Guerrilla gardening

Guerrilla gardening is the act of gardening on land that the gardeners do not have the legal rights to cultivate, such as abandoned sites, areas that are not being cared for, or private property. It encompasses a diverse range of people and motivations, ranging from gardeners who spill over their legal boundaries to gardeners with political influences who seek to provoke change by using guerrilla gardening as a form of protest or direct action. This practice has implications for land rights and land reform; aiming to promote re-consideration of land ownership in order to assign a new purpose or reclaim land that is perceived to be in neglect or misused.

The land that is guerrilla gardened is usually abandoned or perceived to be neglected by its legal owner. That land is used by guerrilla gardeners to raise plants, frequently focusing on food crops or plants intended for aesthetic purposes, like flowers.

Some guerrilla gardeners carry out their actions at night, in relative secrecy, to sow and tend a new vegetable patch or flower garden in an effort to make the area of use and/or more attractive. Some garden at more visible hours for the purpose of publicity, which can be seen as a form of activism.

Guerilla Gardening in front of Flying Pigeon LA
Guerrilla gardening on a Los Angeles street.

Etymology

Guerrilla gardening
Guerrilla gardeners planting vegetables on previously empty space in downtown Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

The earliest recorded use of the term guerrilla gardening was by Liz Christy and her Green Guerrilla group in 1973 in the Bowery Houston area of New York. They transformed a derelict private lot into a garden.[1] The space is still cared for by volunteers but now enjoys the protection of the city's parks department. Two celebrated guerrilla gardeners, active prior to the coining of the term, were Gerrard Winstanley, of the Diggers in Surrey, England (1649), and John "Appleseed" Chapman in Ohio, USA (1801).

Guerrilla gardening takes place in many parts of the world - more than thirty countries are documented[2] and evidence can be found online in numerous guerrilla gardening social networking groups and in the Community pages of GuerrillaGardening.org.[3] The term bewildering has been used as a synonym for guerrilla gardening by Australian gardener Bob Crombie.[4]

Examples

International Sunflower Guerrilla Gardening Day

The International Sunflower Guerrilla Gardening Day, scheduled on the 1st of May of every year, is an annual international event when guerrilla gardeners plant sunflowers in their neighborhoods, typically in public places perceived to be neglected, such as tree pits, flower beds and roadside verges.[5] It has taken place since 2007, and was conceived by guerrilla gardeners in Brussels,[6] (who go by the name of The Brussels Farmers). They declared it Journée Internationale de la Guérilla Tournesol. It has been championed by guerrilla gardeners around the world, notably by GuerrillaGardening.org [7] and participation has grown each year since then. Although sunflower sowing at this time of the year is limited to relatively temperate parts of the Northern Hemisphere, this day is also marked in other parts of the world by planting plants appropriate to the season.

North America

Adam Purple's Garden of Eden

Lower East Side in Adam Purple's Garden 1984.
Adam Purple's urban garden on the Lower East Side of Manhattan in 1984.

From the mid-1970s, Adam Purple created and tended a circular garden (shaped like a yin-yang) in the Lower East Side of Manhattan, in an abandoned lot. In 1986, when it was bulldozed by the City of New York, the garden had overtaken many lots and reached a size of 15,000 square feet.[8][9][10] The short film "Adam Purple and the Garden of Eden" tells its history.[11]

People's Park (Berkeley, California)

People's Park in Berkeley, California is now a de facto public park which was formed directly out of a community guerrilla gardening movement during the late 1960s which took place on land owned by the University of California. The university acquired the land through eminent domain, and the houses on the land were demolished, but the university did not allocate funds to develop the land, and the land was left in a decrepit state.

Eventually, people began to convert the unused land into a park. This led to an embattled history involving community members, the university, university police, Governor Reagan, and the national guard, where protest and bloody reprisal left one person dead, and hundreds seriously wounded. Parts of the park were destroyed and rebuilt over time, and it has established itself into a permanent part of the city.

