Gulf of Saint Lawrence

The Gulf of Saint Lawrence (French: Golfe du Saint-Laurent) is the outlet of the North American Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean. The gulf is a semi-enclosed sea, covering an area of about 226,000 square kilometres (87,000 sq mi) and containing about 34,500 cubic kilometres (8,300 cu mi) of water, which results in an average depth of 152 metres (499 ft).[1]

Coordinates: 48°36′N 61°24′W / 48.600°N 61.400°W

Golfe Saint-Laurent en
The Gulf of Saint Lawrence on a Canada map.

Geography

Pleasant bay shoreline
Gulf shore at Pleasant Bay, NS

The Gulf of Saint Lawrence is bounded on the north by the Labrador Peninsula and Quebec, to the east by Saint-Pierre and Newfoundland, to the south by the Nova Scotia peninsula and Cape Breton Island, and to the west by the Gaspe Peninsula, New Brunswick, and Quebec. As for significant islands the Gulf of Saint Lawrence contains Anticosti Island, PEI, Îles-de-la-Madeleine, Cape Breton Island, Saint Pierre Island, and Miquelon-Langlade.

Half of the ten provinces of Canada adjoin the Gulf: New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Quebec.

Besides the Saint Lawrence River itself, significant streams emptying into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence include the Miramichi River, Natashquan River, Romaine River, Restigouche River, Margaree River, and Humber River.

Branches of the Gulf include the Chaleur Bay, Fortune Bay, Miramichi Bay, St. George's Bay, Bay St. George, Bay of Islands, and Northumberland Strait.

Outlets

The gulf flows into the Atlantic Ocean through the following outlets:

  • The Strait of Belle Isle between Labrador and Newfoundland: between 15 kilometres (9.3 miles) and 60 kilometres (37 miles) wide and 60 metres (200 feet) deep at its deepest.
  • The Cabot Strait between Newfoundland and Saint-Pierre and Cape Breton Island: 104 km (65 mi) wide and 480 m (1,570 ft) deep at its deepest.
  • The Strait of Canso between Cape Breton Island and the Nova Scotia peninsula: 1.0 km (0.6 mi) wide and 60 m (200 ft) deep at its deepest. Due to the construction of the Canso Causeway across the strait in 1955, it no longer permits exchange of water between the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the Atlantic Ocean.

Extent

The limits of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence vary between sources.

The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence as follows:[2]

On the Northeast.
A line running from Cape Bauld (North point of Kirpon Island, 51°40′N 55°25′W / 51.667°N 55.417°W) to the East extreme of Belle Isle and on to the Northeast Ledge (52°02′N 55°15′W / 52.033°N 55.250°W). Thence a line joining this ledge with the East extreme of Cape St. Charles (52°13'N) in Labrador.

On the Southeast.
A line from Cape Canso (45°20′N 61°0′W / 45.333°N 61.000°W) to Red Point (45°35′N 60°45′W / 45.583°N 60.750°W) in Cape Breton Island, through this Island to Cape Breton [45°57′N 59°47′W / 45.950°N 59.783°W] and on to Pointe Blanche (46°45′N 56°11′W / 46.750°N 56.183°W) in the Island of St. Pierre, and thence to the Southwest point of Morgan Island (46°51′N 55°49′W / 46.850°N 55.817°W).

On the West.
The meridian of 64°30'W, but the whole of Anticosti Island is included in the Gulf.

Fisheries and Oceans Canada places the western limit at Pointe-des-Monts.[3]

Protected areas

StLawrence Gulf bathymetry
Bathymetry of the gulf, with the Laurentian Channel visible
Basques Newfoundland
Basque settlements and sites dating from the 16th and 17th centuries

St. Paul Island, Nova Scotia, off the northeastern tip of Cape Breton Island, is referred to as the "Graveyard of the Gulf" because of its many shipwrecks. Access to this island is controlled by the Canadian Coast Guard.

Bonaventure Island on the eastern tip of the Gaspe Peninsula, Île Brion and Rochers-aux-Oiseaux (Bird Rock) northeast of the Magdalen Islands[4] are important migratory bird sanctuaries administered by the Canadian Wildlife Service.

