The first golf championship was played at Gulmarg in 1922. The Nedou's Cup was introduced in 1929.
In 2008 an American avalanche forecaster named Brian Newman began a NPO named Gulmarg Avalanche Center. The purpose of this organization was to dispense daily avalanche risk bulletins to visitors entering the unmanaged backcountry surrounding Gulmarg ski area. The center provides avalanche education including a free weekly avalanche awareness talk during the winter season.
An annual three-day Gulmarg Winter Festival is held in March. Budding artists in the fields of music, films and photography are given an opportunity to showcase their work during the festival.
Gulmarg has been the shooting location many Bollywood films like Bobby, Jab Tak Hai Jaan, Yeh Jawaani Hai Deewani, Highway, Phantom, Haider, etc. A scene in Bobby was shot in a hut in Gulmarg that later come to be known as 'Bobby Hut'.
North India was devastated by a cold wave during the month of January 2017. This occurrence had a severe effect on several North Indian states, including Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Harayana, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh. The lowest temperature in Gulmarg due to the cold wave was recorded at −12.4 °C (9.7 °F). The banks of Dal Lake in Srinagar froze. Keylong of Himachal Pradesh and Kargil of Jammu and Kashmir witnessed low temperatures of −13.9 °C (7.0 °F) and −15.6 °C (3.9 °F) respectively. At least 40 people have died as a result of the cold front.
Several army camps in Kashmir bound sectors were damaged and many people died in avalanches in Kashmir districts near the Line of Control during the last few days of January 2017.Baramulla district
Baramulla district is one of the 22 districts in the Indian-administered disputed territory of Jammu and Kashmir. Baramulla city is the administrative headquarters of this district. The district covered an area of 4,190 km² in 2001 but it was reduced to 3,353 km² at the time of 2011 census.Commonwealth Winter Games
The Commonwealth Winter Games was a multi-sport event comprising winter sports, last held in 1966. Three editions of the Games have been staged. The Winter Games were designed as a counterbalance to the Commonwealth Games, which focuses on summer sports, to accompany the Winter Olympics and Summer Olympic Games.Gulmarg Gondola
Gulmarg Gondola in Gulmarg, Jammu and Kashmir is one of the world's highest operating cable cars . Higher lines include the Dagu Glacier Gondola in Sichuan, China which reaches 4843 m , Jade Dragon ( 4506 ) in Yunnan , and the Mi Teleferico between El Alto and La Paz , in Bolivia.Hardu-Aboora
Hardu-Aboora is a locality in Tehsil Karhama (Earlier Tehsil Tangmarg)Baramulla district in Indian administered state of Jammu and Kashmir. It is situated on the banks of Ferozpora Nallah, at the foothills of the mountain range that runs parallel to the Srinagar-Gulmarg highway on its left side, some 15 km from Tangmarg town, Baramulla and 28 km from the state capital, Srinagar, and 10 km from railway station Mazhama.Under new Administrative units, Hardu Aboora was granted CD Block status, under the jurisdiction of newly carved Tehsil Karhama. PIN CODE 193401.High Altitude Warfare School
The High Altitude Warfare School (HAWS) is a training and research establishment of the Indian Army. In 1948, Indian Army established a ski school in Gulmarg which later became the High Altitude Warfare School of the Indian army specialising in snow–craft and winter warfare. It is located in an area which is prone to avalanches. It is one of the most famous warfare academies of the world. Selected soldiers from the US, UK, Germany and other countries visit regularly for specialist training.Indian Institute of Skiing and Mountaineering
Indian Institute of Skiing and Mountaineering (IIS&M) was established in 1969 at Gulmarg by the Department of Tourism and the Government of India. The institute is chartered to train skiers and mountaineers from all over the world.Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948, sometimes known as the First Kashmir War, was fought between India and Pakistan over the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir from 1947 to 1948. It was the first of four Indo-Pakistan Wars fought between the two newly independent nations. Pakistan precipitated the war a few weeks after independence by launching tribal lashkar (militia) from Waziristan, in an effort to capture Kashmir, the future of which hung in the balance. The inconclusive result of the war still affects the geopolitics of both countries.
