Gulf of Finland

The Gulf of Finland (Finnish: Suomenlahti; Estonian: Soome laht; Russian: Фи́нский зали́в, tr. Finskiy zaliv, IPA: [ˈfʲinskʲɪj zɐˈlʲif]; Swedish: Finska viken) is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea. It extends between Finland (to the north) and Estonia (to the south) all the way to Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. Other major cities around the gulf include Helsinki and Tallinn. The eastern parts of the Gulf of Finland belong to Russia, and some of Russia's most important oil harbours are located farthest in, near Saint Petersburg (including Primorsk). As the seaway to Saint Petersburg, the Gulf of Finland has been and continues to be of considerable strategic importance to Russia. Some of the environmental problems affecting the Baltic Sea are at their most pronounced in the shallow gulf.

Gulf of Finland
Baltic Sea map2
Coordinates59°50′N 26°00′E / 59.833°N 26.000°ECoordinates: 59°50′N 26°00′E / 59.833°N 26.000°E
Basin countriesRussia, Finland, Estonia
Max. length400 km (250 mi)
Max. width130 km (81 mi)
Surface area30,000 km2 (12,000 sq mi)
Average depth38 m (125 ft)
Max. depth115 m (377 ft)
SettlementsSaint Petersburg, Helsinki, Tallinn
Official nameSouthern coast of the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea
Designated13 September 1994
Reference no.689[1]

Geography

La2-demis-gulf-of-finland
Gulf of Finland
Record sea ice in Gulf of Finland 2003
Satellite image showing the gulf entirely frozen over in January 2003.

The gulf has an area of 30,000 km2 (12,000 sq mi).[2] The length (from the Hanko Peninsula to Saint Petersburg) is 400 km (250 mi) and the width varies from 70 km (43 mi) near the entrance to 130 km (81 mi) on the meridian of Moshchny Island; in the Neva Bay, it decreases to 12 km (7.5 mi). The gulf is relatively shallow, with the depth decreasing from the entrance to the gulf to the continent. The sharpest change occurs near Narva-Jõesuu, which is why this place is called the Narva wall. The average depth is 38 m (125 ft) with the maximum of 100 m (330 ft). The depth of the Neva Bay is less than 6 metres (20 ft); therefore, a channel was dug at the bottom for safe navigation. Because of the large influx of fresh water from rivers, especially from the Neva River (two-thirds of the total runoff), the gulf water has very low salinity – between 0.2 and 5.8 ‰ at the surface and 0.3–8.5 ‰ near the bottom. The average water temperature is close to 0 °C in winter; in summer, it is 15–17 °C (59–63 °F) at the surface and 2–3 °C (36–37 °F) at the bottom. Parts of the gulf can freeze from late November to late April; the freezing starts in the east and gradually proceeds to the west. Complete freezing usually occurs by late January, and it may not occur in mild winters.[3] Frequent strong western winds cause waves, surges of water and floods.[4][5]

The northern coast of the gulf is high and winding, with abundant small bays and skerries, but only a few large bays (Vyborg) and peninsulas (Hanko and Porkkalanniemi). The coast is mostly sloping; there are abundant sandy dunes, with occasional pine trees.[4] The southern shores are smooth and shallow, but along the entire coast runs a limestone escarpment, the Baltic Klint, with a height up to 55 m (180 ft).[6][7] In the east, the gulf ends with Neva Bay; in the west it merges with the Baltic Sea.

The gulf contains numerous banks, skerries and islands. The largest include Kotlin Island with the city of Kronstadt (population 42,800), Beryozovye Islands, Lisiy Island, Maly Vysotsky Island with the nearby city of Vysotsk (population 1706), Hogland (Suursaari), Moshtchny (Lavansaari), Bolshoy Tyuters (Tytärsaari), Sommers, Naissaar, Kimitoön, Kökar, Seskar (Seiskari), Pakri Islands and others.[8]

Starting in 1700, Russia constructed nineteen artificial islands with fortresses in the gulf. They aimed to defend Russia from maritime attacks, especially in the context of the Great Northern War of 1700–1721. Such fortresses include Fort Alexander, Krasnaya Gorka, Ino, Totleben and Kronshlot.[9]

The largest rivers flowing into the gulf are the Neva (from the east), the Narva (from the south), and the Kymi (from the north). Keila, Pirita, Jägala, Kunda, Luga, Sista and Kovashi flow into the gulf from the south. From the north flow the Sestra River, Porvoo, Vantaa and several other small rivers. The Saimaa Canal connects the gulf with the Saimaa lake.[8]

Extent

The International Hydrographic Organization defines the western limit of the Gulf of Finland as a line running from Spithami (59°13'N), in Estonia, through the Estonian island of Osmussaar from SE to NW and on to the SW extremity of Hanko Peninsula (22°54'E) in Finland.[10]

