Gujarat Sultanate

The Gujarat Sultanate was a medieval Indian Muslim Rajput kingdom established in the early 15th century in present-day Gujarat, India. The founder of the ruling Muzaffarid dynasty, Zafar Khan (later Muzaffar Shah I) was appointed as governor of Gujarat by Nasir-ud-Din Muhammad bin Tughluq IV in 1391, the ruler of the principal state in north India at the time, the Delhi Sultanate. Zafar Khan's father Sadharan, was a Tanka Rajput convert to Islam.[1][2] Zafar Khan defeated Farhat-ul-Mulk near Anhilwada Patan and made the city his capital. Following Timur's invasion of Delhi, the Delhi Sultanate weakened considerably so he declared himself independent in 1407 and formally established Gujarat Sultanate. The next sultan, his grandson Ahmad Shah I founded the new capital Ahmedabad in 1411. His successor Muhammad Shah II subdued most of the Rajput chieftains. The prosperity of the sultanate reached its zenith during the rule of Mahmud Begada. He subdued most of the Rajput chieftains and built navy off the coast of Diu. In 1509, the Portuguese wrested Diu from Gujarat sultanate following the battle of Diu. The decline of the Sultanate started with the assassination of Sikandar Shah in 1526. Mughal emperor Humayun attacked Gujarat in 1535 and briefly occupied it. Thereafter Bahadur Shah was killed by the Portuguese while making a deal in 1537. The end of the sultanate came in 1573, when Akbar annexed Gujarat in his empire. The last ruler Muzaffar Shah III was taken prisoner to Agra. In 1583, he escaped from the prison and with the help of the nobles succeeded to regain the throne for a short period before being defeated by Akbar's general Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana.[3]

Sultanate of Gujarat

ગુજરાત સલ્તનત  (Gujarati)
سلطنت گجرات  (Persian)
1407–1573
Flag of Gujarat Sultanate
Flag
Gujarat Sultanate in 1525
Gujarat Sultanate in 1525
CapitalAnhilwad Patan (1407–1411)
Ahmedabad (1411–1484, 1535–1573) Muhammadabad (1484–1535)
Common languagesOld Gujarati
Persian (official)
Religion
Hinduism
Islam
Jainism
GovernmentAbsolute Monarchy
Muzaffarid dynasty 
• 1407–1411
Muzaffar Shah I (first)
• 1561-1573, 1584
Muzaffar Shah III (last)
History 
• Declared independence from Delhi Sultanate by Muzaffar Shah I
1407
• Annexed by Akbar
1573
CurrencyTaka
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Gujarat under Delhi Sultanate
Tughlaq dynasty
Gujarat under Mughal Empire
Portuguese India
Today part ofGujarat, Daman and Diu and Mumbai in  India
Death of Sultan Bahadur in front of Diu against the Portuguese 1537 Akbar Nama end of 16th century
Death of Bahadur Shah of Gujarat an Ottoman ally at Diu, in front of the Portuguese, in 1537; (Illustration from the Akbarnama, end of 16th century).

Origin

During the rule of Muhammad bin Tughluq, his cousin Firuz Shah Tughlaq was once on a hunting expedition in area what is now Kheda district of Gujarat. He lost his way and lost. He reached village Thasra. He was welcome to partake in hospitality by village headmen, two brothers of Tanka Rajput family, Sadhu and Sadharan. After drinking, he revealed his identity as a cousin and successor of the king. The brothers offered his beautiful sister in marriage and he accepted. They accompanied Firuz Shah Tughluq to Delhi along with his sister. They converted to Islam there. Sadhu assumed new name, Samsher Khan while Sadharan assumed Wajih-ul-Mulk. They were disciples of Saint Hazrat-Makhdum-Sayyid-i-Jahaniyan-Jahangshi aka Saiyyd Jalaluddin Bukhari.[1][2][4][5]

History

Early rulers

Delhi Sultan Firuz Shah Tughluq appointed Malik Mufarrah, also known as Farhat-ul-Mulk and Rasti Khan governor of Gujarat in 1377. In 1387, Sikandar Khan was sent to replace him, but he was defeated and killed by Farhat-ul-Mulk. In 1391, Sultan Nasir-ud-Din Muhammad bin Tughluq appointed Zafar Khan, the son of Wajih-ul-Mulk as governor of Gujarat and conferred him the title of Muzaffar Khan (r. 1391 - 1403, 1404 - 1411). In 1392, he defeated Farhat-ul-Mulk in the battle of Kamboi, near Anhilwada Patan and occupied the city of Anhilwada Patan.[6][7][5]