Greenaid (Los Angeles)

Greenaid is a Los Angeles based organization founded in 2010 by Daniel Phillips and Kim Karlsrud of Common Studio. The organization converts vintage gumball machines to dispense seed balls, a combination of clay, compost and region-specific seeds. Once dispensed, seed balls are tossed or planted in any area that may benefit from wildflowers (Seed bombing). Greenaid partners with business owners, educators and citizens to distribute seedbomb vending machines in various communities worldwide. With region-specific seedbomb mixes, Greenaid aims to integrate and beautify rather than disrupt traditionally bland urban areas such as sidewalks and highway medians.[12] In July 2010, Greenaid received $10,398 in funding from the Kickstarter community. This funding will be used to spread the initiative to new locations and support current operations.[13][14]

L.A. Green Grounds

Designer Ron Dunn pioneered the growing produce on a strip of parkway lawn but came into conflict with the city council. He was successful in maintaining this urban market garden and has promoted the idea with a TED talk and appearances at international conferences such as the Stockholm Food Forum and MAD in Copenhagen.[15][16]

SoCal Guerrilla Gardening

Developing the Clean, Green, and Glean method of Guerrilla Gardening Scott Bunnell has been refining guerrilla gardening methods for over 30 years. In 2008 he started the SoCal Guerrilla Gardening Club adding more drought tolerant gardens. Having dozens of guerrilla gardens in Los Angeles County. Several gardens in each of the cities of Hollywood, Eagle Rock, Pico Rivera, Whittier, Long Beach, Norwalk, Artesia, Venice, the Skid Row area of Los Angeles. In 2015 SoCal also planted a guerrilla "satellite" garden in Morro Bay, Ca. with our sister club the Morro Bay Guerrilla Gardening Club. [17][18]

Utah

In Northern Utah, apple trees commonly grow along the banks of canals. Asparagus grows along the smaller ditch banks. Many of these plants were seeded 150 years ago by the workers who dug the canals, by burying their lunch apple core in the freshly dug soil or by surreptitiously spreading seeds along a new ditchbank.

Guerrilla gardening continues today, as individuals secretly plant fruit trees, edible perennials, and flowers in parks, along bike trails, etc. Some guerrilla gardeners do so for the purpose of providing food. For example, the Tacamiche banana plantation workers in Honduras illegally grew vegetables on the abandoned plantation land, rather than leave with the plantation's closure in 1995.

Seattle, Washington

In 2009, as a collaboration between World Naked Bike Ride Seattle, Body Freedom Collaborative, and World Naked Gardening Day, permaculturists Kelda Lorax and Jacob Gabriel launched Gardens Everywhere Bike Parade, a permaculture-themed clothing-optional bike ride that spontaneously showed up at neighborhood gardening locations.

"Guerrilla Park" (Welland, ON, Canada)

Guerrilla Park, Welland
"Art at the Park" at Guerrilla Park in Welland, Ontario in 2015.

Whereas most areas that are subjected to guerrilla gardening are unused or abandoned areas not designated for parkland or green space, this is an exception in that it was initially designed for such a purpose. Originally a maintained parkette in Welland, this small area along the Welland Recreational Waterway fell into disuse and neglect for a number of years. In 2013, a handful of local residents, including visual artists and guerrilla gardeners, reclaimed the space by fully restoring overgrown flower beds, adding outdoor paintings, and overseeing general landscape maintenance. Although this area is officially municipal property, there was initially a question by volunteers as to which local organization was responsible for this parkette's maintenance (whether responsibility fell into hands of Welland Recreational Canal Corporation or City of Welland Parks Department). Volunteers met with representatives of City of Welland, and an unofficial verbal agreement was made, ensuring that although the City of Welland does own the parkette land, volunteers may continue maintenance and gardening in the area. Currently, the area does attract some local artistic, musical, and creative youth. It has also been the setting for a number of small unorganized or impromptu events, such as art shows. [19][20][21]

Europe

"Garden in a night" (Denmark)

In 1996, Have på en nat ("Garden in a night") was made by the Danish Økologiske Igangsættere ("Organic starters"). An empty piece of land in the middle of the city at Guldbergsgade in Nørrebro, Copenhagen, Denmark, was transformed into a garden in a single night. About 1,000 people took part in the project.[22]

GuerrillaGardening.org (UK)

GuerrillaGardening.org[23] was created in October 2004 by Richard Reynolds as a blog of his solo guerrilla gardening outside Perronet House, a council block in London's Elephant and Castle district. At the time, his motivations were simply those of a frustrated gardener looking to beautify the neighborhood, but his website attracted the interest of fellow guerrilla gardeners in London and beyond, as well as the world's media. Reynolds's guerrilla gardening has now reached many pockets of South London, and news of his activity has inspired people around the world to get involved. He also works alongside other troops, some local and some who travel to participate. He has also guerrilla-gardened in Libya, Berlin and Montreal.