Geological history

The modern depression can be traced to the incision of large rivers during the Cenozoic prior to the Quaternary glaciation.[11] These rivers eroded the sedimentary strata above the Fennoscandian Shield.[11] In particular the eroded material was made up of Ediacaran (Vendian) and Cambrian-aged claystone and sandtone.[11] As erosion processes the rivers encountered harder layers of Ordovician-aged limestone leading to the formation of the cliffs of Baltic Klint in northern Estonia and Ingria.[11] Subsequently the depression was somewhat reshaped by glacier's activities. Its retreat formed the Littorina Sea, whose water level was some 7–9 metres higher than the present level of the Baltic Sea. Some 4,000 years ago the sea receded and shoals in the gulf have become its islands.[12][13] Later uplifting of the Baltic Shield skewed the surface of the gulf; for this reason, its ancient northern shores are significantly higher than the southern ones.[4]

Komarovo bereg
Ryssänsaari Island in front of Helsinki
Finnish gulf near Tallinn
Finland gulf
Sunset in the Gulf of Finland
Gulf Coast near Komarovo Islands near Helsinki View on the bay from the St. Olaf's Church, Tallinn Fishermen on the Gulf of Finland Sunset in the Gulf of Finland
Haven Kronstadt 20080403 3
San Petersburgo, panorámica del Rio Neva
Suursaari
Kronstadt in winter Panorama of Neva River from the Gulf View on the island of Hogland by Kotka

Flora and fauna

Malusi hülged 02
Malusi islands in Estonia are one of the main habitats of grey seals in the Gulf of Finland.

The climate in the area is humid continental climate, characterized by temperate to hot summers and cold, occasionally severe winters with regular precipitation. The vegetation is dominated by a mixture of coniferous and deciduous forests and treeless coastal meadows and cliffs. The major forest trees are pine, spruce, birch, willows, rowan, aspen, common and gray alder. In the far eastern part of the gulf vegetation of the marshy areas consists mainly of bulrush and reeds, as well as fully aquatic plants, such as white and yellow waterlilies and acute sedge. Aquatic plants in the shallow waters of the gulf include Ruppia and spiny naiad.[14]

Fish species of the gulf include Atlantic salmon, viviparous eelpout, gobies, belica, loach, European chub, common minnow, silver bream, common dace, ruffe, Crucian carp, stickleback, European smelt, common rudd, brown trout, tench, pipefish, burbot, perch, gudgeon, lumpsucker, roach, lamprey, vendace, garfish, common whitefish, common bream, zander, orfe, northern pike, spined loach, sprat, Baltic herring, sabre carp, common bleak, European eel and Atlantic cod.[15] Commercial fishing is carried out in spring and autumn. Grey seal and ringed seal are met in the gulf, but the latter is very rare.[14]

History

Before 1700

Many ancient sites were discovered on the shores of the gulf dated to up to nine thousand years old. Humans began to inhabit these places soon after the ice age glaciers have retreated and the water level of the Littorina Sea lowered to reveal the land. Remains of about 11 Neolithic settlements were found since 1905 in the mouth of the river Sestra River (Leningrad Oblast). They contain arrow tips and scrapers made of quartz, numerous food utensils and traces of firecamps – all indicative of hunting rather than agricultural or animal husbandry activities.[7]

Nicholas Roerich, Guests from Overseas
Overseas Guests by Nicholas Roerich, 1899

The gulf coast was later populated by Finno-Ugric peoples. Eesti (or Chud) inhabited the region of the modern Estonia, Votes were living on the south of the gulf and Izhorians to the south of Neva River. Korela tribes settled to the west of Lake Ladoga.[16] In the 8th and 9th centuries, the banks of Neva and of the Gulf of Finland was populated by East Slavs, in particular by Ilmen Slavs and Krivichs. They were engaged in slash-and-burn agriculture, animal husbandry, hunting and fishing. From the 8th to the 13th century, the Gulf of Finland and Neva were parts of the waterway from Scandinavia, through Eastern Europe to the Byzantine Empire.