The Federal Government of Canada has national parks along the Gulf of Saint Lawrence at Forillon National Park on the eastern tip of the Gaspe Peninsula, Prince Edward Island National Park on the northern shore of the island, Kouchibouguac National Park on the northeastern coast of New Brunswick, Cape Breton Highlands National Park on the northern tip of Cape Breton Island, Gros Morne National Park on the west coast of Newfoundland, and a National Park Reserve in the Mingan Archipelago on the Côte-Nord of Quebec.

The five provinces bordering the Gulf of Saint Lawrence also have several provincial parks apiece, some of which preserve coastal features.

Undersea features

The Laurentian Channel is a feature of the floor of the Gulf that was formed during previous ice ages, when the Continental Shelf was eroded by the Saint Lawrence River during the periods when the sea level plunged. The Laurentian Channel is about 290 m (950 ft) deep and about 1,250 km (780 mi) long from the Continental Shelf to the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River. Deep waters with temperatures between 2 and 6.5 °C (36 and 44 °F) enter the Gulf at the continental slope and are slowly advected up the channel by estuariane circulation.[5] Over the 20th century, the bottom waters of the end of the channel (i.e. in the Saint Lawrence estuary) have become hypoxic.[6]

Cultural importance

The gulf has provided a historically important marine fishery for various First Nations that have lived on its shores for millennia and used its waters for transportation.

The first documented voyage by a European in its waters was by the French explorer Jacques Cartier in the year 1534. Cartier named the shores of the Saint Lawrence River "The Country of Canadas", after an indigenous word meaning "village" or "settlement", thus naming the world's second largest country.[7]

At just about the same period, Basques came to frequent the area for whale-hunting and trade with the First Nations people of the modern Canadian Atlantic and Quebec provinces. They left vestiges of their presence in many locations of the area—docks, furnaces, graveyards, etc.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Atlantic region, Government of Canada, page 86" (PDF). publications.gc.ca. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  2. ^ "Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition" (PDF). International Hydrographic Organization. 1953. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
  3. ^ "Fisheries and Oceans Canada - Quebec Region - Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence". www.qc.dfo-mpo.gc.ca. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  4. ^ "Parks Reserves and Natural Sites". Tourisme Îles de la Madeleine.
  5. ^ Galbraith, P.S., Pettipas, R.G., Chassé, J., Gilbert, D., Larouche, P., Pettigrew, B., Gosselin, A., Devine, L. and Lafleur, C. 2009. Physical Oceanographic Conditions in the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 2008. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2009/014. iv + 69 p.
  6. ^ Gilbert, D., B. Sundby, C. Gobeil, A. Mucci and G.-H. Tremblay. 2005. A seventy-two-year record of diminishing deep-water oxygen in the St. Lawrence estuary: The northwest Atlantic connection. Limnol. Oceanogr., 50(5): 1654–1666.
  7. ^ Document "Discovers Gulf of Saint Lawrence" http://www.csmonitor.com/The-Culture/Family/2013/0812/1912-eighth-grade-exam-Could-you-make-it-to-high-school-in-1912/Discoverers-Gulf-of-Saint-Lawrence/ Document "Discovers Gulf of Saint Lawrence" Check |url= value (help). Missing or empty |title= (help)

External links

Armstrong Mountain (Keene Valley, New York)

Armstrong Mountain is a mountain located in Essex County, New York, named after Thomas Armstrong, a local pioneer.

The mountain is part of the Great Range of the Adirondack Mountains.

Armstrong Mtn. is flanked to the southwest by Gothics, and to the northeast by Upper Wolfjaw Mountain.

Armstrong Mountain stands within the watershed of the East Branch of the Ausable River, which drains into Lake Champlain, thence into Canada's Richelieu River, the Saint Lawrence River, and into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence.

The east side of Armstrong Mtn. drains into the East Branch of the Ausable River.

The west side of Armstrong Mtn. drains into Ore Bed Brook, thence into Johns Brook and the East Branch.

Armstrong Mountain is within the High Peaks Wilderness Area of Adirondack State Park.

Black Mountain (Washington County, New York)

Black Mountain is a mountain located in Washington County, New York, of which its peak is the highest point.