Today, GuerrillaGardening.org is still his blog but also includes tips, links and thriving community[24] boards where guerrilla gardeners from around the world are finding supportive locals. His book, On Guerrilla Gardening,[25] which describes and discusses activity in 30 different countries, was published by Bloomsbury Publishing in the UK and USA in May 2008, in Germany in 2009, France in 2010 and South Korea in 2012. He regularly speaks on the subject to audiences and in 2010 launched a campaign focusing specifically on pavements as an opportunity, to 'plant life in your street'.[26]

Leaf Street Community Garden (Manchester)

Leaf Street is an acre of land in Hulme, Manchester, England, that was once an urban street until turfed over by Manchester City Council. Local people, facilitated by Manchester Permaculture Group, took direct action in turning the site into a thriving community garden.[27]

Kew Bridge Eco Village, London, England

In July 2009, land rights activists moved on to a derelict piece of land near Kew Gardens in West London. Kew Bridge Eco Village was a small community of squatters who grew vegetables and built basic wooden dwellings on the land.

Australia

Guerrilla gardening is prominent in Melbourne where most of the inner northern suburbs have community vegetable gardens; land adjoining rail lines has undergone regeneration of the native vegetation, including nature strips. There are a few minor disputes between guerrilla gardeners in Melbourne, with most falling into one of two groups: those concerned most with native planting and those concerned most with communal food growing. However, people with differing opinions still work together without dispute.[28]

There are small community groups around Australia called "Permablitz" who gather regularly to design and construct suburban vegetable gardens for free, in an effort to educate residents on how to grow their own food and better prepare them if/when food prices become too expensive.

Australian Network 10's show Guerrilla Gardeners featured a team of gardeners who make over areas of council owned property without them knowing.

Kevin Hoffman Walk

Kevin Hoffman Walk is a passive, scenic linear trail with significant indigenous vegetation, lush ground covers, flowering native shrubs and trees, that overlook part of the tranquil Hovells Creek in Lara Victoria. Originally inspired and maintained by Kevin Hoffman and his family in the early 1970s and with the support of the then Shire of Corio they commenced working together.

New Zealand

Vacant Lot Of Cabbages (1978)

In 1978 in downtown Wellington New Zealand artist Barry Thomas, in collaboration with Chris Lipscombe, Hugh Walton and others, planted 180 cabbages "on the demolished Duke of Edinburgh/Roxy Theatre site in the centre of Wellington. This cabbage patch, planted in such a way as to spell the word CABBAGE immediately captured the imagination of both the media and the public and engendered a flurry of other activities on the site, culminating in a week-long festival... when the cabbages were ceremonially harvested." [29] While a work of conceptual sculpture, this intervention is also an early example of guerrilla gardening in New Zealand. Thomas' work remained for six months, "astonishingly unvandalised, as a living, breathing sculpture in the heart of the city." [30] Christina Barton writes that in the months that followed, "it captured the hearts and minds of Wellingtonians, who followed the growth of the cabbages, adding their own embellishments to the site, and contributed to the week of festivities (with poetry readings, performances, and the distribution of free coleslaw) that celebrated their harvest", describing the work as "a provocation to the local council and the city's developers".[31] Thomas' documentation of the project was recently purchased by New Zealand's national gallery Te Papa, who described the work as an "important moment in New Zealand’s art and social history" with links to the "Occupy movement, urban farming and guerrilla gardening".[32]

Asia

South Korea

Guerrilla gardening has lately been started in South Korea. An Acting of Korea's Guerrilla gardeners is carried out by individuals, volunteer groups and Internet communities. Richard Reynolds has visited South Korea in August 2012 and spoken to many Korean audience about Guerrilla gardening in TEDxItaewon.

[33]

Africa

South Africa

The concept of guerilla gardening resonated with a young South African who came across it while living in London. On his return to South Africa, he began implementing the practice by attempting to eradicate invasive wattle trees from Klapperkop Nature Reserve in Pretoria, after local authorities failed to address the infestation. On 20 May 2018 he was however arrested by the South African Police Service for his contribution to society.

Toxicity risks

There are some health risks to foraging or planting edible plants near toxic waste sites and roads with heavy traffic due to chemical runoff that gets absorbed by the roots. Scientists have learned that certain types of plants absorb toxins from the soil without dying and can thus be used as a mechanism to reduce chemical ground pollution. Guerrilla gardening could be used as a way to take independent action to clean up one's community, but eating a toxin-absorbent plant will deposit those toxins in the body.

Urban foragers face similar health risks in this manner. Care should be taken to not eat plants that grow in areas where there is known chemical contamination or water pollution. Plants that grow on the side of high-traffic roads should also not be eaten because of automobile fluid runoff.