From the 9th century, the eastern coast of the gulf belonged to Veliky Novgorod and were called Vodskaya Pyatina. As a result of the 1219 crusade and the Battle of Lindanise, the Northern Estonia became part of Denmark (Danish Estonia).[17] In the 12th century, the city Reval (Latin: Revalia, Russian: Колыва́нь) was established on the territory of modern Tallinn.[18] As a result of the Estonian uprising in 1343, the Northern Estonia was taken over by the Teutonic Order and sold by Denmark in 1346. In 1559, during the Livonian War, the Bishop of Ösel-Wiek in Old Livonia sold his lands to King Frederick II of Denmark for 30,000 thalers. The Danish king gave the territory to his younger brother Magnus who landed on Saaremaa with an army in 1560.[19] The whole of Saaremaa became a Danish possession in 1573, and remained so until it was transferred to Sweden in 1645.[17][20]

In the 12th and 13th centuries, the Finnish tribes on the north of the gulf were conquered by the Swedes who then proceeded to the Slavs. The first encounter is attributed to 1142 when 60 Swedish ships attacked 3 Russian merchant vessels. After a Swedish attack in 1256, the Russian army of Alexander Nevsky crossed the frozen gulf and raided the Swedish territories in the modern Finland. In 1293, the Vyborg Castle and city of Vyborg was founded by the Swedish marshal Torkel Knutsson. The castle was fought over for decades between Sweden and the Novgorod Republic. By the Treaty of Nöteborg in 1323, Vyborg was finally recognized as a part of Sweden. It withstood a prolonged siege by Daniil Shchenya during the Russo–Swedish War of 1496–1499. The town's trade privileges were chartered by King Eric of Pomerania in 1403. Vyborg remained in Swedish hands until its capture by Peter the Great in the Great Northern War (1710).[21]

In 1323, the Treaty of Nöteborg set the border between Sweden and Russia along the river Sestra. In the 15th century, the Izhorian lands of the Novgorod Republic were attached to the Grand Duchy of Moscow. In 1550, Gustav I of Sweden founded a city on the site of modern Helsinki.[18] As a result of the Russian defeat in the Ingrian War (1610–1617) and the Treaty of Stolbovo (1617) the lands on the Gulf of Finland and Neva River became part of the Swedish Ingria. Its capital Nyen was located in the delta of Neva River.[21]

History since 1700

Russia reclaimed the eastern part of the gulf as a result of the victory in the Great Northern War (1700–1721). On 16 May 1703, Saint Petersburg was founded in the mouth of Neva River, not far from Nyen, and in 1712 it became Russia's capital. To protect the city from the Swedish fleet, the Kronshlot fortress was built on an artificial island near the Kotlin Island in May 1704. By 1705, five more such forts were built nearby composing the city Kronstadt. These fortifications, nicknamed by the contemporaries "the Russian Dardanelles", were designed to control the gulf waterway.[22]

In 1710, the cities of Peterhof and Oranienbaum were founded on the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland. On 27 July 1714, near the Hanko Peninsula, the Russian Navy won the Battle of Gangut – a decisive victory over the Imperial Swedish Navy.[16] The Russo-Swedish war ended in 1721 by the Treaty of Nystad, by which Russia received all the lands along the Neva and the Gulf of Finland, as well as Estland, Swedish Livonia and western part of the Karelian Isthmus, including Vyborg. However, Finland was returned to Sweden.[23] The war resumed in (1788–1790), and the Battle of Hogland occurred on 6 July 1788 near the island Gogland. Both the battle and the war were relatively minor and indecisive, with the outcome of Russia retaining its territories.[16]

The next Russo-Swedish war was fought in (1808–1809). It ended with the Treaty of Fredrikshamn giving the Russia rights on the territory of Finland and Åland Islands. The newly established in 1809 Grand Duchy of Finland received broad autonomy within the Russian Empire and Western Karelia was returned to Finland.[24] On 6 December 1917, the Parliament of Finland promulgated the Finnish Declaration of Independence. Western Karelia was annexed by the Soviet Union after the Winter War.[16]

Estonia declared independence on 24 February 1918 and fought a war of independence. The republic existed until 1940 and then was annexed by the Soviet Union.[17] Estonia regained its independence after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.

Gangut
Desprez - Battle of Hogland
Russian victory vyborg
Battle of Gangut Battle of Hogland Sea battle at Vyborg(1790)
Ivan Aivazovsky, 1846

In March 1921, the Kronstadt rebellion by sailors was put down by the Red Army. The Gulf of Finland had several major naval operations during World War II. In August 1941, during the evacuation of the Baltic Fleet from Tallinn to Kronstadt, German forces sank 15 Russian military vessels, (5 destroyers, 2 submarines, 3 guard ships, 2 minesweepers, 2 gunboats and 1 Motor Torpedo Boat) as well as 43 transport and support ships. Several ships still remain on the gulf bottom near Cape Juminda, and a monument was raised there in memory of those lost in the events.[25][26]

In 1978, construction was started on the Saint Petersburg Dam aiming to protect Saint Petersburg from the frequent floods. The work was halted at 60% completion in the late 1980s, due to the financial problems related to the breakup of the Soviet Union; it was resumed in 2001 and is — as of August 2011 — complete.[4][27]

