Gulf of Khambhat

The Gulf of Khambhat, also known as the Gulf of Cambay, is a bay on the Arabian Sea coast of India, bordering the state of Gujarat.[1] The Gulf of Khambhat is about 200 km (120 mi) long, about 20 km (12 mi) wide in the north and up to 70 km (43 mi) wide in the south. Major rivers draining Gujarat are the Narmada, Tapti, Mahi and Sabarmati that form estuaries in the gulf.[2]

It divides the Kathiawar Peninsula from the south-eastern part of Gujarat.[3][4][5]

There are plans to construct a 30-kilometre (19 mi) dam, Kalpasar Project, across the gulf.[6]

Gujarat Gulfs
Gulf of Khambhat on the right. Image NASA Earth Observatory
Gulf of Cambay (North part) 1896
Gulf of Cambay (North part) 1896
Gulf of Cambay (South part) 1896
Gulf of Cambay (South part) 1896

Wildlife

To the west of the Gulf, Asiatic lions inhabit the Gir Forest National Park and its surroundings, the region of Kathiawar or Saurashtra.[3][7] To the east of the Gulf, the Dangs' Forest and Shoolpaneshwar Wildlife Sanctuary, where Gujarat meets Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh, used to host Bengal tigers.[8]

See also

References

  1. ^ Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Cambay, Gulf of" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  2. ^ Saha, S., Banerjee, S., Burley, S.D., Ghosh, A. and Saraswati, P.K. (2010). The influence of flood basaltic source terrains on the efficiency of tectonic setting discrimination diagrams: an example from the Gulf of Khambhat, western India. Sedimentary Geology 228 (1): 1–13.
  3. ^ a b Nowell, K.; Jackson, P. (1996). "Panthera Leo". Wild Cats: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan (PDF). Gland, Switzerland: IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group. pp. 17–21. ISBN 2-8317-0045-0.
  4. ^ Trivedi, P. and Soni, V. C. (2012). Significant bird records and local extinctions in Purna and Ratanmahal Wildlife Sanctuaries, Gujarat, India
  5. ^ Jhala, Y. V., Qureshi, Q., Sinha, P. R. (Eds.) (2011). Status of tigers, co-predators and prey in India, 2010. National Tiger Conservation Authority, Government of India, New Delhi, and Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun. TR 2011/003.
  6. ^ "The Gulf of Khambhat Development Project". Gujarat. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
  7. ^ "Asiatic Lion population up from 411 to 523 in five years". Desh Gujarat. 2015-05-10. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
  8. ^ Karanth, K. U. (2003). "Tiger ecology and conservation in the Indian subcontinent". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 100 (2–3): 169–189. Archived from the original on 2012-03-10.

Coordinates: 21°30′N 72°30′E / 21.500°N 72.500°E

Alang

Alang is a census town in Bhavnagar district in the Indian state of Gujarat. In the past three decades, its beaches have become a major worldwide centre for ship breaking. The longest ship ever built, Seawise Giant, was sailed to and beached here for demolition in December 2009.

Anand district

Anand District is an administrative district of Gujarat state in western India and is popularly known as Charotar. It was carved out of the Kheda district in 1997. Anand is the administrative headquarters of the district. It is bounded by Kheda District to the north, Vadodara District to the east, Ahmedabad District to the west, and the Gulf of Khambhat to the south. Major towns are Khambhat, Karamsad, Tarapur, Petlad and Sojitra.

Arunavati River

Arunavati river is a seasonal tributary of the Tapi river in India. It originates and flows from the Sangvi village and merges into the Tapi river near Uparpind village in Shirpur tehsil. The river flows mostly in monsoon.

Blackbuck National Park, Velavadar

Blackbuck National Park at Velavadar is situated in the Bhavnagar District of Gujarat state, India.

Established in 1976 in the Bhal region of Saurashtra, the park is located around 42 km from the district headquarters city of Bhavnagar. Hugging the coasts of the Gulf of Khambhat on the south, it is spread over an area of 34.08 km2, which was primarily a "vidi" (grassland) of the maharaja of the princely state of Bhavnagar for hunting the blackbucks with his famous hunting cheetahs. On the northern side, it is surrounded by wastelands and agriculture fields. The national park has been classified as 4B Gujarat-Rajwada biotic province of semi-arid bio-geographical zone.

Flat land, dry grasses and herds of antelope have always attracted visitors to this park which has a grassland ecosystem. Successful conservation programs for the blackbuck, wolf and lesser florican (a bustard) are ongoing. Considered to be an endemic Indian species, the lesser florican, which once lived throughout the country, has become endangered in recent decades. Today, the largest population is in this park. Local wolf numbers are increasing, as are striped hyena, with sightings quite frequent during daylight in winter 2012-2013.

Cambay State

Cambay, Kambay or Khambhat was a princely state during the British Raj.

The town of Khambat (Cambay) in present-day Gujarat was its capital. The state was bounded in the north by the Kaira district and in the south by the Gulf of Cambay.

Cambay was the only state in the Kaira Agency of the Gujarat division of the Bombay Presidency, which merged into the Baroda and Gujarat States Agency in 1937.

