Guizhou (贵州; formerly romanised as Kweichow), is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country. Its capital city is Guiyang. Guizhou is a relatively poor and economically undeveloped province, but rich in natural, cultural and environmental resources. Demographically it is one of China's most diverse provinces. Minority groups such as the Miao/Hmong and Yao account for more than 37% of the population.
|• Chinese||贵州省 (Guìzhōu Shěng)|
Map showing the location of Guizhou Province
|Named for||Gui - Gui Mountains |
(and largest city)
|Divisions||9 prefectures, 88 counties, 1539 townships|
|• Secretary||Sun Zhigang|
|• Governor||Shen Yiqin|
|• Total||176,167 km2 (68,018 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||2,900 m (9,500 ft)|
|• Density||200/km2 (510/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||18th|
|• Ethnic composition||Han - 62%|
Miao - 12%
Buyei - 8%
Dong - 5%
Tujia - 4%
Yi - 2%
Undistinguished - 2%
Gelao - 2%
Sui - 1%
|• Languages and dialects||Southwestern Mandarin|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-GZ|
|GDP (2017 )||CNY 1.35 trillion|
USD 200.55 billion (25th)
|• per capita||CNY 37,956 |
USD 5,622 (29st)
|HDI (2010)||0.598 (medium) (30th)|
The area was first organized as an administrative region of a Chinese empire under the Tang, when it was named Juzhou (矩州), pronounced Kjú-jyuw in the Middle Chinese of the period. During the Mongolian Yuan dynasty, the character 矩 (ju, "carpenter's square") was changed to the more refined 貴 (gui, "precious or expensive"). The region formally became a province in 1413, with an eponymous capital then also called "Guizhou" but now known as Guiyang. Another single-character abbreviation is "黔" (pinyin: Qián).
Evidence of settlement by humans during the Middle Palaeolithic is indicated by stone artefacts, including Levallois pieces, found during archaeological excavations at Guanyindong Cave. These artefacts have been dated to approximately 170,000–80,000 years ago using optically stimulated luminescence methods.
From around 1046 BCE to the emergence of the Qin Dynasty, northwest Guizhou was part of the State of Shu. During the Warring States period, the Chinese state of Chu conquered the area, and control later passed to the Dian Kingdom. During the Chinese Han Dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE), to which the Dian was tributary, Guizhou was home to the Yelang collection of tribes, which largely governed themselves before the Han consolidated control in the southwest and established the Lingnan province. During the Three Kingdoms period, parts of Guizhou were governed by the Shu Han state based in Sichuan, followed by Cao Wei (220–265) and the Jin Dynasty (265–420).
During the 8th and 9th centuries in the Tang Dynasty, Chinese soldiers moved into Guizhou (Kweichow) and married native women. Their descendants are known as Lǎohànrén (老汉人), in contrast to new Chinese who populated Guizhou at later times. They still speak an archaic dialect. Many immigrants to Guizhou were descended from these soldiers in garrisons who married these pre-Chinese women.
Kublai Khan and Möngke Khan conquered the Chinese southwest in the process of defeating the Song during the Mongol invasion of China, and the newly established Yuan Dynasty (1279–1368) saw the importation of Chinese Muslim administrators and settlers from Bukhara in Central Asia.
It was during the following Ming Dynasty, which was once again led by Han Chinese, that Guizhou was formally made a province in 1413. The Ming established many garrisons in Guizhou from which to pacify the Yao and Miao minorities during the Miao Rebellions. Chinese-style agriculture flourished with the expertise of farmers from Sichuan, Hunan and its surrounding provinces into Guizhou. Wu Sangui was responsible for the ousting the Ming in Guizhou and Yunnan during the Manchu conquest of China. During the governorship-general of the Qing Dynasty's nobleman Ortai, the tusi system of indirect governance of the southwest was abolished, prompting rebellions from disenfranchised chieftains and the further centralization of government. After the Second Opium War, criminal triads set up shop in Guangxi and Guizhou to sell British opium. For a time, Taiping Rebels took control of Guizhou, but they were ultimately suppressed by the Qing. Concurrently, Han Chinese soldiers moved into the Taijiang region of Guizhou, married Miao women, and their children were brought up as Miao.