Isolated from the rest of the Adirondack Mountains by Lake George, Black Mtn. has the seventh highest topographic prominence of all the mountains in New York.

Black Mountain stands within the watershed of Lake Champlain, thence into Canada's Richelieu River, the Saint Lawrence River, and into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence.

The northwest and south sides of Black Mtn. drain into Lake George, thence into La Chute River, and Lake Champlain.

The northeast side of Black Mtn. drains into Pike Brook, thence into the South Bay of Lake Champlain.

Black Mountain is within New York's Adirondack Park.

On the top of Black Mountain is a weather station and wind turbine as well as a fire tower that is now out of commission and has been fenced off from the public.

Blake Peak

Blake Peak (or Blake Mountain) is a mountain located in Essex County, New York. The mountain is named after Mills Blake (died 1930), Verplanck Colvin’s chief assistant during the Adirondack Survey.

It is part of the Colvin Range.

Blake Peak is flanked to the northeast by Mount Colvin, and to the southwest by Pinnacle.

The northwest side of Blake Peak drains into the East Branch of the Ausable River, between Upper and Lower Ausable Lakes.

The Ausable River drains into Lake Champlain, which in turn drains into Canada's Richelieu River, the Saint Lawrence River, and into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence.

The southeast side of Blake Peak drains into the West Inlet of Elk Lake, thence into The Branch of the Schroon River, the Hudson River, and into New York Bay.

Blake Peak was formerly thought to have an elevation of at least 4,000 ft (1,219 m), so it was included on the list of 46 Adirondack High Peaks. More recent surveys show Blake and three other peaks fell slightly short, but they remain on the list.

Couchsachraga Peak

Couchsachraga Peak is a mountain located in Essex County, New York.

"Couchsachraga" is based on an Algonquin or Huron name for the area, meaning "dismal wilderness". The mountain is part of the Santanoni Mountains of the Adirondacks. Couchsachraga Peak is flanked to the east by Panther Peak. There is no marked trail to the summit, which, being fully forested, has no views.

Couchsachraga Peak stands within the watershed of the Cold River, which drains into the Raquette River, the Saint Lawrence River in Canada, and into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence.

The southern sides of Couchsachraga drains into Calahan Brook, thence into Moose Creek and the Cold River.

The northeast and northern sides of Couchsachraga drain via several brooks into the Cold River.

According to the 1897 survey of the Adirondacks, the height of Couchsachraga Peak was over 4,000 feet (1,219 m), so it was included in the 46 High Peaks; the 1953 USGS found it and three other peaks to be lower, but the list has not been changed.

Couchsachraga is within New York's Adirondack Park.

Dial Mountain

Dial Mountain is a mountain located in Essex County, New York.

The mountain is part of the Colvin Range.

Dial Mountain is flanked to the southwest by Nippletop.

Dial Mountain stands within the watershed of Lake Champlain, which drains into Canada's Richelieu River, the Saint Lawrence River, and into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence.

The west side of Dial Mountain drains into Gill Brook, thence into the East Branch of Ausable River, and into Lake Champlain.

The southeast side of Dial Mountain drains into the headwaters of the North Fork of the Boquet River, thence into Lake Champlain.

The northeast side of Dial Mountain drains into Gravestone Brook, thence into the North Fork of the Boquet River.

Donaldson Mountain

Donaldson Mountain is a mountain located in Franklin County, New York, named in 1924 after Alfred Lee Donaldson (1866–1923), author of A History of the Adirondacks.

The mountain is part of the Seward Mountains of the Adirondacks.

Donaldson Mtn. is flanked to the northeast by Seward Mountain, and to the south by Mount Emmons.

Donaldson Mountain stands within the watershed of the Raquette River, which drains into the Saint Lawrence River in Canada, and into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence.

The southeast side of Donaldson Mt. drains into Seward Brook, thence into the Cold River, a tributary of the Raquette River.

The southwest end of Donaldson Mt. drains into Boulder Brook, thence into the Cold River.

The northwest side of Donaldson drains into Calkins Brook, thence into the Raquette River.