In 1403, Zafar Khan's son Tatar Khan urged his father to march on Delhi, which he declined. As a result, in 1408, Tatar imprisoned him in Ashawal (future Ahmedabad) and declared himself sultan under the title of Muhammad Shah I (r. 1403 - 1404). He marched towards Delhi, but on the way he was poisoned by his uncle, Shams Khan. After the death of Muhammad Shah, Muzaffar was released from the prison and he took over the control over administration. In 1407, he declared himself as Sultan Muzaffar Shah I, took the insignia of royalty and issued coins in his name. After his death in 1411, he was succeeded by his grandson, the son of Tatar Khan, Ahmad Shah I.[8][6][5]

Ahmad Shah I

Soon after his accession, Ahmad Shah I was faced with a rebellion of his uncles. The rebellion was led by his eldest uncle Firuz Khan, who declared himself king. Ultimately Firuz and his brothers surrendered to him. During this rebellion Sultan Hushang Shah of Malwa Sultanate invaded Gujarat. He was repelled this time but he invaded again in 1417 along with Nasir Khan, the Farooqi dynasty ruler of Khandesh and occupied Sultanpur and Nandurbar. Gujarat army defeated them and later Ahmad Shah led four expeditions into Malwa in 1419, 1420, 1422 and 1438.[9][5]

In 1429, Kanha Raja of Jhalawad with the help of the Bahmani Sultan Ahmad Shah ravaged Nandurbar. But Ahmad Shah's army defeated the Bahmani army and they fled to Daulatabad. The Bahmani Sultan Ahmad Shah sent strong reinforcements and the Khandesh army also joined them. They were again defeated by the Gujarat army. Finally, Ahmad Shah annexed Thana and Mahim from Bahmani Sultanate.[9][5]

At the beginning of his reign, he founded the city of Ahmedabad which he styled as Shahr-i-Mu'azzam (the great city) on the banks of Sabarmati River. He shifted the capital from Anhilwada Patan to Ahmedabad. The Jami Masjid (1423) in Ahmedabad were built during his reign.[10] Sultan Ahmad Shah died in 1443 and succeeded by his eldest son Muhammad Shah II.[9][5]

Successors of Ahmad Shah I

Muhammad Shah II (r. 1442 - 1451) first led a campaign against Idar and forced its ruler, Raja Hari Rai or Bir Rai to submit to his authority. He then exacted tribute from the Rawal of Dungarpur. In 1449, he marched against Champaner, but the ruler of Champaner, Raja Kanak Das, with the help of Malwa Sultan Mahmud Khilji forced him to retreat. On the return journey, he fell seriously ill and died in February, 1451. After his death, he was succeeded by his son Qutb-ud-Din Ahmad Shah II (r. 1451 - 1458).[11] Ahmad Shah II defeated Khilji at Kapadvanj. He helped Firuz Khan ruling from Nagaur against Rana Kumbha of Chittor's attempt to overthrow him. After death of Ahmad Shah II in 1458, the nobles raised his uncle Daud Khan, son of Ahmad Shah I, to the throne.[5]

Mahmud Begada

But within a short period of seven or twenty-seven days, the nobles deposed Daud Khan and set on the throne Fath Khan, son of Muhammad Shah II. Fath Khan, on his accession, adopted the title Abu-al Fath Mahmud Shah, popularly known as Mahmud Begada. He expanded the kingdom in all directions. He received the sobriquet Begada, which literally means the conqueror of two forts, probably after conquering Girnar and Champaner forts. Mahmud died on 23 November 1511.[12][5]

Muzaffar Shah II and his successors

Khalil Khan, son of Mahmud Begada succeeded his father with the title Muzaffar Shah II. In 1519, Rana Sanga of Chittor defeated a joint army of Malwa and Gujarat sultanates and took Mahmud Shah II of Malwa captive. Muzaffar Shah sent an army to Malwa but their service was not required as Rana Sanga had generously restored Mahmud Shah II to the throne. Rana Sanga later invaded Gujarat and plundered the Sultanate's treasuries, greatly damaging its prestige.[13] He died on 5 April 1526 and was succeeded by his eldest son, Sikandar.[14][5]