More unsuccessful Miao rebellions occurred during the Qing, in 1735, from 1795–1806 and from 1854–1873. After the overthrow of the Qing in 1911 and following Chinese Civil War, the Communists took refuge in Guizhou during the Long March (1934–1935). While the province was formally ruled by the Guomindang warlord Wang Jialie, the Zunyi Conference in Guizhou established Mao Zedong as the leader of the Communist Party. As the Second Sino-Japanese War pushed China's Nationalist Government to its southwest base of Chongqing, transportation infrastructure improved as Guizhou was linked with the Burma Road. After the end of the War, a 1949 Revolution swept Mao into power, who promoted the relocation of heavy industry into inland provinces such as Guizhou, to better protect them from Soviet and American attacks. After the Chinese economic reform began in 1978, geographical factors led Guizhou to become the poorest province in China, with a GDP growth average of 9 percent from 1978–1993.
Guizhou is a mountainous province, although its higher altitudes are in the west and centre. It lies at the eastern end of the Yungui Plateau. At 2,900 m (9,514 ft) meters above sea level, Jiucaiping is Guizhou's highest point.
Guizhou has a humid subtropical climate. There are few seasonal changes. Its annual average temperature is roughly 10 to 20 °C, with January temperatures ranging from 1 to 10 °C and July temperatures ranging from 17 to 28 °C.
Like in China's other southwest provinces, rural areas of Guizhou suffered severe drought during spring 2010. One of China's poorest provinces, Guizhou is experiencing serious environmental problems, such as desertification and persistent water shortages. On 3–5 April 2010, China's Premier Wen Jiabao went on a three-day inspection tour in the southwest drought-affected province of Guizhou, where he met villagers and called on agricultural scientists to develop drought-resistant technologies for the area.
The border mountains of Guizhou, Guangxi, and Hunan have been identified as one of the eight plant diversity hotspots in China. The main ecosystem types include evergreen broad-leaved forest, coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, and montane elfin forest. Plant species endemic to this region include Abies ziyuanensis, Cathaya argyrophylla, and Keteleeria pubescens. In broad terms, the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau is one of the vertebrate diversity hotspots of China. At the level of counties, Xingyi is one of nine Chinese vertebrate diversity (excluding birds) hotspots. Animals only known from Guizhou include Leishan moustache toad, Kuankuoshui salamander, Shuicheng salamander, Guizhou salamander, and Zhijin warty newt.
Caohai Lake with its surroundings is a wetland that is an important overwintering site for many birds. It is a National Nature Reserve and an Important Bird Area identified by BirdLife International.
|Administrative divisions of Guizhou|
|№||Division code||Division||Area in km2||Population 2010||Seat||Divisions|
|Districts*||Counties||Aut. counties||CL cities|
|520000||Guizhou Province||176167.00||34,746,468||Guiyang city||16||52||11||9|
|6||520100||Guiyang city||8,046.67||4,324,561||Guanshanhu District||6||3||1|
|4||520200||Liupanshui city||9,965.37||2,851,180||Zhongshan District||2||1||1|
|2||520300||Zunyi city||30,780.73||6,127,009||Huichuan District||3||7||2||2|
|5||520400||Anshun city||9,253.06||2,297,339||Xixiu District||2||1||3|
|1||520500||Bijie city||26,844.45||6,536,370||Qixingguan District||1||6||1|
|3||520600||Tongren city||18,006.41||3,092,365||Bijiang District||2||4||4|
|7||522300||Qianxinan Aut. Prefecture||16,785.93||2,805,857||Xingyi city||6||2|
|9||522600||Qiandongnan Aut. Prefecture||30,278.06||3,480,626||Kaili city||15||1|
|8||522700||Qiannan Aut. Prefecture||26,191.78||3,231,161||Duyun city||9||1||2|
|* - including Special district|
|Administrative divisions in Chinese and varieties of romanizations|
|Guizhou Province||贵州省||Guìzhōu Shěng|
|Guiyang city||贵阳市||Guìyáng Shì|
|Liupanshui city||六盘水市||Liùpánshuǐ Shì|
|Zunyi city||遵义市||Zūnyì Shì|
|Anshun city||安顺市||Ānshùn Shì|
|Bijie city||毕节市||Bìjié Shì|
|Tongren city||铜仁市||Tóngrén Shì|
|Qianxinan Aut. Prefecture||黔西南自治州||Qiánxīnán Zzhōu|
|Qiandongnan Aut. Prefecture||黔东南自治州||Qiándōngnán Zzhōu|
|Qiannan Aut. Prefecture||黔南自治州||Qiánnán Zhōu|
|Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities|
|#||City||Urban area||District area||City proper||Census date|
|(2)||Zunyi (new district)[a]||280,163||942,904||see Zunyi||2010-11-01|
|(5)||Anshun (new district)[c]||95,601||297,990||see Anshun||2010-11-01|
|6||Xingyi||335,243||783,120||part of Qianxinan Prefecture||2010-11-01|
|7||Kaili||274,922||479,011||part of Qiandongnan Prefecture||2010-11-01|
|9||Duyun||217,091||443,721||part of Qiannan Prefecture||2010-11-01|
|13||Fuquan||158,515||283,904||part of Qiannan Prefecture||2010-11-01|
|(14)||Xingren[f]||113043||417,919||part of Qianxinan Prefecture||2010-11-01|
Guizhou is a relatively poor and economically undeveloped province, but rich in natural, cultural and environmental resources. Its nominal GDP for 2012 was 680.22 billion yuan (107.758 billion USD). Its per capita GDP of RMB 19,566 (3,100 USD) is the lowest in China.