Economy

The southern coast of the gulf contains the Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant and a network of ports and unique natural and historical places. Navigation has long been the dominant activity in the gulf. The major port cities and their functions are, in Russia: Saint Petersburg (all kinds of goods), Kronstadt (container shipping), Lomonosov (general cargo, containers, metals), Vyborg (general cargo), Primorsk (oil and petroleum products), Vysotsk (oil and coal), Ust-Luga (oil, coal, timber, containers);[28] in Finland: Helsinki (containers), Kotka (containers, timber, agricultural products; it is the main transhipment cargo port for Russia), Hanko (containers, vehicles), Turku (containers, rail ferry),[29] Kilpilahti/Sköldvik harbour (oil refinery); in Estonia: Tallinn (grains, refrigerators, oil), Paldiski, Sillamäe. Gulf of Finland is also part of the Volga–Baltic Waterway and White Sea–Baltic Canal. Important goods include apatite from the Kola Peninsula, Karelian granite and greenstone, timber from Arkhangelsk Oblast and Vologda, ferrous metals from Cherepovets, coal from Donbass and the Kuznetsk Basin, pyrite from Ural, potassium chloride from Solikamsk, oil from Volga region, and grains from many regions of Russia.[30]

Passenger transport on the gulf includes a number of ferry lines which connect the following ports: Helsinki and Hanko (Finland), Mariehamn (Åland Islands), Stockholm and Kappelsher (Sweden), Tallinn and Paldiski, Rostock (Germany), Saint Petersburg and Kaliningrad (Russia), as well as many other cities.[31][32][33]

Another major and historical activity in the gulf is fishing, especially on the northern coast near Vyborg, Primorsk and on the southern coast near Ust-Luga.[5] Commercial fish species are herring, sprats, European smelt, whitefishes, carp bream, roaches, perch, European eel, lamprey and others.[34] In 2005, the catchment was 2000 tons by the ships of Saint Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast alone.[35]

In September 2005 the agreement was signed on the construction of the Nord Stream offshore gas pipeline on the Baltic Sea, from Vyborg to the German city of Greifswald. The first line was expected become operational in 2011.[36] Afterwards, the first line of Nord Stream was laid by May 2011 and was inaugurated on 8 November 2011;[37][38] the second line was inaugurated on 8 October 2012.[39]

St Petersburg port scene
Tallinn port
Central Helsinki from plane
Stroy-b-3
Main port of Saint Petersburg Near the harbor of Tallinn Aerial view of Helsinki Saint Petersburg Dam

Archaeology

Laevavrakk "Kazanets"
Shipwreck of Kazanets near Osmussaar in Estonia.

The bottom of the gulf is one of the world's largest ship cemeteries. Because of the low salinity and cold waters, and no shipworms, the ships are relatively well preserved. Since the 6th century, major waterways were running through the gulf, and from the 8th to the 10th century about 3,000 tonnes of silver was transported there. Later, the gulf was actively used by Sweden and Russia for transport of goods. Every year saw dozens of lost ships. In the fall of 1743, 17 Russian warships returning from Finland sank in just 7 hours, and in the summer of 1747, 26 merchant vessels sank within 4 hours near Narva. A record was set in 1721 when during the evacuation of Russian troops from Finland, more than 100 vessels were lost within 3 months, including 64 in a single night.[40]

By the end of 1996, about 5,000 submerged objects were identified in the Russian part of the gulf, including 2,500 ships, 1,500 airplanes, and small items such as boats, anchors, tanks, tractors, cars, cannons, and even naval mines, aerial bombs, torpedoes, and other ammunition. The ships belonged to Russia (25%), Germany (19%), United Kingdom (17%), Sweden (15%), Netherlands (8%), and Finland (7%). The remaining 9% are from Norway, Denmark, France, United States, Italy, Estonia, and Latvia.[41] These objects present potential hazards to navigation, fishery, coastal construction, laying of submarine pipelines and cables, and the environment. Mines were laid in the gulf during World War I (38,932 units), the Russian Civil War, and the Soviet-Finnish War (1939–1940), with an estimated total number of 60,000; 85,000 more mines were set during World War II, and only a fraction of all those were eliminated after the wars.[42][43]

Pollution

The ecological condition of the Gulf of Finland, Neva Bay and Neva River is unsatisfactory. There is significant contamination by ions of mercury and copper, organochlorine pesticides, phenols, petroleum products and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Cleaning of waste water in Saint Petersburg was started in 1979 and by 1997 about 74% of wastewater was purified. This number rose to 85% in 2005, to 91.7% by 2008, and as of 2009 was expected to reach 100% by 2011 with the completion of the expansion of the main sewerage plant.[44] Nevertheless, in 2008, the Federal Service of Saint Petersburg announced that no beach of Saint Petersburg is fit for swimming.[45]