Donaldson Mountain is within the High Peaks Wilderness Area of Adirondack State Park.

Grace Peak

Grace Peak is a mountain located in Essex County, New York. It is part of the Dix Range, named after John A. Dix (1798–1879), New York Secretary of State in 1837, and later Governor. The mountain was formerly called East Dix, but in 2014 it was officially renamed Grace Peak in honor of Grace Hudowalski (1906–2004), who in 1937 became the ninth person and first woman to climb all 46 of the Adirondack High Peaks. Grace Peak is flanked to the northeast by Spotted Mountain, and to the southwest by South Dix.

The northwest side of Grace Peak drains into the headwaters of the South Fork of the Boquet River, thence into Lake Champlain, which drains into Canada's Richelieu River, the Saint Lawrence River, and into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence.

The east side of Grace Peak drains into Lindsay Brook, thence into the Schroon River, the Hudson River, and into New York Bay.

The south side of Grace Peak drains into West Mill Brook, thence into the Schroon River.

Grace Peak is within the Dix Mountain Wilderness Area of Adirondack State Park.

Hough Peak

Hough Peak (pronounced "huff") is a mountain located in Essex County, New York.

The mountain, part of the Dix Range, is named after Franklin B. Hough (1822–1885), the first chief of the United States Division of Forestry, and sometimes called the "father of American forestry".

Hough Peak is flanked to the north by Dix Mountain, and to the south by South Dix.

The east side of Hough Peak drains into the headwaters of the South Fork of the Boquet River, thence into Lake Champlain, which drains into Canada's Richelieu River, the Saint Lawrence River, and into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence.

The west side of Hough Peak drains into Lillian Brook, thence into the East Inlet of Elk Lake, and into The Branch of the Schroon River, the Hudson River, and into New York Bay.

Hough Peak is within the Dix Mountain Wilderness Area of Adirondack State Park.

List of rivers of Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia's rivers all flow into the Atlantic Ocean through four unique watersheds: the Gulf of Maine, the Northumberland Strait, the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and into the Atlantic Ocean itself.

Lower Wolfjaw Mountain

Lower Wolfjaw Mountain is located in Essex County, New York. Landscape artist Alexander Helwig Wyant (1836–1892) named Lower Wolfjaw, together with neighboring Upper Wolfjaw Mountain, about 1870 for their appearance in profile. The mountain is the northeasternmost of the Adirondack High Peaks in the Great Range of the Adirondack Mountains. Lower Wolfjaw Mountain is flanked to the southwest by Upper Wolfjaw Mountain, and to the northeast by Hedgehog Mountain.

Lower Wolfjaw Mountain stands within the watershed of the East Branch of the Ausable River, which drains into Lake Champlain, thence into Canada's Richelieu River, the Saint Lawrence River, and into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. The east and southeast sides of Lower Wolfjaw Mtn. drain into Wedge Brook, thence into the East Branch of the Ausable River. The west side of Lower Wolfjaw Mountain drains into Wolfjaw Brook, thence into Johns Brook and the East Branch. The north side of Lower Wolfjaw drains into Bennies Brook, thence into Johns Brook. The northeast end of Lower Wolfjaw drains into Rock Cut Brook, thence into Johns Brook.

Lower Wolfjaw Mountain is within the High Peaks Wilderness Area of New York's Adirondack Park.

Lyon Mountain (Clinton County, New York)

Lyon Mountain is a mountain located in Clinton County, New York, of which its peak is the highest point.

The mountain is named for Nathaniel Lyon, an early settler of the area who moved from Vermont in 1803 and died circa 1850.

Lyon Mountain stands within the watershed of the Saint Lawrence River, and into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence.

The northeast slopes of Lyon Mtn. drain into Chazy Lake, the source of the Great Chazy River, and Lake Champlain, which drains into Canada's Richelieu River, thence into the Saint Lawrence River.

The southeast slopes of Lyon Mtn. drain into Smithkill Brook, thence into True Brook, the Saranac River, and Lake Champlain.

The southwest end of Lyon drains into Cold Brook, thence into the North Branch of the Saranac River.