Its natural industry includes timber and forestry. Guizhou is also the third largest producer of tobacco in China, and home to the well-known brand Guizhou Tobacco. Other important industries in the province include energy (electricity generation) - a large portion of which is exported to Guangdong and other provinces - and mining, especially in coal, limestone, arsenic, gypsum, and oil shale. Guizhou's total output of coal was 118 million tons in 2008, a 7% growth from the previous year. Guizhou's export of power to Guangdong equaled 12% of Guangdong's total power consumption. Over the next 5 years Guizhou hopes to increase this by as much as 50%.
In 2017, Sun Zhigang, the governor of Guizhou, has announced the plans to build 10,000 kilometers of highways, 17 airports, 600 km (370 mi) of inland waterways, and 4,000 km (2,500 mi) of high-speed rail lines in three years, in an effort to boost the tourism in the province.
Guizhou's rail network consists primarily of a cross formed by the Sichuan–Guizhou, Guangxi–Guizhou and Shanghai–Kunming Railways, which intersect at the provincial capital, Guiyang, near the center of the province. The Liupanshui–Baiguo, Pan County West and Weishe–Hongguo Railways form a rail corridor along Guizhou's western border with Yunnan. This corridor connects the Neijiang–Kunming Railway, which dips into northwestern Guizhou at Weining, with the Nanning–Kunming Railway, which skirts the southwestern corner of Guizhou at Xingyi.
In 1832, the population was estimated at five million.
Guizhou is demographically one of China's most diverse provinces. Minority groups account for more than 37% of the population and they include Miao (including Gha-Mu and A-Hmao), Yao, Yi, Qiang, Dong, Zhuang, Bouyei, Bai, Tujia, Gelao and Sui. 55.5% of the province area is designated as autonomous regions for ethnic minorities. Guizhou is the province with the highest fertility rate in China, standing at 2.19 (Urban-1.31, Rural-2.42).
The predominant religions in Guizhou are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 31.18% of the population believes and is involved in ancestor veneration, while 0.99% of the population identifies as Christian, decreasing from 1.13% in 2004.
The reports did not give figures for other types of religion; 67.83% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects, and small minorities of Muslims. There are significant ethnic minority populations (the Miao and the Buyei) who traditionally follow their autochthonous religions.
The southeastern corner of the province is known for its unique Dong minority culture. Towns such as Rongjiang, Liping, Diping and Zhaoxing are scattered amongst the hills along the border with Guangxi.
The World Bank "Strategic Environmental Assessment Study: Tourism Development in the Province of Guizhou, China" (May 25, 2007) points to three different forms of tourism that should be fostered and developed in Guizhou, China: Nature-based, Heritage-based and Rural Tourism. Heritage-based tourism provides ethnic minority groups with an opportunity to preserve their unique heritage while still making a living.
Anshun Huangguoshu Airport (IATA: AVA, ICAO: ZUAS) is a dual-use military and public airport serving the city of Anshun in Guizhou Province, China. It was built in 1965 as a military airport and opened to civil flights in 2002.Beijing Renhe F.C.
Beijing Renhe Football Club (Chinese: 北京人和; pinyin: Běijīng Rénhé) is a professional Chinese football club that currently participates in the Chinese Super League under licence from the Chinese Football Association (CFA). The team is based in Fengtai, Beijing and their home stadium is the Beijing Fengtai Stadium that has a seating capacity of 31,043. Their current majority shareholder is Chinese property developers of shopping centers Renhe Commercial Holdings Company Limited.