The Maharaja faced an uprising by his Muslim subjects in Poonch, and lost control of the western districts of his kingdom. On 22 October 1947, Pakistan's Pashtun tribal militias crossed the border of the state. These local tribal militias and irregular Pakistani forces moved to take Srinagar, but on reaching Baramulla, they took to plunder and stalled. Maharaja Hari Singh made a plea to India for assistance, and help was offered, but it was subject to his signing an Instrument of Accession to India.The war was initially fought by the Jammu and Kashmir State Forces and by tribal militias from the Frontier Tribal Areas adjoining the North-West Frontier Province. Following the accession of the state to India on 26 October 1947, Indian troops were air-lifted to Srinagar, the state capital. The British commanding officers initially refused the entry of Pakistani troops into the conflict, citing the accession of the state to India. However, later in 1948, they relented and the Pakistani armies entered the war after this. The fronts solidified gradually along what came to be known as the Line of Control. A formal cease-fire was declared at 23:59 on the night of 31 December 1948 and became effective on the night of 1 January 1949. The result of the war was inconclusive. However, most neutral assessments agree that India was the victor of the war as it was able to successfully defend about two-thirds of the Kashmir including Kashmir Valley, Jammu and Ladakh.Khilanmarg
Khilanmarg, Jammu & Kashmir, India, is a small valley about 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) away from the Gulmarg. The meadow, carpeted with flowers in the spring, is the site for Gulmarg's winter ski runs and offers a view of the surrounding peaks and over the Kashmir Valley. It's a 600 metres (2,000 ft) ascent from Gulmarg to Khilanmarg. The view spans from the Himalayas from Nanga Parbat to the twin 7,100 metres (23,300 ft) peaks of Nun and Kun to the southeast.Kunzer
Kunzer is a city in the State of Jammu and Kashmir, India. It is 7km from Gulmarg.Magam
Magam is a town located in the district Budgam in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. It is an administrative Tehsil, and is known because of its presence on Gulmarg Highway. It is 11 kilometres from sub-district headquarters Beerwah and 20 kilometres away from Srinagar, the state's summer capital. The Idara Abu Fazal Abbas Islamic Library, opened in Magam in 1985, is the largest Islamic private library in Jammu and Kashmir. It has an average elevation of 1569 meters (5147 feet).Mahabatkhel
The Mahabbat Khel or Muhabbat Khel or Mohabbat khel or Muhabbat kheyl are Pashtun of Allai. They belonged originally to the Yousufzai tribe, but in Mansehra and Allai the Khel is known as a Swati tribe, because of their invaded from Swat and Afghanistan wardak-kabol.
The Mahabat Khel's forefather's name was Sher Afzal Khan, and he had four sons. Sher Afzal Khan was born between 1500 and 1600 in Swat. The four sons' names were Haleem Shah, Zaman Shah,Bhai khan and Sida Khan, respectively.
Mahabat Khel have a close relationship with the Musa Khel tribe in Allai etc.
Mahabbat Khel are now living in Karachi, Mansehra,Fatehmang Dharyal Chattar Plain and Allai.
Muhabbat Khel is situated in the area of Pakistan. Lies in the northern part of country.Some of the major tourist attractions in the surroundings of the town of Muhabbat Khel are Going patianrowo Nganjuk (Pakistan) about 70 km, Omah, e_yono Palek JAN (Pakistan) about 70 km, JALLOZAI (Pakistan), about 110 km, Taxila (Pakistan) about 155 km, Rohtas Fort (Pakistan) about 201 km, Islāmābād (Pakistan), about 173 km, Buddhist Ruins of Takht-i-Bahi and Neighbouring City Remains at Sahr-i-Bahlol (Pakistan) about 153 km, Question about Chak Sixty Four (Pakistan) about 176 km, Godwar1 (Afghanistan), about 294 km, SAROUNDINGS (Pakistan) about 224 km, Gulmarg Ski (India) about 299 km, Tajbeg Palace (Afghanistan), about 269 km, Bala Hissar (Afghanistan) about 267 km, Kabul (Afghanistan) about 270 km, . If you want to get more information about the surroundings, you will find them on the left below the link Places around. The nearest international airport (DEL) Delhi Indira Gandhi Intl Airport is situated about 732 km from the town of Muhabbat Khel.
Below is the family tree of Mahabat Khel.
The Mahabbat Khel belong to Mandarh Yousufzai - Usman - Amazai- Dolatzai-Mahabat Khel.
Muhabat Khel, Afghanistan Page
Mohabbatkhel,Mukhabbatkheyl’,Moḩabbat Kheyl,محبت خېل,Muḩabat Khēl,Moḩabbatkhēl,Mukhabbatkheyl',Mohabbat KheylMazhom railway station
Mazhom railway station, also known as Mazhama railway station, lies on Northern Railway Network Zone of Indian Railways. It is situated 20 kilometres (12 mi) west of Srinagar on Gulmarg Road. It is the major railway stations in Budgam district. The station connects Magam Town ((2 km away from station)) with rest of the parts of state. The station comes under Firozpur division of Indian railways and has an average elevation of 1,581 meters (5,187 ft) above mean sea level.Mountaineering in India
Mountaineering is quite popular in India, since the entire northern and north-eastern borders are the Himalayas, the highest mountain range in the world. The apex body in India is the Indian Mountaineering Foundation, which is affiliated to the International Federation of Sport Climbing.