The west slopes of Lyon drain into Standish Brook, thence into Middle Kiln Brook, Upper and Lower Chateaugay Lakes, the source of the Chateaugay River, which drains into the Saint Lawrence River in Canada.

The northwest slopes of Lyon drain into Separator Brook, thence into Upper Chateaugay Lake.

Lyon Mountain Mountain Fire Observation Station, built in 1917, still stands atop the mountain, and can be accessed by hikers.

Lyon Mountain is within New York's Adirondack Park.

Mount Van Hoevenberg

Mount Van Hoevenberg is a summit point located in the Adirondack Mountains in the Town of North Elba, Essex County, New York, 9 miles (15 km) east-southeast of the village of Lake Placid. Named for Henry Van Hoevenberg (1849–1918), it is best known for the location of the bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton track, and of a network of cross-country ski trails. The Mount Van Hoevenberg sports complex was used to host the 1932 (bobsleigh) and 1980 Winter Olympics (bobsleigh, luge, cross-country skiing, and biathlon).

Mount Van Hoevenberg stands within the watershed of the West Branch of the Ausable River, which drains into Lake Champlain, thence into Canada's Richelieu River, the Saint Lawrence River, and into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence.

The southwest slopes of Mt. Van Hoevenberg drain directly into the West Branch.

The northern and southern slopes of Van Hoevenberg drain into the North and South Meadow Brooks, respectively — tributaries of the West Branch.

The mountain is part of the Olympic Regional Development Authority (ORDA). ORDA maintains the cross-country ski and biathlon trail system originally used in the 1980 Olympics.

During the summer, the mountain is used for hiking and mountain biking.

Nippletop

Nippletop is a mountain located in Essex County, New York.

The mountain is part of the Colvin Range.

Nippletop is flanked to the northeast by Dial Mountain.

To the east, it faces Dix Mountain across Hunters Pass, and to the west it faces Mount Colvin across Elk Pass.

The west side of Nippletop drains into the West Inlet of Elk Lake, thence into The Branch of the Schroon River, the Hudson River, and into New York Bay.

The south and east sides of Nippletop drain into the East Inlet of Elk Lake.

The northeast side of Nippletop drains into the headwaters of the North Fork of the Boquet River, thence into Lake Champlain, which drains into Canada's Richelieu River, the Saint Lawrence River, and into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence.

The northwest side of Nippletop drains into Gill Brook, thence into the East Branch of Ausable River, and into Lake Champlain.

Nippletop Mountain, 3,018 ft (920 m) high, is a different nearby mountain (about 12 kilometers or 7 miles away), at 43°59.54′N 73°45.16′W.

Saddleback Mountain (Keene, New York)

Saddleback Mountain is a mountain located in Essex County, New York.

The mountain is part of the Great Range of the Adirondack Mountains.

The 0.2 mi (0.32 km) long summit ridge has peaks at each end with a pronounced dip between, giving it the profile of a saddle.

Saddleback Mtn. is flanked to the southwest by Basin Mountain, and to the east by Gothics.

Saddleback Mountain stands within the watershed of the East Branch of the Ausable River, which drains into Lake Champlain, thence into Canada's Richelieu River, the Saint Lawrence River, and into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence.

The southeast end and southwest side of Saddleback Mtn. drain into Shanty Brook, thence into the East Branch of the Ausable River between Upper and Lower Ausable Lake.

The northwest end of Saddleback Mtn. drains into Chicken Coop Brook, thence into Johns Brook and the East Branch.

The northeast side of Saddleback Mtn. drains into Ore Bed Brook, thence into Johns Brook.

Saddleback Mountain is within the High Peaks Wilderness Area of Adirondack State Park.

Sawteeth (New York)

Sawteeth (sometimes Resagonia Mountain or Sawtooth) is a mountain located in Essex County, New York.

The mountain is part of the Great Range of the Adirondack Mountains.

The mountain's name comes from the serrated appearance of its summit ridge.

Sawteeth is on a spur ridge of the Great Range, which branches off to the southeast from Gothics.

Sawteeth stands within the watershed of the East Branch of the Ausable River, which drains into Lake Champlain, thence into Canada's Richelieu River, the Saint Lawrence River, and into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence.