After few months, Sikandar Sháh was murdered by a noble Imád-ul-Mulk, who seated a younger brother of Sikandar, named Násir Khán, on the throne with the title of Mahmúd Shah II and governed on his behalf. Other son of Muzaffar Shah II, Bhadur Khan returned from outside of Gujarat and the nobles joined him. Bahádur marched at once on Chámpáner, captured and executed Imád-ul-Mulk and poisoning Násir Khán ascended the throne in 1527 with the title of Bahádur Sháh.[5]

Bahadur Shah and his successors

Bahadur Shah expanded his kingdom and made expeditions to help neighbouring kingdoms. In 1532, Gujarat came under attack of the Mughal Emperor Humayun and fell. Bahadur Shah regained the kingdom in 1536 but he was killed by the Portuguese on board the ship when making a deal with them.[5][15]

Bahadur had no son, hence there was some uncertainty regarding succession after his death. Muhammad Zaman Mirza, the fugitive Mughal prince made his claim on the ground that Bahadur's mother adopted him as her son. The nobles selected Bahadur's nephew Miran Muhammad Shah of Khandesh as his successor, but he died on his way to Gujarat. Finally, the nobles selected Mahmud Khan, the son of Bahadur's brother Latif Khan as his successor and he ascended to the throne as Mahmud Shah III in 1538.[16] Mahmud Shah III had to battle with his nobles who were interested in independence. He was killed in 1554 by his servant. Ahmad Shah III succeed him but now the reigns of the state were controlled by the nobles who divided the kingdom between themselves. He was assassinated in 1561. He was succeed by Muzaffar Shah III.[5]

Muzaffar Shah III

Mughal Emperor Akbar annexed Gujarat in his empire in 1573 and Gujarat became a Mughal Subah (province). Muzaffar Shah III was taken prisoner to Agra. In 1583, he escaped from the prison and with the help of the nobles succeeded to regain the throne for a short period before being defeated by Akbar's general Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana in January 1584.[3] He fled and finally took asylum under Jam Sataji of Nawanagar State. The Battle of Bhuchar Mori was fought between the Mughal forces led by Mirza Aziz Koka and the combined Kathiawar forces in 1591 to protect him. He finally committed suicide when he was surrendered to the Mughal.[5]

Administration

Gujarát was divided politically into two main parts; one, called the khálsah or crown domain administered directly by the central authority; the other, on payment of tribute in service or in money, left under the control of its former rulers. The amount of tribute paid by the different chiefs depended, not on the value of their territory, but on the terms granted to them when they agreed to become feudatories of the king. This tribute was occasionally collected by military expeditions headed by the king in person and called mulkgíri or country-seizing circuits.[5]

The internal management of the feudatory states was unaffected by their payment of tribute. Justice was administered and the revenue collected in the same way as under the Chaulukya kings. The revenue consisted, as before, of a share of the crops received in kind, supplemented by the levy of special cesses, trade, and transit dues. The chief's share of the crops differed according to the locality; it rarely exceeded one-third of the produce, it rarely fell short of one-sixth. From some parts the chief's share was realised directly from the cultivator by agents called mantris; from other parts the collection was through superior landowners.[5]

Districts and crown lands

The Áhmedábád kings divided the portion of their territory which was under their direct authority into districts or sarkárs. These districts were administered in one of two ways. They were either assigned to nobles in support of a contingent of troops, or they were set apart as crown domains and managed by paid officers. The officers placed in charge of districts set apart as crown domains were called muktiă. Their chief duties were to preserve the peace and to collect the revenue. For the maintenance of order, a body of soldiers from the army headquarters at Áhmedábád was detached for service in each of these divisions, and placed under the command of the district governor. At the same time, in addition to the presence of this detachment of regular troops, every district contained certain fortified outposts called thánás, varying in number according to the character of the country and the temper of the people. These posts were in charge of officers called thánadárs subordinate to the district governor. They were garrisoned by bodies of local soldiery, for whose maintenance, in addition to money payments, a small assignment of land was set apart in the neighbourhood of the post. On the arrival of the tribute-collecting army the governors of the districts through which it passed were expected to join the main body with their local contingents. At other times the district governors had little control over the feudatory chiefs in the neighbourhood of their charge.[5] The Gujarat Sultanate had comprised twenty-five sarkars (administrative units).[17]