See also

General:

References

  1. ^ Lamborn, P., and Weinberg, B. (Eds.), (1999), Avant Gardening: Ecological Struggle in The City and The World. Autonomedia. ISBN 1-57027-092-9
  2. ^ Reynolds, R. (2008), On Guerrilla Gardening: A Handbook For Gardening Without Boundaries. Bloomsbury ISBN 978-0-7475-9297-6
  3. ^ "Index". guerrillagardening.org. Retrieved 2013-06-12.
  4. ^ "''On the verge of a revolution'', Sydney Morning Herald, 20 February 2008". Smh.com.au. Retrieved 2013-06-12.
  5. ^ "International Sunflower Guerrilla Gardening Day". Guerrillagardening.org. Archived from the original on 2008-03-23. Retrieved 2011-01-31.
  6. ^ "Brussels Farmer: avril 2007". Brussels-farmer.blogspot.com. 2004-02-23. Retrieved 2011-01-31.
  7. ^ "GGTV International Sunflower Guerrilla Gardening Day Video Tutorial". YouTube. 2010-04-20. Retrieved 2011-01-31.
  8. ^ "A/N Blog . Video> Exhibition Recalls NY′s Lost Garden of Eden". Blog.archpaper.com. 2011-02-15. Archived from the original on 2013-05-29. Retrieved 2013-06-12.
  9. ^ Karin Westdyk. "The Garden of Eden: An Environmental "Radical Transformation"". Zentences.com. Retrieved 2013-06-12.
  10. ^ McKinley, Jesse (22 February 1998). "Adam Purple's Last Stand". The New York Times.
  11. ^ Moynihan, Colin. "Adam Purple, Eccentric Environmentalist and Gardener in New York, Dies at 84". New York Times. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  12. ^ "Greenaid". Commonstudio. Retrieved 2015-07-20.
  13. ^ Template:Creator.name. "Greenaid". "Kickstarter. Retrieved 2013-06-12.
  14. ^ Marty Kassowitz (2010-11-14). "GreenAid's Guerrilla Gumball-Machine Gardening - Organic Connections". Organicconnectmag.com. Archived from the original on 2011-11-19. Retrieved 2013-06-12.
  15. ^ "The veggie king of South Central", Los Angeles Register, May 13, 2014
  16. ^ "Food is MAD", Food Programme, BBC, 21 Sep 2014
  17. ^ "Guerrilla gardener movement takes root in L.A. area", Los Angeles Times, May 29, 2008
  18. ^ Guerrilla Gardeners, 2009
  19. ^ Henschel, Steve (Jun 12, 2014). "Guerrilla Gardeners Transform Park". Niagara This Week.
  20. ^ Barton, Laura (April 9, 2017). "Canal Side Park Gets Spring Makeover". The Welland Tribune.
  21. ^ Tribune Staff (May 21, 2015). "Art to Take Over Guerrilla Garden". The Welland Tribune.
  22. ^ http://www.information.dk/47309
  23. ^ "The Guerrilla Gardening Home Page". Guerrillagardening.org. Retrieved 2013-06-12.
  24. ^ "Community". Guerrillagardening.org. Retrieved 2013-06-12.
  25. ^ "On Guerrilla Gardening". On Guerrilla Gardening. Retrieved 2013-06-12.
  26. ^ http://www.pimpyourpavement.com Pimp Your Pavement
  27. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-01-01. Retrieved 2007-09-15.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  28. ^ The Age, Article "Gardening guerrilla's in our midst", 10/12/08.
  29. ^ "The Artists' Co-op: Barry Thomas; Eva Yuen; Ian Hunter; Ross Boyd; Terry Handscombe; Robin White". Art New Zealand (Winter, 1978).
  30. ^ Neil Rowe. "The Artists' Co-op: Barry Thomas; Eva Yuen; Ian Hunter; Ross Boyd; Terry Handscombe; Robin White". Art New Zealand (Winter, 1978).
  31. ^ Jenny Harper & Aaron Lister (eds.). Wellington: A City For Sculpture. Victoria University Press, 2007.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
  32. ^ Sarah Farrar. "'Vacant lot of cabbages' documentation enters Te Papa's archives". Te Papa, Museum of New Zealand.
  33. ^ TEDx Talks. "Guerrilla gardening -- why people garden without boundaries: Richard Reynolds at TEDxItaewon". Youtube.

External links

Adam Purple

Adam Purple (born David Lloyd Wilkie; November 10, 1930 – September 14, 2015) was an activist and urban Edenist or "Guerrilla Gardener" famous in New York City for his "Garden of Eden". His birth name was David Lloyd Wilkie, although he went by many others, including "Rev. Les Ego".