The west side and south end of Sawteeth drain into Shanty Brook, thence into the East Branch of the Ausable River between Upper and Lower Ausable Lake.

The east side and north end of Sawteeth drain into Cascade Brook, thence into the East Branch below Lower Ausable Lake.

Sawteeth is within the High Peaks Wilderness Area of Adirondack Park.

Seward Mountain (New York)

Seward Mountain is a mountain located in Franklin County, New York, of which it is the highest point.

Seward Mtn. is named after William H. Seward (1801–1872), Governor of New York (1839–1842), and United States Secretary of State (1861–1869).

The mountain is part of the Seward Mountains of the Adirondacks.

Seward Mountain is flanked to the southwest by Donaldson Mountain, and to the east faces Seymour Mountain across Ouluska Pass.

Seward Mountain stands within the watershed of the Raquette River, which drains into the Saint Lawrence River in Canada, and into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence.

The southeast slopes of Seward Mtn. drain into Seward Brook, thence into the Cold River, a tributary of the Raquette River.

The west end of Seward Mtn. drains into Calkins Brook, thence into the Raquette River.

The northern slopes of Seward drain into Ward Brook, thence into Ampersand Lake, Ampersand Brook, Stony Creek, and the Raquette River.

Seward Mountain is within the High Peaks Wilderness Area of New York's Adirondack Park.

Table Top Mountain (New York)

Table Top Mountain is a mountain located in Essex County, New York.

Table Top Mtn. is flanked to the north by Phelps Mountain, and to the south by Mount Marcy.

Table Top has three summits; the southernmost is the highest, followed by the middle peak (1,312 m) and the north peak (1,285 m).

Table Top Mountain stands within the watershed of the Ausable River, which drains into Lake Champlain, thence into Canada's Richelieu River, the Saint Lawrence River, and into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence.

The southwest end of Table Top Mtn. drains into Marcy Brook, and the West Branch of the Ausable River.

The northwest side of Table Top Mtn. drains into Phelps Brook, thence into Marcy Brook.

The north end of Table Top drains into Klondike Brook, thence into the Ausable's West Branch.

The southeast side of Table Top drains into Johns Brook, thence into the East Branch of the Ausable River.

Table Top Mountain is within the High Peaks Wilderness Area of the Adirondack State Park.

Upper Wolfjaw Mountain

Upper Wolfjaw Mountain is a mountain located in Essex County, New York.

Landscape artist Alexander Helwig Wyant (1836–1892) named the mountain, in combination with neighboring Lower Wolfjaw Mountain, c. 1870 for their appearance in profile.

The mountain is part of the Great Range of the Adirondack Mountains.

Upper Wolfjaw Mtn. is flanked to the southwest by Armstrong Mountain, and to the northeast by Lower Wolfjaw Mtn.

Upper Wolfjaw Mountain stands within the watershed of the East Branch of the Ausable River, which drains into Lake Champlain, thence into Canada's Richelieu River, the Saint Lawrence River, and into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence.

The east and southeast sides of Upper Wolfjaw Mtn. drain into the East Branch of the Ausable River.

The west side of Upper Wolfjaw drains into Ore Body Brook, thence into Johns Brook and the East Branch.

The north side of Upper Wolfjaw drains into Wolfjaw Brook, thence into Johns Brook.

Upper Wolfjaw Mountain is within the High Peaks Wilderness Area of New York's Adirondack Park.

Wallface Mountain

Wallface Mountain is a mountain located in Essex County, New York.

The mountain is named after the cliff on its southeastern side.

Wallface is flanked to the west by MacNaughton Mountain, and faces Mount Marshall to the southeast across Indian Pass.

The southeast and west sides of Wallface Mountain drain into the southern Indian Pass Brook, thence into Henderson Lake, the source of the Hudson River, which drains into New York Bay.

The northern slopes of Wallface Mountain drain into the northern Indian Pass Brook, thence into the West Branch of the Ausable River, into Lake Champlain, thence into Canada's Richelieu River, the Saint Lawrence River, and into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence.

Wallface Mountain is within the High Peaks Wilderness Area of New York's Adirondack Park.

Arctic Ocean
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