India has several premier mountaineering institutes, such as:
Swami Vivekanand Institutes of Mountaineering, Mount Abu
Himalayan Mountaineering Institute, Darjeeling
Nehru Institute of Mountaineering, Uttarkashi
Indian Institute of Skiing and Mountaineering, Gulmarg
Jawahar Institute of Mountaineering and Winter Sports, Pahalgam
National Institute of Mountaineering and Allied Sports (NIMAS), Dirang, Arunachal Pradesh
Atal Bihari Vajpayee Institute of Mountaineering and Allied Sports (ABVIMAS), ManaliSankoo
Sankoo is a town and tehsil in the Kargil district of the Jammu and Kashmir state of India. The township is 42 km south of Kargil located in a bowl-shaped valley drained by large tributary streams of the Suru River, the Kartse and the Nakpochu. As the richest flourishing and most verdant valley throughout the entire region of Laddakh, the village of Sankoo Valley is known as the Ladakh's own Gulmarg ("meadow of flowers").
Sankoo is an upcoming township with a small bazaar (42 km south of Kargil) and numerous villages around. Dense plantations of poplars, willows, myricarea and wild roses fill the bowl-shaped valley, giving it the ambience of a man-made forest tucked within the mountain ramparts. Two side valleys drained by large tributary streams of the Suru river, the Kartse flowing from the east and the Nakpochu descending from the west, open up on either side of the expanse. Sankoo (42 km), the next major expanse of the Suru Valley, is a picturesque township surrounded with numerous villages and colorful rocky mountains all around.
Sankoo is very popular among local picnickers who throng the area from Kargil town and other places. Locally it is also popular as a place of pilgrimage to the ancient shrine of a Muslim scholar-saint, Sayed Mir Hashim, who was specially invited from Kashmir for imparting religious teachings of the region's Buddhist ruler, Thi-Namgyal of the Suru principality, following his conversion to Islam during the `16th century. The shrine is situated in the village of Karpo-Kharon the outskirts of Sankoo where the Chief had his summer palace.Summers are warm in Sankoo but the winters are extremely cold and harsh. Temperatures are most comfortable in April and September, so this is the best time to visit Sankoo.For the large population there is only CHC hospital and one Higher secondary school.Skiing in India
Skiing in India is an activity that mostly takes place in the northern states of India, where the Himalayas are situated. Skiing is administered by the Indian Mountaineering Foundation in India. The Himalayas provide an excellent skiing experience owing to their great height which makes for long descents. Heliskiing is also gaining popularity in places like Manali and Gulmarg. However skiing in India suffers from lack of infrastructure. There are also security concerns in Gulmarg which is 20 km (12 mi) from the Line of Control, however since 2002, it has been peaceful, which has led to an increase in skiing activity in the region. Some of the most popular skiing locations in India are Gulmarg in Jammu and Kashmir, Solang in Himachal Pradesh and Auli in Uttarakhand. The skiing season in India is from January to March.Tangmarg
Tangmarg is a town and tehsil in Baramulla district in Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. In 2014 Tangmarg was granted a sub division and trifurcated into 3 Tehsils (Tangmarg, Kunzer & Karhama), with Sub Divisional Magistrate SDM Office located at Tangmarg. The Tangmarg town is central to more than 100 villages in the vicinity.
Tangmarg has a post office that has been recently modernized, computerized and renovated and there are plans to develop it into a model post office at par with project arrow post offices. There are many hotels and restaurants, everything required by travelling tourists. Tangmarg is 39 km (24 mi) from Srinagar by a two-lane road. Tangmarg has many tourist spots like Drung, Gulmarg, Baderkoot, Zandpal, Gogaldara, Nigli Nullah and Baba Reshi. The name ' Baba Reshi ' is locally given for the great Sufi saint of Kashmir Baba Payam ud Din Reshi' who has a Shrine located around 6 km from Tangmarg. Tangmarg is also known as gate of Gulmarg.Tangmarg is also known as shen kaul which means brook of snow. Tangmarg is also famous for trout fish.Tourism in Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir is the northernmost state of India locked in Himalayan Mountains. Jammu and Kashmir is home to several Valleys such as the Kashmir Valley, Chenab Valley, Sindh Valley and Lidder Valley. Some major tourist attractions in Jammu and Kashmir are Srinagar, the Mughal Gardens, Gulmarg, Pahalgam, Patnitop, Jammu, and Ladakh. Some areas require a special permit for non-Indians to visit.Winter sports in India
Winter sports are common in India in the Himalayan areas. Ski tournaments take place every winter in Gulmarg, Kashmir and Manali. Winter sports are generally more common in the northern states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand (formerly Uttaranchal), Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh. Skiing, snow rugby, snow cycling and snow football are few of the common sports played in India. Skiing is more popular although India has taken part in Luge in Winter Olympics since 1998. The Bandy Federation of India is headquarters are in Mandi in Himachal Pradesh. Luge is practiced in a big way by the mountain residents in an improvised form called 'Reri'.
Shiva Keshavan is the only Indian to have won medals in international meets in winter sports (Asian Gold 2011, Asian Silver 2009, Asian Bronze 2008, Asian Silver (Doubles) 2005, Asian Bronze (Singles) 2005), and to have participated in four Olympic Games. He is currently the Asian Speed record holder at 134.4 km/h, making him the fastest man in Asia on ice.
|Climate data for Gulmarg|
|Average high °C (°F)||0.7
|Average low °C (°F)||−7.9
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||158.8
|Districts and divisions|