Gulf of Kutch

The Gulf of Kutch is an inlet of the Arabian Sea along the west coast of India, in the state of Gujarat, which is renowned for extreme daily tides.[1]

Gujarat Gulfs
Gulf of Kutch on the left. Image NASA Earth Observatory
Gulf of Kutch 1896
Gulf of Kutch in 1896

History

The Gulf of Kutch is referred to in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, a travelogue written in about 50 CE, as the Gulf of Baraca.[2]

Geography

The maximum depth of Gulf of Kutch is 402 feet (123 m).

It is a region with highest potential of tidal energy generation.

It is about 99 miles in length, and divides Kutch and the Kathiawar peninsula regions of Gujarat. The Rukmavati River empties into the Arabian Sea nearby. Gulf of Khambhat lies in south and the Great Rann of Kutch is located in north of the gulf.

Flora and fauna

The first coral garden will be set up near Mithapur in the Gulf of Kutch. The different species of corals will be set up and an underwater garden will be developed for conservation and tourism purposes. It will be developed by a joint venture of Gujarat forest department, Wildlife Trust of India and Tata Chemicals.[3]

See also

References

  1. ^ Tidal study, Atlantis Resources Archived 2012-06-30 at Archive.today
  2. ^ Schoff, Wilfred H.: The Periplus of the Erythrean Sea - Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First Century, Longmans, Green and Co. London, 1912.
  3. ^ "India's First 'Coral Garden' to be Set up in Gujarat". Press Trust of India. Sep 3, 2014.

Coordinates: 22°36′N 69°30′E / 22.600°N 69.500°E

Bet Dwarka

Bet Dwarka or Shankhodhar is an inhabited island at mouth of Gulf of Kutch situated 3 km (2 mi) off the coast of Okha, Gujarat, India. The island is measured northwest to southeast in 13 km (8 mi) with an average 4 km (2 mi) in east-west direction. It is a strip of sand and stone situated 30 km (19 mi) north of town of Dwarka.

Coral reefs in India

Coral reefs in India are one of the most ancient and dynamic ecosystems of India. The coral reefs not only provide a sanctuary to a myriad of marine life but also play a key role in protecting the coastline from erosion. India has about 7517 km of coastline including islands but mainland coast is 6100 km.

Devbhumi Dwarka district

Devbhumi Dwarka District is a district of India located on the southern coast of the Gulf of Kutch in the state of Gujarat. Its headquarters are located in the city of Jamkhambhaliya. The district was created on August 15, 2013 from Jamnagar district.

Gola Dhoro

Gola Dhoro is an archaeological site belonging to Indus Valley Civilization, situated at the head of the Gulf of Kutch, near Bagasara in Kutch district of Gujarat, India. The site contains a small fortified area of approximately 50x50 m with living quarters and manufacturing sites both inside and outside this area.

Great Rann of Kutch

The Great Rann of Kutch is a salt marsh in the Thar Desert in the Kutch District of Gujarat, India. It is about 7500 sq km (2900 sq miles) in area and is reputed to be one of the largest salt deserts in the world. This area has been inhabited by the Kutchi people.The Hindi word is derived from Sanskrit/Vedic word iriṇa (इरिण) attested in the Rigveda and Mahabharata.

Gulf of Khambhat

The Gulf of Khambhat, also known as the Gulf of Cambay, is a bay on the Arabian Sea coast of India, bordering the state of Gujarat. The Gulf of Khambhat is about 200 km (120 mi) long, about 20 km (12 mi) wide in the north and up to 70 km (43 mi) wide in the south. Major rivers draining Gujarat are the Narmada, Tapti, Mahi and Sabarmati that form estuaries in the gulf.It divides the Kathiawar Peninsula from the south-eastern part of Gujarat.There are plans to construct a 30-kilometre (19 mi) dam, Kalpasar Project, across the gulf.

Halar

Halar(Haalaar) is a historical region of western India, located by the Gulf of Kutch coast on the northwestern area of Nawanagar, now Jamnagar, in Gujarat State, on Saurashtra peninsula, roughly corresponding to the present Jamnagar District, Devbhumi Dwarka district, Morbi District and Rajkot District.

In 1901 it had an area of 19,365km² and a population of 764,992 inhabitants.

Jamnagar district

Jamnagar District is a district of India located on the southern coast of the Gulf of Kutch in the state of Gujarat. Its headquarters are located in the eponymous city of Jamnagar. It hosts the production facilities of several large Indian companies such as Reliance and Essar. Among its attractions are several palaces, a Marine National Park and a Bird Sanctuary, known as Khijadiya Bird Sanctuary.

Kandla

for the village in Estonia see Kandla, Estonia.

Kandla, also known as the Kandla Port Trust or Deendayal Port is a seaport in Kutch District of Gujarat state in western India, near the city of Gandhidham. Located on the Gulf of Kutch, it is one of major ports on west coast. Kandla was constructed in the 1950s as the chief seaport serving western India, after the partition of India and Pakistan left the port of Karachi in Pakistan.