Daman and Diu

Daman and Diu (locally , Portuguese: Damão e Diu) is a union territory in western India. With an area of 112 km2, it is the smallest federal division of India on the mainland. The territory comprises two distinct regions—Daman and Diu—that are geographically separated by the Gulf of Khambhat. The state of Gujarat and the Arabian Sea border the territory. A Portuguese colony since the 1500s, the territories were annexed by India in 1961. It was ruled by Kolis.

Kalpasar Project

The Kalpasar Project envisages building a 30 km dam across the Gulf of Khambat in India for establishing a huge fresh water coastal reservoir for irrigation, drinking and industrial purposes. A 10 lane road link will also be set up over the dam, greatly reducing the distance between Saurashtra and South Gujarat.Spending began in earnest in 2004, but no work has started amid questions about feasibility.

Kalubhar River

Kalubhar River is a river on the Kathiawar peninsula in the western India state of Gujarat. It rises near Kariyana village of Babra taluka in Amreli District and flows eastward into the Gulf of Khambhat. Its basin has a length of 94 km. The total catchment area of the basin is 1,965 square kilometres (759 sq mi). At its delta it is sometimes known as the Sonpari River.

Kathiawar

Kathiawar ([kɑʈʰijɑʋɑɽ]) is a peninsula on the Indian west coast of about 61,000 km2 (23,500 sq mi) bordering the Arabian Sea. It is bounded by the Gulf of Kutch in the northwest and by the Gulf of Khambhat in the east. In the northeast, it is connected to mainland Gujarat. It is crossed by two belts of hill country and nine leading streams. Kathiawar ports were flourishing centres of trade and commerce since at least the 16th century.

Khambhat

Khambhat (; local pronunciation ) (Gujarati: ખંભાત), also known as Cambay, is a town and the surrounding urban agglomeration in Khambhat Taluka, Anand district in the Indian state of Gujarat. It was once an important trading center, but its harbour gradually silted up, and the maritime trade moved elsewhere. Khambhat lies on an alluvial plain at the north end of the Gulf of Khambhat, noted for the extreme rise and fall of its tides, which can vary as much as thirty feet in the vicinity of Khambhat. Khambhat is known for its halvasan, sutarfeni and kites (patang), and for sources of oil and gas.

Khambat is perhaps the only place in India where the Harappan craft -agate bead making- is found in the living tradition. Surprisingly Khambat has no stone deposits; the craft has survived mainly through acquiring stones from the Rajpipla hills, about 200 km away from the town. In the folklore of Khambat, the beginning of the craft is attributed to Baba Ghor, a 1500 AD saint from Ethiopia who had led a large contingent of Muslims to settle in the town. However, in the archaeological record the origin of the craft can be traced to nearby Lothal, a Harappan outpost that flourished about 4000 years ago.

Mahi River

The Mahi is a river in western India. It rises in Madhya Pradesh and, after flowing through the Vagad region of Rajasthan, enters Gujarat and flows into the Arabian Sea. It is one of the many west-flowing rivers in India, along with Tapti River, Sabarmati River, Luni River (Endorheic river) and the Narmada River. Most peninsular rivers in India flow in an easterly direction into the Bay of Bengal.

It has given its name to the Mahi Kantha agency of Bombay, and also to the mehwasis, marauding highlanders often mentioned in Arabian chronicles.The exact position of Mahi River origin is Minda Village, which is situated in Dhar district Madhya Pradesh.

Mahi River, stream in western India. It rises in the western Vindhya Range, just south of Sardarpur, and flows northward through Madhya Pradesh state. Turning northwest, it enters Rajasthan state and then turns southwest to flow through Gujarat state through the north of Vadodara city outskirts and enters the sea by a wide estuary past Khambhat after about a 360-mile (580-km) course. The silt brought down by the Mahi has contributed to the shallowing of the Gulf of Khambhat and the abandonment of its once-prosperous ports. The riverbed lies considerably lower than the land level and is of little use for irrigation.

The river Mahi is worshipped by a lot of people and has a lot of temples and places of worship along its shore. It is popularly described as Mahisagar due to the vastness of the river. The newly formed Mahisagar district in Gujarat derives its name from this pious river.

Malacca Banks

The Malacca Banks are sandbanks (shoals) below the sea surface, in the Gulf of Khambhat in Gujarat, India. They lie to the west and southwest of the port of Surat and are a system of four irregular ridges running roughly from north to south parallel with the entrance channels to the Gulf. They extend from 21°10′00″N 72°25′00″E to 20°20′00″N 72°10′00″E.

Malacca Bank proper refers only to the one of these banks, the second from the west. To the east of this bank is the Sutherland Channel (which is bounded on its east by the Snally Bank) and to west of the banks is the Grant Channel (which is bounded to its west by the Goapnauth Shoal). Unconnected to these is the Mal Bank which lies at the top of the Gulf of Khambhat where the Sabarmati and Mahi rivers converge.