The club was founded in Pudong, Shanghai in February 3, 1995 and were originally known as Shanghai Pudong before they made their debut in the third tier of China's football league pyramid in the 1995 league season. They would work there way up to the top tier while changing name to accommodate their sponsors. In the 2006 league season the club would relocate the team to Shaanxi and rename themselves Xi'an Chanba International, however by the 2012 league season, the club relocated this time to Guizhou, and changed their name to Guizhou Renhe. In the 2016 league season the club relocated the team to Fengtai, Beijing, and changed their name to Beijing Renhe. Throughout the clubs history their greatest achievement has been winning the 2013 Chinese FA Cup while the highest position they have ever finished was second within the 2003 league season.Beipan River
Beipan River (Chinese: 北盘江; pinyin: Beipanjiang) is a river in Guizhou and Yunnan provinces, China, and part of the great Pearl River basin.Bouyei people
The Bouyei (also spelled Puyi, Buyei and Buyi; self called: Buxqyaix [puʔjai], or "Puzhong", "Burao", "Puman"; Chinese: 布依族; Pinyin: Bùyīzú; Vietnamese: người Bố Y) are an ethnic group living in southern mainland China. Numbering 2.5 million, they are the 11th largest of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China. Some Bouyei also live in Vietnam, where they are one of that nation's 54 officially recognized ethnic groups. Despite the Chinese considering them a separate group, they consider themselves Zhuang (Tai peoples).The Bouyei live in semi-tropical, high-altitude forests of Guizhou province, as well as in Yunnan and Sichuan provinces, and speak a Tai language.Chengdu J-7
The Chengdu J-7 (Chinese: 歼-7; third generation export version F-7; NATO reporting name: Fishcan) is a People's Republic of China license-built version of the Soviet Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21. Though production ceased in 2013, it continues to serve, mostly as an interceptor, in several air forces, including the People's Liberation Army Air Force. The J-7 was extensively re-developed into the CAC/PAC JF-17 Thunder, which became a successor to the type.Chishui City
Chishui (Chinese: 赤水; pinyin: Chìshǔi) is a county-level city of Guizhou Province, China. It is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Zunyi.
The city has a total area of 1,801 km², and in 2007, it had a population of 300,000.Fuquan, Guizhou
Fuquan (Chinese: 福泉; pinyin: Fúquán) is a county-level city in Southern Guizhou province of the People's Republic of China.Guanyindong
Guanyindong (Chinese: 观音洞; pinyin: Guānyīndòng) or Guanyin Cave is a Palaeolithic cave site, discovered in 1964 in Qianxi County, Guizhou, China.
It contains the earliest evidence of stone artefacts made using the Levallois technique in China.The site has been on the List of Major National Historical and Cultural Sites in Guizhou Qianxi Guanyin dong yizhi (黔西观音洞遗址) since 2001.Guiyang
Guiyang is the capital of Guizhou province of Southwest China. It is located in the center of the province, situated on the east of the Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau, and on the north bank of the Nanming River, a branch of the Wu River. The city has an elevation of about 1,100 meters (3,600 ft). It has an area of 8,034 square kilometers (3,102 sq mi). At the 2010 census, its population was 4,324,561, out of whom 3,037,159 lived in the 7 urban districts.A city with humid subtropical climate, Guiyang is surrounded by mountains and forest. The area, inhabited since at least the Spring and Autumn period, formally became the capital of the surrounding province in 1413, during the Yuan dynasty. The city is home to a large Miao and Bouyei ethnic minority population. Guiyang has a diversified economy, traditionally a center for aluminum production, phosphate mining, and optical instrument manufacturing; however, following reforms, the majority of the city's economic output in the services sector. Since 2015, it has seen targeted investments into big data and quickly emerged as a local innovation hub.Guizhou Hengfeng F.C.
Guizhou Hengfeng F.C. (simplified Chinese: 贵州恒丰足球俱乐部; traditional Chinese: 貴州恆豐足球俱樂部; pinyin: Guìzhōu Héngfēng Zúqiú Jùlèbù; Mandarin pronunciation: [kwêi ʈʂóu xə̌ŋ.fə́ŋ.tsǔ tɕʰjǒu tɕŷ lɤ̂ pû]) is a professional Chinese football club that currently participates in the China League One division under licence from the Chinese Football Association (CFA). The team is based in Guiyang, Guizhou and their home stadium is the 51,636-seat Guiyang Olympic Sports Center. Their current majority shareholders are Hengfeng Real Estate, Guizhou Zhicheng Enterprise Group Investment Co., Ltd. and the Guizhou Provincial Sports Bureau.Huaguoyuan Tower 1
Huaguoyuan Tower 1 is a supertall skyscraper in Guiyang, Guizhou, China. It is 335 metres (1,099.1 ft) tall.