The Port of Kandla is located on the Gulf of Kutch on the northwestern coast of India, some 256 nautical miles southeast of the Port of Karachi in Pakistan and over 430 nautical miles north-northwest of the Port of Mumbai (Bombay). It is the largest port of India by volume of cargo handled. Kandla Port Trust, India's busiest major port in recent years, is gearing to add substantial cargo handling capacity with private sector participation. The west coast port handled 72,225 million tonnes of cargo in 2008-09, over 11% more than the 64,920 million tonnes handled in 2007-08.

Even as much of this growth has come from handling of crude oil imports, mainly for Essar Oil's Vadinar refinery in Gujarat, the port is also taking measures to boost non-POL cargo. Last fiscal, POL traffic accounted for 63 per cent of the total cargo handled at Kandla Port, as against 59% in 2007-08.

The port will soon begin selecting developers for four clean cargo berths that together aim to handle 8 million tonnes of cargo. The four berths will be supported by a 14 m draft capable of handling 75,000 dwt vessels. The port has already received encouraging response from prospective bidders, for the project that is estimated to cost nearly 5,000 million INR.

In 2015-16 the port handled 106 million tonne of cargo.Kandla Port was renamed as Deendayal Port under the India port act of 1908.

Kathiawar

Kathiawar ([kɑʈʰijɑʋɑɽ]) is a peninsula on the Indian west coast of about 61,000 km2 (23,500 sq mi) bordering the Arabian Sea. It is bounded by the Gulf of Kutch in the northwest and by the Gulf of Khambhat in the east. In the northeast, it is connected to mainland Gujarat. It is crossed by two belts of hill country and nine leading streams. Kathiawar ports were flourishing centres of trade and commerce since at least the 16th century.

Marine National Park, Gulf of Kutch

Marine National Park in the Gulf of Kutch is situated on the southern shore of the Gulf of Kutch in the Devbhumi Dwarka district of Gujarat state, India. In 1980, an area of 270 km2 from Okha to Jodiya was declared Marine Sanctuary. Later, in 1982, a core area of 110 km2 was declared Marine National Park under the provisions of the Wildlife (protection) Act, 1972 of India. There are 42 islands on the Jamnagar coast in the Marine National Park, most of them surrounded by reefs. The best known island is Pirotan.

Mundra Thermal Power Station

Mundra Thermal Power Station is located at Mundra in Kutch district in the Indian state of Gujarat. The power plant is one of the coal-based power plants of Adani Power. The coal for the power plant is imported primarily from Bunyu, Indonesia. Source of water for the power plant is sea water from the Gulf of Kutch.

It is the world's 11th-largest single location coal-based thermal power plant as well as India's second largest operational power plant after NTPC Vindhyanchal.

Muzaffarids (Gujarat)

The Muzaffarid dynasty, sometimes referred as Ahmedabad dynasty, were sultans of Gujarat in western India from 1391 to 1583. The founder of the dynasty was Zafar Khan (later Muzaffar Shah I) who was governor of Gujarat under the Delhi Sultanate. Zafar Khan's father Sadharan, was a Tanka Rajput convert to Islam, adopted the name Wajih-ul-Mulk, and had given his sister in marriage to Firuz Shah Tughlaq. When the Sultanate was weakened by the sacking of Delhi by Timur in 1398, and Zafar Khan took the opportunity to establish himself as sultan of an independent Gujarat. His son, Ahmed Shah I established the capital at Ahmedabad. The dynasty ruled for almost 200 years, until the conquest of Gujarat by the Mughal Empire in 1572. The sultanate reached its peak of expansion under Mahmud Begada, reaching east into Malwa and west to the Gulf of Kutch.

Nawanagar State

Nawanagar (also spelled Nowanuggur) was an Indian princely state in the historical Halar region, located on the southern shores of the Gulf of Kutch. It was ruled by the Jadeja dynasty from its formation in c 1540 until 1948 when it became a part of newly formed India. The city is now known as Jamnagar. It had an area of 3,791 square miles (9,820 km2) and a population estimated at 336,779 in 1901. Its rulers, who used the title of "Jam Saheb" were Yaduvanshi Rajput of the same clan as the Rao of Kutch. They were entitled to a 13-gun salute. The state flag was a rectangular red flag with a white elephant, near and facing the hoist. During the British Raj, the state was part of the Kathiawar Agency, within the Gujarat Division of Bombay Presidency.The state had a pearl fishery and much of its wealth came from this. Nawanagar is also famous for its former ruler Jam Saheb Ranjitsinhji (died 1933), who was a famous cricket player at Cambridge in England before his accession to the throne.

Port of Jakhau

The Port of Jakhau is a fair weather port on the Gulf of Kutch, Kutch District, in the state of Gujarat, India. Situated on Godia Creek, and 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) from the village of Jakhau, it provides an anchorage port. The port is partially sheltered from the direct sea-waves, but remains closed during the monsoon season. The port is operated by the Gujarat Maritime Board and renovated in year 2001 in modern way.The nearest railway stations are in naliya Bhuj and Gandhidham, and the nearest airport is in Bhuj Airport. The port boasts of entire gujarat's fishing community and almost all types of boats.