Fiscal

For fiscal purposes each district or sarkár was distributed among a certain number of sub-divisions or parganáhs, each under a paid official styled ámil or tahsildár. These sub-divisional officers realised the state demand, nominally one-half of the produce, by the help of the headmen of the villages under their charge. In the sharehold and simple villages of North Gujarát these village headmen were styled Patels or according to Muslim writers mukaddams and in the simple villages of the south they were known as Desais. They arranged for the final distribution of the total demand in joint villages among the shareholders, and in simple villages from the individual cultivators. The sub-divisional officer presented a statement of the accounts of the villages in his sub-division to the district officer, whose record of the revenue of his whole district was in turn forwarded to the head revenue officer at court. As a check on the internal management of his charge, and especially to help him in the work of collecting the revenue, with each district governor was associated an accountant. Further that each of these officers might be the greater check on the other, Ahmad Shah I enforced the rule that when the governor was chosen from among the royal slaves the accountant should be a free man, and that when the accountant was a slave the district governor should be chosen from some other class. This practise was maintained till the end of the reign of Muzaffar Sháh II, when, according to the Mirăt-i-Áhmedi, the army became much increased, and the ministers, condensing the details of revenue, farmed it on contract, so that many parts formerly yielding one rupee now produced ten, and many others seven eight or nine, and in no place was there a less increase than from ten to twenty per cent. Many other changes occurred at the same time, and the spirit of innovation creeping into the administration the wholesome system of checking the accounts was given up and mutiny and confusion spread over Gujarát.[5]

Sources of history

Mirat-i-Sikandari is a Persian work on the complete history of Gujarat Sultanate written by Sikandar, son of Muhammad aka Manjhu, son of Akbar who wrote it soon after Akbar conquered Gujarat. He had consulted earlier works of history and the people of authority. Other Persian works of the history of Gujarat Sultanate are Tarikh-i-Muzaffar Shahi about reign of Muzaffar Shah I, Tarik-i-Ahmad Shah in verse by Hulvi Shirazi, Tarikh-i-Mahmud Shahi, Tabaqat-i-Mahmud Shahi, Maathi-i-Mahmud Shahi about Mahmud I, Tarikh-i-Muzaffar Shahi about Muzaffar Shah II's conquest of Mandu, Tarikh-i-Bahadur Shahi aka Tabaqat-i-Husam Khani, Tarikh-i-Gujarat by Abu Turab Vali, Mirat-i-Ahmadi. Other important work in Arabic about history of Gujarat includes Zafarul-Walih bi Muzaffar wa Alih by Hajji Dabir.[18]

Architecture

During the Muzaffarid rule, Ahmedabad grew to become one of the largest and wealthiest cities in the world, and the sultans were patrons of a distinctive architecture that blended Islamic elements with Gujarat's indigenous Hindu and Jain architectural traditions. Gujarat's Islamic architecture presages many of the architectural elements later found in Mughal architecture, including ornate mihrabs and minarets, jali (perforated screens carved in stone), and chattris (pavilions topped with cupolas).