Fish catchment decreased 10 times between 1989 and 2005. Apart from pollution, another reason for that is hydraulic and engineering works. For example, construction of new ports in Ust-Luga and Vysotsk and on Vasilyevsky Island adversely affected the spawning of fish. Extraction of sand and gravel in the Neva Bay for the land reclamation destroy spawning sites of European smelt.[35]

Construction of the Saint Petersburg Dam reduced water exchange of the Neva Bay with the eastern part of the gulf by 10–20% that increased the contamination level of Neva Bay. The largest changes occur within 5 km (3 mi) from the dam. Some shallow areas between Saint Petersburg and the dam are turning into swamps. Waterlogging and the associated rotting of plants may eventually lead to eutrophication of the area.[46] Also worrying is expansion of oil ports in the gulf[46] and the construction of a treatment center for spent fuel from the Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant.[47]

The port of Kronstadt is currently serving as a transit point for the import in Russia of radioactive waste through the Baltic Sea. The waste, mostly depleted uranium hexafluoride, is further transported through Saint Petersburg to Novouralsk, Angarsk and other cities of eastern Russia. This transit point will be moved from Saint Petersburg to the port Ust-Luga, which is about 110 kilometres (68 mi) west of Saint Petersburg, and within the Border Security Zone of Russia, as decided by the Russian government in 2003 (Order No. 1491-r of 14 October 2003). It is expected that after this completes it should reduce the ecological risks for Saint Petersburg.[48] Ust-Luga is envisioned to be the largest transportation and logistics hub in northwestern Russia.[49][50][51] However, in 2015 it was reported that some construction plans in Ust-Luga were frozen, and the construction of Ust-Luga Multimodal Complex, supposed to be the transit point for radioactive waste, never started.[52]