Pranami

Pranami(Meaning: Those who bows on), also known as Dhami, is a Vaishnavism sub-tradition within Hinduism, focussed on god Krishna. The tradition emerged in the 17th century in Western India, based on the teachings of Bhakti saints, Sri Devchandra Maharaj and his foremost disciple Sri Mehraj Thakur (also known as Mahamati Prannath or Prananath, which gives this tradition the name).The traditions grew after Mughal Empire declined, in the wake of Aurangzeb's religious persecution of non-Muslims, when Hindu rebellion led to new kingdoms. King Chhatrasal of one such kingdom of Bundelkhand patronized Prannath. The Pranami tradition welcomed Hindus and Muslims to join the Supreme Truth Akshrateet Shri Krishna worship tradition. At conversion initiation, Prannath would invite the new members to dine together regardless of whether they came from Hindu or Muslim background. He would also explain the Pranami ideas by citing Hindu and Muslim texts to make his teachings connect with the background of the converts.

The religious center of the Pranami tradition has been in northeast Madhya Pradesh, in the town of Panna. In the contemporary era, other major Pranami religious centers (gaddi) are in Jamnagar (Gujarat) and Phuguwa (south of Kathmandu, Nepal).The Pranami worship Akshrateet Shri Krishna as the Supreme Truth God, and its theology holds nirguna Brahman (panentheistic) view of influenced by the Shuddhadvaita philosophy of Vallabhacharya. Its Hindu temples include idols, or sometimes just the texts. It's theology is contained in 14 religious texts attributed to Prannath, the Bhagavad Gita and the Bhagavata Purana. While the Hindu scriptures Bhagavad Gita and the Bhagavata Purana are in Sanskrit, the 14 Prannath compositions contain 18,768 chaupai (verses), and is called Kuljam Svarup. It is, like in other Bhakti movement saint traditions, an eclectic mix of vernacular languages found in central, west and north India: Hindi, Gujarati, Urdu, Arabic, Persian, Sindhi and Sanskrit. The Pranami devotees believe that Prannath taught with his text, the essence of all major religious texts of the world, including the Vedas, the Bhagawat Geeta, the Quran and the Bible. The devotees believe in Hindu bhakti, but willingly accept or reject teachings found in other sources and texts.

The tradition is strictly vegetarian (ahimsa, non-violence to animals), non-caste tradition dedicated to Radha-Krishna. Dedicated Pranami temples exist such as in Kathiawar and Gulf of Kutch region, but followers of Pranami traditions substitute it by praying and spiritual pursuits in any nearby convenient Hindu Krishna temples. There are an estimated 5-10 million Pranamis found primarily throughout North India, particularly the states of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal (Darjeeling , Kalimpong and Sikkim), and Assam, as well as the eastern half of Nepal.Mahatma Gandhi's mother was a pious Pranami Hindu.

Rangpur, India

Rangpur is an ancient archaeological site near Vanala on Saurashtra peninsula in Gujarat, western India. Lying on the tip between the Gulf of Khambhat and Gulf of Kutch, it belongs to the period of the Indus Valley Civilization, and lies to the northwest of the larger site of Lothal. It is the type site for the Rangpur culture, a regional form of the late phase of the Indus Valley Civilization that existed in Gujarat during the 2nd millennium BCE.

Sang River

The Sang river is the name of river which drains through Anjar taluka of Kutch, Gujarat, India.It rises from the hills behind a small village named Sinugra near Anjar. It flows by villages like Nagalpur, Anjar, Galpadar and Kharirohar. At village Shinai a dam has been built across it, which provides water to Kandla. The total length of river is 29 km. The river drains into Arabian Sea at Nakti Creek in the Gulf of Kutch.

Western Coastal Plains

The Western Coastal Plains is a strip of coastal plain 50 kilometres (31 mi) in width between the west coast of India and the Western Ghats hills, which starts near the south of the Tapi River. The plains are located between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea. The plains begin at Gujarat in the north and end at Kerala in the south. It includes the states of Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka and Kerala. The region consists of three sections: the Northern part of the coast is called the Konkan (Mumbai-Goa), the central stretch is called the Kanara, while the southern stretch is referred to as the Malabar Coast. On its northern side there are two gulfs: the Gulf of Khambat and the Gulf of Kutch. The rivers along the coast form estuaries and provide conditions ideal for pisciculture. because of the presence of less coastal land in this part, it will be affected more by the global warming.

The northern portion of the west coast is called Konkan and the southern portion Malabar. The south Malabar or Kerala coast is broken and there are some lagoons. The north Malabar Coast is known as the Karnataka coast. Here the Sharavati River, before entering the plains, descends down a 275 m high cliff and forms the Gersoppa Falls.

The Western Coastal Plains extend 1,500 km from Cape Comorin in the south to Surat in north, the width ranging from 10 to 25 km from north to south, the Gujarat Plains the Konkan plains (Daman to Goa, 500 km), the Karnataka coastal plains (225 km south from Goa), and the Kerala coastal plains from Cannanore to Cape Comorin, 500 km make up the west coastal plains. The West Continental shelf is widest (350 km) off the coast of Bombay where the oil-rich Bombay High has become famous.

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