References

  1. ^ a b Rajput, Eva Ulian, pg. 180
  2. ^ a b The Rajputs of Saurashtra, Virbhadra Singhji, pg. 45
  3. ^ a b Sudipta Mitra (2005). Gir Forest and the Saga of the Asiatic Lion. Indus Publishing. p. 14. ISBN 978-81-7387-183-2.
  4. ^ Taylor 1902, pp. 2.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q James Macnabb Campbell, ed. (1896). "MUSALMÁN GUJARÁT. (A.D. 1297–1760): INTRODUCTION) and II. ÁHMEDÁBÁD KINGS. (A. D. 1403–1573.". History of Gujarát. Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency. Volume I. Part II. The Government Central Press. pp. 210–212, 236–270. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  6. ^ a b Majumdar, R.C. (2006). The Delhi Sultanate, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pp. 155-7
  7. ^ Taylor 1902, pp. 4.
  8. ^ Taylor 1902, pp. 6.
  9. ^ a b c Majumdar, R.C. (2006). The Delhi Sultanate, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pp. 157-60
  10. ^ Majumdar, R.C. (2006). The Delhi Sultanate, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pp. 709-23
  11. ^ Majumdar, R.C. (2006). The Delhi Sultanate, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pp. 160-1
  12. ^ Majumdar, R.C. (2006). The Delhi Sultanate, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pp. 162-7
  13. ^ Bayley's Gujarat, p. 264.
  14. ^ Majumdar, R.C. (2006). The Delhi Sultanate, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pp. 167-9
  15. ^ "The Cambridge History of the British Empire". CUP Archive. 26 July 2017 – via Google Books.
  16. ^ Majumdar, R.C. (ed.) (2007). The Mughul Empire, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN 81-7276-407-1, pp.391-8
  17. ^ A., Nadri, Ghulam (2009). Eighteenth-century Gujarat : the dynamics of its political economy, 1750-1800. Leiden: Brill. p. 10. ISBN 9789004172029. OCLC 568402132.
  18. ^ Desai, Z. A. (March 1961). "Mirat-i-Sikandari as a Source for the Study of Cultural and Social Condition of Gujarat under the Sultanate (1403-1572)". In Sandesara, B. J. Journal Of Oriental Institute Baroda Vol.10. X. Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. pp. 235–240.

Bibliography

External links

Bahadur Shah of Gujarat

Qutb-ud-Din Bahadur Shah, born Bahadur Khan was a sultan of the Muzaffarid dynasty who reigned over the Gujarat Sultanate, a late medieval kingdom in India from 1526 to 1535 and again from 1536 to 1537. He ascended to throne after competing with his brothers. He expanded his kingdom and made expeditions to help neighbouring kingdoms. In 1532, Gujarat came under attack of the Mughal Emperor Humayun and fell. Bahadur Shah regained the kingdom in 1536 but he was killed by the Portuguese on board the ship when making a deal with them.

Battle of Diu (1509)

The Battle of Diu was a naval battle fought on 3 February 1509 in the Arabian Sea, in the port of Diu, India, between the Portuguese Empire and a joint fleet of the Sultan of Gujarat, the Mamlûk Burji Sultanate of Egypt, the Zamorin of Calicut with support of the Republic of Venice.The Portuguese victory was critical: the great Muslim alliance were soundly defeated, easing the Portuguese strategy of controlling the Indian Ocean to route trade down the Cape of Good Hope, circumventing the traditional spice route controlled by the Arabs and the Venetians through the Red Sea and Persian Gulf. After the battle, Portugal rapidly captured key ports in the Indian Ocean like Goa, Ceylon, Malacca and Ormuz, crippling the Mamluk Sultanate and the Gujarat Sultanate, greatly assisting the growth of the Portuguese Empire and establishing its trade dominance for almost a century, until it was lost at the Battle of Swally during the Dutch-Portuguese War, over a hundred years after.

The Battle of Diu was a battle of annihilation alike Lepanto and Trafalgar, and one of the most important of world naval history, for it marks the beginning of European dominance over Asian seas that would last until World War Two.

Chudasama dynasty

The Chudasama dynasty ruled parts of the present-day Saurashtra region of Gujarat state in India between the 9th and 15th centuries. Their capital was based in Junagadh and Vamanasthali, and they were later classified among the Rajput clans.

The early history of Chudasama dynasty is almost lost. The bardic legends differs very much in names, order and numbers so they are not considered reliable. Traditionally, the dynasty is said to have been founded in the late 9th century by Chudachandra. Subsequent rulers such as Graharipu, Navaghana and Khengara were in conflict with Chaulukya rulers Mularaja and Jayasimha Siddharaja. Thus they are mentioned in contemporary and later Jain chronicles. After end of the rule of Chaulukya and their successor Vaghela dynasty in Gujarat, the Chudasamas continued to rule independently or as a vassal of successor states, Delhi Sultanate and Gujarat Sultanate. Mandalika I was the first known ruler from inscriptions during whose reign Gujarat was invaded by Khalji dynasty of Delhi. The last king of the dynasty, Mandalika III, was defeated and forcibly converted to Islam in 1472 by Gujarat Sultan Mahmud Begada, who also annexed the state.