Marine archeology in the Gulf of Khambhat

Marine archeology in the Gulf of Khambhat - earlier known as Gulf of Cambay - centers around controversial findings made in December 2000 by the National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT). The structures and artifacts discovered by NIOT are the subject of contention. The major disputes surrounding the Gulf of Khambhat Cultural Complex (GKCC) are claims about the existence of submerged city-like structures, the difficulty associating dated artifacts with the site itself, and disputes about whether stone artifacts recovered at the site are actually geofacts or artifacts. One major complaint is that artifacts at the site were recovered by dredging, instead of being recovered during a controlled archeological excavation. This leads archeologists to claim that these artifacts cannot be definitively tied to the site. Because of this problem, prominent archeologists reject a piece of wood that was recovered by dredging and dated to 7500 BC as having any significance in dating the site. The surveys were followed up in the following years and two palaeo channels of old rivers were discovered in the middle of the Khambhat area under 20-40m water depths, at a distance of about 20 km from the present day coast.

Mumbai High Field

Bombay High is an offshore oilfield 165 kilometres (103 mi) off the coast of Mumbai, India, in about 75 m of water. The oil operations are run by India's Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC).

Bombay High field was discovered by an Indian oil exploration team operating from the seismic exploration vessel Academic Arkhangelsky during mapping of the Gulf of Khambhat (earlier Cambay) in 1964-67, followed by a detailed survey in 1972. The naming of the field is attributed to a team from a survey run in 1965 analysed in the Rashmi building in Peddar Road, Cumballa Hill, Bombay. The first offshore well was sunk in 1974.Every oil resource rock requires Structural traps which are mainly salt dome, coral reefs, fault trap and fold trap. In case of Bombay High, the structure is a "north-northwest to south-southeast trending doubly plunging Anticline with a faulted east limb", 65 km long and 23 km wide", and is the most probable reason to call it "Bombay High".

Narmada River

The Narmada River, also called the Rewa and previously also known as Nerbudda, is a river in central India after the Godavari, and the Krishna. It is also known as "Life Line of Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh" for its huge contribution to the state of Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh in many ways. Narmada rises from Amarkantak Plateau near Anuppur district. It forms the traditional boundary between North India and South India and flows westwards over a length of 1,312 km (815.2 mi) before draining through the Gulf of Khambhat into the Arabian Sea, 30 km (18.6 mi) west of Bharuch city of Gujarat.It is one of only three major rivers in peninsular India that run from east to west (longest west flowing river), along with the Tapti River and the Mahi River. It is one of the rivers in India that flows in a rift valley, flowing west between the Satpura and Vindhya ranges. The other rivers which flow through rift valley include Damodar River in Chota Nagpur Plateau and Tapti. The Tapti River and Mahi River also flow through rift valleys, but between different ranges. It flows through the states of Madhya Pradesh (1,077 km (669.2 mi)), and Maharashtra, (74 km (46.0 mi)),(39 km (24.2 mi)) (actually along the border between Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra (39 km (24.2 mi)) and then the border between Maharastra and Gujarat (74 km (46.0 mi)) and in Gujarat (161 km (100.0 mi)).The Periplus Maris Erythraei (c. 80 AD) calls it the Nammadus, and the British Raj called it the Nerbudda or Narbada. Narmada' is a Sanskrit word meaning "the Giver of Pleasure".

Rangpur, India

Rangpur is an ancient archaeological site near Vanala on Saurashtra peninsula in Gujarat, western India. Lying on the tip between the Gulf of Khambhat and Gulf of Kutch, it belongs to the period of the Indus Valley Civilization, and lies to the northwest of the larger site of Lothal. It is the type site for the Rangpur culture, a regional form of the late phase of the Indus Valley Civilization that existed in Gujarat during the 2nd millennium BCE.

Sabarmati River

The Sabarmati river is one of the major west-flowing rivers in India. It originates in the Aravalli Range of the Udaipur District of Rajasthan and meets the Gulf of Khambhat of Arabian Sea after travelling 371 km (231 mi) in a south-westerly direction across Rajasthan and Gujarat. 48 km (30 mi) of the river length is in Rajasthan, while 323 km (201 mi) is in Gujarat.

Saurashtra (region)

Saurashtra, also known as Sorath or Kathiawar, is a peninsular region of Gujarat, India, located on the Arabian Sea coast. It covers about a third of Gujarat state, notably 11 districts of Gujarat, including Rajkot District.

Tapti River

The Tapti River (or Tapi) is a river in central India between the Godavari and Narmada rivers. It flows westwards over a length of 724 km (449.9 mi) before draining through the Gulf of Khambhat into the Arabian Sea. It flows through Surat, and is crossed by the Magdalla ONGC Bridge.

The river Tapti rises in Satpura range. At Khandwa-Burhandpur Gap the rivers Tapti and Narmada come close to each other. On 7 August 1968, before the construction of the Ukai Dam to bring its waters under control and provide hydroelectric power, the Tapti River overflowed its banks during heavy rains during the monsoon season. More than 1,000 people drowned in the flood and the city of Surat was submerged beneath 10 feet of water for several days. After the floodwaters receded, at least 1,000 more people died in Gujarat state during a cholera epidemic from the contamination of the drinking water.

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