Construction started in 2012 and was completed in 2018.Huaguoyuan Tower 2
Huaguoyuan Tower 2 is a supertall skyscraper in Guiyang, Guizhou, China. It will be 335 metres (1,099.1 ft) tall. Construction started in 2012 and was completed in 2018.Liupanshui
Liupanshui (simplified Chinese: 六盘水; traditional Chinese: 六盤水; pinyin: Liùpánshuǐ) is a city in western Guizhou province, People's Republic of China. The name Liupanshui combines the first character from the names of each of the city's three constituent counties: Liuzhi, Panzhou, Shuicheng. As a prefecture-level city with an area of 9,926 square kilometres (3,832 sq mi), Liupanshui had a total population of over 2,830,000 in 2006, making it the second largest in the province, though only 251,900 inhabitants were urban residents. The city is known locally as "The Cool City" or "Cool Capital" due to its low average summer temperature.Longjia language
Longjia (autonym: suŋ˥ni˥mpau˨˩) is a Sino-Tibetan language of Guizhou, China related to Caijia and Luren. Longjia may already be extinct (Zhao 2011).
The Longjia people now speak Southwestern Mandarin, though they used to speak their own language, and have had a long presence in western Guizhou. According to the Guizhou Ethnic Gazetteer (2002), the Longjia language was spoken in Dafang County, Qianxi County (Zhongping District 中坪区; Xinfacun 新发村 of Pojiao District 坡脚区), and Puding County (Jiangyizhai 讲义寨 of Baiyan Township 白岩乡). It is reportedly most similar to Caijia, and has many Old Chinese loanwords.Miao people
The Miao is an ethnic group belonging to South China, and is recognized by the government of China as one of the 55 official minority groups. Miao is a Chinese term and does not reflect the self-designations of the component groups of people, which include (with some variant spellings) Hmong, Hmub, Xong (Qo-Xiong), and A-Hmao.
The Chinese government has grouped these people and other non-Miao peoples together as one group, whose members may not necessarily be either linguistically or culturally related, though the majority are members of Miao-Yao language family, which includes the Hmong, Hmub, Xong and A-Hmao and the majority do share cultural similarities. Because of the previously given reasons, many Miao peoples cannot communicate with each other in their native tongues and have different histories and cultures. A few groups designated as Miao by the PRC do not even agree that they belong to the ethnic group, though most Miao groups, such as the Hmong and Hmub, do agree with the collective grouping as a single ethnic group – Miao.
The Miao live primarily in southern China's mountains, in the provinces of Guizhou, Yunnan, Sichuan, Hubei, Hunan, Guangxi, Guangdong and Hainan. Some sub-groups of the Miao, most notably the Hmong people, have migrated out of China into Southeast Asia (Burma (Myanmar), northern Vietnam, Laos and Thailand). Following the communist takeover of Laos in 1975, a large group of Hmong refugees resettled in several Western nations, mainly in the United States, France, and Australia.Renhuai
Renhuai (simplified Chinese: 仁怀; traditional Chinese: 仁懷; pinyin: Rénhuái) is a county-level city located in the north of Guizhou province, China, bordering Sichuan province to the west. It is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Zunyi.Tongren
Tongren (simplified Chinese: 铜仁; traditional Chinese: 銅仁; pinyin: Tóngrén) is a prefecture-level city in eastern Guizhou province, People's Republic of China, located within a tobacco planting and crop agricultural area. Tongren was known as Tongren Prefecture (铜仁地区) until November 2011, when it was converted into a prefecture-level city.Xingyi, Guizhou
Xingyi (simplified Chinese: 兴义; traditional Chinese: 興義; pinyin: Xīngyì) is a county-level city administered by the Qianxinan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, in the southwest of Guizhou Province, China.Zunyi
Zunyi (simplified Chinese: 遵义; traditional Chinese: 遵義; pinyin: Zūnyì) is a prefecture-level city in northern Guizhou province, People's Republic of China, situated between the provincial capital Guiyang to the south and Chongqing to the north, also bordering Sichuan to the northwest. Along with Guiyang and Liupanshui, it is one of the most important cities of the province. The built-up (or metro) area made of three urban districts of the city, Huichuan, Honghuagang, and Bozhou, had a population of 1,095,189 people; and the whole prefecture, including 14 county-level administration area as a whole, has a population of 6,127,009 at the 2010 census.