Daud Shah of Gujarat

Daud Shah, born Daud Khan, was a ruler of the Muzaffarid dynasty, who reigned over the Gujarat Sultanate from few days in 1458.

On the death of Gujarat Sultan Qutb-ud-dín Ahmad Shah II, the nobles raised to the throne his uncle Daud, son of Ahmad Shah I. But as Daud appointed a carpet-spreader to high offices and committed improper acts, he was deposed after reign of seven or, according to some source twenty seven days. In 1459 his half-brother Fateh Khán, the son of Muhammad Shah II by Bibi Mughli, a daughter of Jám Júna of Samma dynasty ruling from Thatta in Sindh; was seated on the throne at the age of little more than thirteen with the title of Mahmúd Sháh I, later popularly named Mahmud Begada.

Fort Bassein

Fort Bassein, also known as the Vasai Fort or Fort Baçaim (Marathi: वसई चा किल्ला), is a large fort in the town of Vasai in the Palghar district of Maharashtra state in the Konkan division in India. The name "Bassein" is the English version of the Portuguese "Baçaim" (with the "ç" spoken as "s" and with the "m" silent), itself a version of an apparently native name that may have a connection to the Vasa Konkani tribals of the North Konkan region, extending from Mumbai into "South Gujarat". The Marathi name of the place is Vasai.

The complete form of the Portuguese name is "Fortaleza de São Sebastião de Baçaím" or the Fort of St. Sebastian of Vasai. The fort is a monument of national importance and is protected by the Archaeological Survey of India.The fort and the town are accessible via the Vasai Road railway station which itself is in Navghar-Manikpur, a part of the city of Vasai-Virar, and lies to the immediate north of the city of Mumbai and Mira Road in Bhayandar. The Vasai Road railway station is on the Western Railway line (formerly the Mumbai, Baroda and Central India Railway) in the direction of the Virar railway station.

Historic City of Ahmadabad

The Historic City of Ahmadabad or Old Ahmedabad, the walled city of Ahmedabad in India, was founded by Ahmad Shah I of Gujarat Sultanate in 1411. It remained the capital of the Gujarat Sultanate and later important political and commercial centre of Gujarat. Today, despite having become extremely crowded and dilapidated, it still serves as the symbolic heart of metropolitan Ahmedabad. It was inscribed as the World Heritage City by UNESCO in July 2017.

Jafar Khan (Gujarat Sultanate)

Prince Jafar Khan was the son of Ahmad Shah I, King of Gujarat Sultanate from 1411 - 1443. In 1429-1430, Ahmad Shah I Wali of the Bahmani Sultanate of Deccan captured Salsette and Mahim in Bombay. Ahmad Shah I retaliated by sending his son Jafar Khan to recapture the lost territory. Jafar emerged victorious in the battle fought between him and Ahmad Shah I Wali. In 1431, Mahim was recaptured by the Sultanate of Gujarat.

Mahmud Khalji

Mahmud Khalji (1436-69), also known as Mahmud Khilji, was a 15th-century sultan of the Malwa Sultanate, an Indian kingdom in what is now the state of Madhya Pradesh. Khilji crowned himself sultan after assassinating Mohammad, the son of the previous ruler, Hoshang Shah, in 1435. He mounted an unsuccessful campaign against the Delhi Sultanate however, it was under his reign that the Malwa Sultanate reached its greatest height.During rule of Muhammad Shah II of Gujarat Sultanate, Mahmud Khilji invaded Gujarat. After capturing and saving Champaner, he continued his march upon Gujarat at the head of 80,000 horse. Soon Muhammad Shah II died and was succeeded by Kutb-ud-Din Ahmad Shah II. Mahmud Khilji had laid siege to Sultánpur. Malik Ala-ud-din bin Sohráb, Kutb-ud-dín’s commander surrendered the fort, and was sent with honour to Malwa and appointed governor of Mandu. Mahmud Khilji, marching to Sarsa-Paldi, summoned Bharuch, then commanded by Sídi Marján on behalf of Gujarát Sultanate. The Sidi refused, and fearing delay, the Malwa Sultan after plundering Baroda (now Vadodara) proceeded to Nadiad, whose Bráhmans astonished him by their bravery in killing a mad elephant. Kutb-ud-din Shah now advancing met Sultan Mahmud Khilji at Kapadvanj where, after a doubtful fight of some hours, Kutb-ud-din Shah defeated Sultán Mahmud Khilji. Muzaffar Khán, who is said to have incited the Malwa Sultan Khilji to invade Gujarat, was captured and beheaded, and his head was hung up at the gate of Kapadvanj.In the same year, Sultan Mahmud Khalji attempted to conquer Nagor then held by Firuz Khan, a cousin of the Gujarat Sultan. Kutb-ud-din Shah despatched an army under the command of Sayad Ataullah, and, as it drew near Sambhar, the Malwa Sultan retired and shortly after Firuz Khan died.