Major cities

See also

References

  1. ^ "Southern coast of the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea". Ramsar Sites Information Service. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
  2. ^ Gulf of Finland Encyclopædia Britannica
  3. ^ Operational oceanography: the challenge for European co-operation : proceedings of the First International Conference on EuroGOOS, 7–11 October 1996, The Hague, The Netherlands, Volume 1996. Elsevier. p. 336. ISBN 0-444-82892-3.
  4. ^ a b c d Saint Petersburg: Encyclopedia. – Moscow: Russian Political Encyclopedia. 2006 ISBN 5-8110-0107-X
  5. ^ a b Darinskii, A. V. Leningrad Oblast. Lenizdat, 1975
  6. ^ "East Viru Klint". North Estonian Klint as a symbol of Estonian nature. Ministry of the Environment. Archived from the original on 12 November 2009. Retrieved 6 October 2009.
  7. ^ a b Khazanovich K. (1982). Geological Monuments of Leningrad Oblast. Lenizdat.
  8. ^ a b Atlas of the USSR. – M.: GUGK, 1984
  9. ^ Gulf of Finland – Forts. Fingulf.ru. Retrieved on 2011-08-14.
  10. ^ "Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition" (PDF). International Hydrographic Organization. 1953. Retrieved 6 February 2010.
  11. ^ a b c d "The Gulf of Finland". Estonica. Eesti Instituut. 28 September 2012. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
  12. ^ Gerold Wefer (2002). Climate development and history of the North Atlantic realm. Springer. pp. 217–219. ISBN 3-540-43201-9.
  13. ^ Darinskii, A.V. (1982). Geography of Leningrad. Lenizdat. pp. 12–18.
  14. ^ a b Gulf of Finland – Nature. Fingulf.ru. Retrieved on 2011-08-14.
  15. ^ Fishing page of Saint-Petersburg. Fishers.spb.ru. Retrieved on 2011-08-14.
  16. ^ a b c d Great Russian Encyclopedia. "Russia". 2004
  17. ^ a b c Countries and Peoples: USSR. Baltic republics. Belarus. Ukraine. Moldova. – Moscow: Mysl, 1984.
  18. ^ a b A. F. Treshnikov Encyclopedic Dictionary of Geography: Geographical names – Moscow: Soviet Encyclopedia, 1983.
  19. ^ Frucht, Richard (2005). Eastern Europe. ABC-CLIO. p. 70. ISBN 1-57607-800-0.
  20. ^ Williams, Nicola; Debra Herrmann; Cathryn Kemp (2003). Estonia, Latvia & Lithuania. University of Michigan. p. 190. ISBN 1-74059-132-1.
  21. ^ a b V. A. Ezhov Leningrad Oblast: a historical sketch, Lenizdat, 1986 (in Russian)
  22. ^ Lisaevich, Irina Ignatyevna (1986). Domenico Trezzini. Lenizdat. pp. 20–26.
  23. ^ Lurie, F.M. Russian and world history in the tables: Synchronic table. – SPb.: Caravelle, 1995.
  24. ^ David Kirby (2006) A concise history of Finland. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-53989-0
  25. ^ Tallinn transition 1941. War at Sea Archived 12 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine. World-war.ru. Retrieved on 2011-08-14.
  26. ^ Platonov, A.V. Tragedies of the Gulf of Finland. Penguin Books, Saint Petersburg: Terra Fantastica, 2005
  27. ^ Dam. A Complex of protection measures of Saint Petersburg against Flood. Spb-projects.ru. Retrieved on 2011-08-14.
  28. ^ Ports of the Gulf of Finland. Portnews.ru (29 November 2004). Retrieved on 2011-08-14.
  29. ^ Ports. Changes in the Finnish ports Archived 12 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Logistics.ru. Retrieved on 2011-08-14.
  30. ^ Russian river fleet and tourism, INFOFLOT.RU Archived 20 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Map.infoflot.ru. Retrieved on 2011-08-14.
  31. ^ Из Петербурга в Хельсинки на пароме (From Saint Petersburg to Helsinki by ferry). prohotel.ru. 7 July 2008
  32. ^ Ferry traffic between Finland and Russia starts in April 2010. Esline.ru. Retrieved on 2011-08-14.
  33. ^ News of the week-Expert Online 2.0, expert.ru
  34. ^ Darinskii, A.V. (1982). Geography of Leningrad. Lenizdat. pp. 30–34.
  35. ^ a b Construction of ports in the Gulf of destroying fish. News.spbland.ru. Retrieved on 2011-08-14.
  36. ^ Nord Stream Archived 4 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Nord Stream. Retrieved on 2011-08-14.
  37. ^ "Controversial Project Launched: Merkel and Medvedev Open Baltic Gas Pipeline". Spiegel Online. 8 November 2011. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
  38. ^ Wiesmann, Gerrit (8 November 2011). "Russia-EU gas pipeline delivers first supplies". Financial Times. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
  39. ^ "Nord Stream – Five Years of Successful Gas Supply to Europe". Nord Stream. 16 October 2017. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
  40. ^ Underwater discoveries in the eastern Gulf of Finland Archived 21 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Baltic-sunken-ships.ru. Retrieved on 2011-08-14.
  41. ^ Catalog and atlas of objects on the bottom of the Baltic Sea and finds of the remains of ancient ships at the bottom of the Gulf of Finland Archived 4 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Baltic-sunken-ships.ru. Retrieved on 2011-08-14.
  42. ^ Hazardous Objects Archived 22 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Baltic-sunken-ships.ru. Retrieved on 2011-08-14.
  43. ^ "Atlas of ships sunken in the Baltic Sea" (in Russian). Izvestia.ru. 11 January 2004.
  44. ^ "Within the next two years, Saint Petersburg will be cleaned of almost 100% of wastewater" (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 20 November 2009. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
  45. ^ "Clean Neva". Greenpeace. Archived from the original on 10 March 2010. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
  46. ^ a b Databases of the gulf ecology and their structure Archived 21 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine. None. Retrieved on 2011-08-14.
  47. ^ Stolyarova, Galina (27 July 2010). "Russia Shamed by Ecology Record on Baltic Sea". The Saint Petersburg Times. Retrieved 27 July 2010.
  48. ^ Radioactive draft from a window to Europe. Greenworld.org.ru. Retrieved on 2011-08-14.
  49. ^ "Territory Development Scheme of Kingiseppsky District of Leningrad Region". Ust-Luga multimodal complex. 26 November 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  50. ^ "The second day of the exhibition TransRussia\TransLogistica 19". Ust-Luga multimodal complex. 19 April 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  51. ^ "Ust-Luga multimodal complex". Ust-Luga multimodal complex. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  52. ^ Chernov, Vitaly (10 February 2015). "Ust-Luga comes to finish". PortNews. Retrieved 9 November 2017.

External links

Baltic Sea

The Baltic Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Sweden, northeast Germany, Poland, Russia and the North and Central European Plain.

The sea stretches from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 10°E to 30°E longitude. A mediterranean sea of the Atlantic, with limited water exchange between the two bodies, the Baltic Sea drains through the Danish islands into the Kattegat by way of the straits of Øresund, the Great Belt, and the Little Belt. It includes the Gulf of Bothnia, the Bay of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland, the Gulf of Riga, and the Bay of Gdańsk.

The Baltic Proper is bordered on its northern edge, at the latitude 60°N, by the Åland islands and the Gulf of Bothnia, on its northeastern edge by the Gulf of Finland, on its eastern edge by the Gulf of Riga, and in the west by the Swedish part of the southern Scandinavian Peninsula.

The Baltic Sea is connected by artificial waterways to the White Sea via the White Sea Canal and to the German Bight of the North Sea via the Kiel Canal.

German destroyer Z35

Z35 was the lead ship of her class of destroyers built for the Kriegsmarine (German Navy) during World War II. Completed in late 1943, the ship spent the war in the Baltic Sea, escorting German ships, laying minefields, and bombarding Soviet forces. On 12 December 1944, a navigational error caused her to enter a German minefield as she was preparing to lay another minefield in the Gulf of Finland off the Estonian coast. Z35 struck one or more mines and sank with the loss of all but 70 crewmen. The wreck was discovered and surveyed in 1994.

German destroyer Z36

Z36 was one of five Type 1936B destroyers built for the Kriegsmarine (German Navy) during World War II. Completed in early 1944, the ship spent the war in the Baltic Sea, escorting German ships, laying minefields, and bombarding Soviet forces. On 12 December, a navigational error caused her to enter a German minefield as she was preparing to lay another minefield in the Gulf of Finland off the Estonian coast. Z36 struck a single mine and sank with the loss of all hands. The wreck was surveyed in 1994.

German submarine U-479

German submarine U-479 was a Type VIIC U-boat built for Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine for service during World War II.

She was laid down at the Deutsche Werke in Kiel on 19 November 1942 as yard number 310, launched on 14 August 1943 and was commissioned on 27 October 1943 with Oberleutnant zur See Hans-Joachim Förster, a Knights Cross winner, in command. He was replaced shortly afterwards by Oberleutnant Friedrich-Wilhelm Sons.

German submarine U-745

U-745 was a Type VIIC U-Boat built for Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine for service during World War II, and which was lost at sea on 30 January 1945.

U-745 was launched on 16 April 1943, under the command of Wilhelm von Trotha, who would remain its commanding officer for its entire service. U-745 had a crew of 45.

HMS Verulam (1917)

HMS Verulam was an Admiralty V-class destroyer of the Royal Navy. She was built by Hawthorn Leslie and was launched on 3 October 1917. She struck a mine off the island of Seiskari in the Gulf of Finland on the night between 3–4 September 1919, and sank.

The sunken destroyer was given to the state of Finland on 12 December 1919 together with her sister ship Vittoria; however, when salvage efforts began in 1925, it was found that both ships were broken in two and impossible to repair.

HMS Vittoria (1917)

HMS Vittoria was a British destroyer of the Admiralty V-class. She was converted to a minelayer, and was torpedoed by the Bolshevik submarine Pantera off the island of Seiskari in the Gulf of Finland on 31 August 1919.

The sunken destroyer was given to the state of Finland on 12 December 1919 together with her sister ship Verulam; however, when salvaging began in 1925, it was found that both ships were broken in two and impossible to repair.

In November 2013, divers rediscovered the wreck of the sunken destroyer at a depth of 30 meters (98 feet).

Kotlin Island

Kotlin (Котлин) (or Kettle), is a Russian island, located near the head of the Gulf of Finland, 32 kilometres (20 mi) west of Saint Petersburg in the Baltic Sea. Kotlin separates the Neva Bay from the rest of the gulf. The fortified city of Kronstadt is located on the island. The island serves as a gateway to Saint Petersburg and as such has been the site of several military engagements.

Kumbli

Kumbli is a 0.023 ha (0.057 acres) uninhabited islet in the Gulf of Finland, near Tallinn, Estonia. It is located 270 m (890 ft) north of the Viimsi Peninsula and 150 m (490 ft) east of the Kräsuli islet. Administratively Kumbli belongs to the Rohuneeme village in Viimsi Parish, Harju County.

On a map from 1689 the islet is marked as Komblesahr, which may refer to Estonian origin.

In 2012 there was only one Scots pine and little shrubs covering the islet.

There are no construction rights on the islet. Kumbli belongs to a local businessman Aivar Osa.

List of islands of Estonia

This is an incomplete list of islands of Estonia. There are 2355 islands in total.

List of rivers of Finland

This is a list of rivers of Finland. Listing begins with rivers flowing into the Baltic sea, from the north, that is from the Swedish border. Tributaries are listed down the page in an upstream direction.

Water flows from Finland directly to the Baltic Sea, which is divided here into the Gulf of Bothnia and Gulf of Finland, and the Archipelago Sea between them. Some rivers flow to Russia, ending either to Gulf of Finland or to the White Sea, and a few to the Arctic Ocean through Russia or Norway.