Muhammad Shah II

Muizz-ud-Din Muhammad Shah II, born Karim Khan, was a ruler of the Muzaffarid dynasty, who reigned over the Gujarat Sultanate from 1442 to 1451. He expanded and strengthened the Sultanate.

Muhammad Zaman Mirza

Muhammad Zaman Mirza was a Timurid prince, and general to Mughal Emperors Babur and Humayun. He claimed himself as the ruler of Gujarat in 1537 but did not gained actual control.

Muzaffar Shah I

Muzaffar Shah I, born Zafar Khan, was a ruler of the Muzaffarid dynasty, who reigned over the Gujarat Sultanate from 1391 to 1403 and later again from 1404 to 1411. Appointed as the governor of Gujarat by Tughluq of Delhi sultanate, he declared independence and founded the Gujarat Sultanate when there was a chaos in Delhi following Timur's invasion. He was disposed by his ambitious son Tatar Khan but he regained shortly the throne when he died.

Muzaffar Shah II

Shams-ud-Dīn Muzaffar Shah II or Muzafar II, born Khalil Khan, was a ruler of the Muzaffarid dynasty, who reigned over the Gujarat Sultanate from 1511 to 1526. He subdued Idar but came in conflict with Rana Sanga of Mewar when he captured Malwa.

Muzaffarids (Gujarat)

The Muzaffarid dynasty, sometimes referred as Ahmedabad dynasty, were sultans of Gujarat in western India from 1391 to 1583. The founder of the dynasty was Zafar Khan (later Muzaffar Shah I) who was governor of Gujarat under the Delhi Sultanate. Zafar Khan's father Sadharan, was a Tanka Rajput convert to Islam, adopted the name Wajih-ul-Mulk, and had given his sister in marriage to Firuz Shah Tughlaq. When the Sultanate was weakened by the sacking of Delhi by Timur in 1398, and Zafar Khan took the opportunity to establish himself as sultan of an independent Gujarat. His son, Ahmed Shah I established the capital at Ahmedabad. The dynasty ruled for almost 200 years, until the conquest of Gujarat by the Mughal Empire in 1572. The sultanate reached its peak of expansion under Mahmud Begada, reaching east into Malwa and west to the Gulf of Kutch.

Qutb ad-Din

Qutb ad-Din (Arabic: قطب‌ الدین‎) is a masculine given name composed of the elements Qutb and ad-Din. Notable bearers of the name include:

Qutb al-din Hasan (died 1100), king of the Ghurid dynasty

Qutb al-Din Muhammad, or Muhammad I of Khwarazm (died 1127), appointed Shah of Khwarazm by the Seljuk sultan

Qutb ad-Din Mawdud (died 1170), Zengid Emir of Mosul

Qutb al-Din Aibak (died 1210), founder of the Mamluk Sultanate of Delhi

Qutb ad-Din Muhammad (died 1219), Zengid Emir of Sinjar

Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar (died ca. 1221), Persian Sufi saint

Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki (1173–1235), Indian Sufi saint

Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi (1236–1311), Persian scientist, musician and poet

Qutb ud din Mubarak Shah (died 1320), ruler of the Khilji dynasty in India

Qutb al-Din Muhammad (died 1346), Mihrabanid malik of Sistan

Qutb al-Din ibn 'Izz al-Din (died 1386), Mihrabanid malik of Sistan

Qutb al-Din Muhammad ibn Shams al-Din Shah 'Ali (c. 1366 – 1419), Mihrabanid malik of Sistan

Qutb-ud-Din Ahmad Shah II, Sultan of Gujarat Sultanate from 1451 to 1458

Qutb-ud-Din Bahadur Shah of Gujarat (died 1537), Sultan of Gujarat Sultanate

Qutb ud-Din Muhammad Mu'azzam, later Bahadur Shah I (1643–1712), Mughal Emperor

Ghotbeddin Sadeghi (born 1952), Iranian theatre director, playwright, stage and film actor

Second Siege of Diu

The Second Siege of Diu was a siege of the Portuguese Indian city of Diu by the Gujarat Sultanate in 1546. It ended with a major Portuguese victory.