There are a lot of lakes in Finland and so this listing includes also several lakes through which the rivers flow or begin from. Due to the great number of lakes especially in the Finnish Lakeland, where watercourses tend to consist of chains of lakes rather than long rivers, some rivers with a large catchment area can also be quite short or there may only be a short rapid between large lakes, like for example Tammerkoski in Tampere.

Lokhaniemi

Lokhaniemi (Lihaniemi before 1948, Russian: полуостров Лоханиеми, Finnish: Lihaniemi) is a peninsula along the eastern shore of Vyborg Bay (in the Gulf of Finland of the Baltic Sea), at its narrowest point, between Tikhaya Bay and Medyanskaya Bay.

Pedassaar

Pedassaar is an island in the Gulf of Finland belonging to Estonia.

Pirita (river)

The Pirita (Estonian: Pirita jõgi) is a 105 km (65 mi) long river in northern Estonia that drains into Tallinn Bay (part of the Gulf of Finland) in Pirita, Tallinn. The basin area of the Pirita is 799 km².For the 1980 Summer Olympics held in Moscow, the estuary to the Gulf of Finland at Tallinn Bay hosted the sailing events.As part of the Tallinn water supply system, the Pirita is impounded into the Paunküla and Vaskjala Reservoirs. The reservoir in Vaskjala is connected over a canal to the Lake Ülemiste in Tallinn, where the Ülemiste Water Treatment Plant is situated. Additional water is directed to Pirita from the Jägala, Soodla and Pärnu rivers through a canal network that joins Pirita in Veskitaguse.

Prangli

Prangli (Swedish: Vrangö) is an Estonian island in the Gulf of Finland.

The first records are from 1387 when it was called Rango. The first settlers came from Sweden. The Estonian culture spread to the island in the 17th century.

Prangli is part of Viimsi Parish. In Kelnase is a harbour which is connected by ferry to Leppneeme on the mainland.

The vegetation, especially in the east of the island is mainly fir trees.

The lighthouse on Prangli was built in 1923.

In 1941, the Estonian steamship Eestirand was shipwrecked off the coast of Prangli Island after a German air attack. The Eestirand was part of a fleet of ships carrying Soviet troops to Leningrad during the Soviet evacuation of Tallinn. The Estonian crew and conscripts managed to disarm Soviet military personnel aboard the ship and take control of the island, hoisting the flag of the Estonian Republic up a tall pine tree. The revolt saved approximately 2,700 conscripts, most of which were Estonian, from being mobilized to Leningrad. After the war, a memorial was placed on the island in honor of those who lost their lives in the tragedy.

Rammu

Rammu is an island and a non-populated village in Jõelähtme Parish, Harju County in northern Estonia.

Rohusi

Rohusi is an island and a village in Jõelähtme Parish, Harju County in northern Estonia, located in the Kolga Bay. Since 1999, when a company owned by Tiit Vähi OÜ Merilaine bought it, the island has been a private property.

Soviet gunboat Krasnoye Znamya

Krasnoye Znamya (Красное Знамя, Red Banner, ex-Khrabryy) was a Soviet gunboat. The ship had been built in the late 19th century as the Khrabryy (Храбрый, Brave) by the Russian Empire. The ship was the only craft of its class. The Krasnoye Znamya was sunk in the harbour of Lavansaari in the Gulf of Finland on November 18, 1942 after an attack by Finnish MTBs.

Vaindloo

Vaindloo (alternately: Vaindloo saar, Swedish: Stenskär) is a small island located in the Gulf of Finland in the Baltic Sea. It belongs to Estonia, and is the northernmost point of the country.

Vaindloo has an area of 6.2 hectares (15 acres) and marks the northernmost point of the nation of Estonia, situated 26 kilometers (16 mi) north of the Estonian mainland. The island is administered by the community of Vihula in Lääne-Viru County and is an important breeding sanctuary for such birds as the common tern, Arctic tern, Tengmalm's owl, great tit, purple sandpiper, shore lark, great grey shrike, yellowhammer and others.Vaindloo is also notable for its functioning lighthouse, called the Vaindloo tuletorn, it was built in 1871 and is managed by the Estonian Maritime Administration. A previous lighthouse constructed of timber was erected on Vaindloo in 1718. In addition to the lighthouse, there is a station of the Estonian Border Guard with a 50-meter-high (160 ft) observation tower and a radar on the island.

Marginal seas of the Atlantic Ocean
Basins
Bays
Channels
Gulfs
Seas
Landing stages of Russian coast in Gulf of Finland
North gulf coast (Leningrad Oblast)
South gulf coast (Leningrad Oblast)
Arctic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
Indian Ocean
Pacific Ocean
Southern Ocean
Endorheic basins

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