Sidi Saiyyed Mosque

The Sidi Saiyyed Mosque, popularly known as Sidi Saiyyid ni Jali locally, built in 1572-73 AD (Hijri year 980), is one of the most famous mosques of Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. As attested by the marble tablet fixed on the wall of the mosque, it was built by Sidi Saiyyid in the retinue of Bilal Jhajar Khan, general in the army of the last Sultan Shams-ud-Din Muzaffar Shah III of the Gujarat Sultanate.The mosque was built in the last year of the existence of Gujarat Sultanate. The mosque is entirely arcuated and is known for its ten intricately carved stone latticework windows (jalis) on the side and rear arches. The rear wall is filled with square stone pierced panels in geometrical designs. The two bays flanking the central aisle have reticulated stone slabs carved in designs of intertwined trees and foliage and a palm motif. This intricately carved lattice stone window is the Sidi Saiyyed Jali, the unofficial symbol of city of Ahmedabad and the inspiration for the design of the logo of the Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad.The central window arch of the mosque, where one would expect to see another intricate jali, is instead walled with stone. This is possibly because the mosque was not completed according to plan before the Mughals invaded Gujarat.

Siege of Diu

The Siege of Diu occurred when an army of the Sultanate of Gujarat under Khadjar Safar, aided by forces of the Ottoman Empire attempted to capture the city of Diu in 1538, then held by the Portuguese. The Portuguese successfully resisted the four months long siege. It is part of The Ottoman-Portuguese War.

Sikandar Shah of Gujarat

Sikandar Shah, born Sikandar Khan, was a ruler of the Muzaffarid dynasty, who reigned over the Gujarat Sultanate for few weeks before his murder in 1526.

Treaty of Bassein (1534)

The Treaty of Bassein was signed by Sultan Bahadur of Gujarat and the Kingdom of Portugal on 23 December 1534 while on board the galleon São Mateus. Based on the terms of the agreement, the Portuguese Empire gained control of the city of Bassein, as well as its territories, islands, and seas. The Mumbai islands which fell under Portuguese control included Colaba, Old Woman's Island, Mumbai, Mazagaon, Worli, Matunga, and Mahim. Salsette, Daman and Diu, Thane, Kalyan, and Chaul were other territories controlled and settled by the Portuguese.

At the time, the cession of Mumbai (or Bombay) was of minor importance, but it gained a crucial importance when the place passed from the Portuguese to the English in 1661 as part of the dowry of Catherine of Braganza, and became a major trade center, making this the treaty's most important long-term result.

Gujarat Sultanate
Muzaffarid dynasty
(1407–1573)
Gujarat under Delhi Sultanate (1298–1407)
Muzaffar Shah I (1391-1403)
Muhammad Shah I (1403-1404)
Muzaffar Shah I (1404-1411)
(2nd reign)
Ahmad Shah I (1411-1442)
Muhammad Shah II (1442-1451)
Ahmad Shah II (1451-1458)
Daud Shah (1458)
Mahmud Begada (1458-1511)
Muzaffar Shah II (1511-1526)
Sikandar Shah (1526)
Mahmud Shah II (1526)
Bahadur Shah (1526-1535)
Mughal Empire under Humayun (1535-1536)
Bahadur Shah (1536-1537)
(2nd reign)
Miran Muhammad Shah I
(Farooqi dynasty)
(1537)
Mahmud Shah III (1537-1554)
Ahmad Shah III (1554-1561)
Muzaffar Shah III (1561-1573)
Mughal Empire under Akbar (1573-1584)
Muzaffar Shah III (1584)
(2nd reign)
Mughal Empire under Akbar (1584-1605)

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