Anna Breitenbach

Anna Breitenbach (born 1952) is a German author and performance artist.

She was born in Hessen. She studied German and political science in Göttingen and Tübingen and attended the Deutsche Journalistenschule in Munich. She worked as a radio reporter for Süddeutscher Rundfunk and published her poetry and prose in various literary journals. In 2000, she published her first novel Fremde Leute; in 2003, she published her first book of poetry Feuer.Land. In 2012, she produced the film Guerrilla Gardening with Werner Reichelt. Breitenbach has been living and working in Esslingen and Elmo in Italy.In 2001, she was awarded the Thaddäus-Troll-Preis for her novel Fremde Leute. In 2005, she was one of the winners in the poetry competition sponsored by C.H. Beck.

Avdi Square

Avdi Square (Greek: Πλατεία Λέοντος Αυδή) is a public gathering place located in the Metaxourgeio neighbourhood of Athens, Greece, bounded by Leonidou, Kerameikou, Giatrakou and Germanikou streets. On the edges of the square stand the Municipal Gallery of Athens, several cafes, theatres, businesses and residential buildings. The City of Athens renovated the square in 2008, increasing the amount and quality of greenery, improving lighting and renewing tile surfaces.

Since then, the square has also begun to bear signs of the neighbourhood’s steady revitalization by its residents through anonymous artwork, guerrilla gardening, festivals, and performances of dance, music and other artistic expression.

The square’s 2008 overhaul was part of the city’s “We're Taking Note and Taking Action" program, which aimed to solve everyday problems in Athens' neighbourhoods. In Avdi Square, the city added 39 trees, 112 bushes, 500 flowers, 1,000 square metres of grass, and 271 square metres of new tile surface. On 21 July 2008, following the completion of the renovation, Mayor Nikitas Kaklamanis held a public ceremony to hand over the square to the area's citizens for caretaking and use as a recreational oasis. "This square will become the heart of culture and recreation in your neighbourhood,” he said during the launch of the revamped space.The square is named for Leon Avdis (1937–2000), a Greek lawyer and public servant who enjoyed wide respect across the political spectrum. In 1994 he was elected Municipal Councillor of Athens as head of the "Fighting Cooperation for Athens" coalition. Avdis was elected to Parliament in 1996 on the Greek Communist Party (KKE) ticket, then resigned in 1997 to run for mayor of Athens. His platform including improving living conditions in run-down areas and creating bicycle lanes in the capital.

Cannabis in Malta

Cannabis in Malta is illegal but partially decriminalized. In 2018, Malta legalized medical cannabis.

Chelsea Fringe

Chelsea Fringe is a garden festival in London which is run in parallel with the Chelsea Flower Show. It consists of a variety of events and displays at locations across London. It was started in 2012 by Tim Richardson and is run by volunteers. In 2012, events included guerrilla gardening, a bicycle beer garden and oranges and lemons at Shoreditch.In 2013, the fringe expanded to about 200 separate events, with the core site being a pop-up park at Battersea Power Station. Ben Dark, reviewing for The Daily Telegraph, described the fringe as a "sprawling mess" but praised most of the exhibits which he visited, such as the Gnome Invasion of Ockendon Road, the Dalston Eastern Curve Garden, and the Office Garden in Buckingham Palace Road.

Crop

A crop is a plant or animal product that can be grown and harvested extensively for profit or subsistence. Crop may refer either to the harvested parts or to the harvest in a more refined state. Most crops are cultivated in agriculture or aquaculture. A crop is usually expanded to include macroscopic fungus (e.g. mushrooms), or alga (algaculture).

Most crops are harvested as food for humans or fodder for livestock. Some crops are gathered from the wild (including intensive gathering, e.g. ginseng).

Important non-food crops include horticulture, floriculture and industrial crops. Horticulture crops include plants used for other crops (e.g. fruit trees). Floriculture crops include bedding plants, houseplants, flowering garden and pot plants, cut cultivated greens, and cut flowers. Industrial crops are produced for clothing (fiber crops), biofuel (energy crops, algae fuel), or medicine (medicinal plants).

Freeganism

Freeganism is a practice and ideology of limited participation in the conventional economy and minimal consumption of resources, particularly through recovering wasted goods like food. The word "freegan" is a portmanteau of "free" and "vegan". While vegans might avoid buying animal products as an act of protest against animal exploitation, freegans—at least in theory—avoid buying anything as an act of protest against the food system in general.

Freeganism is often presented as synonymous with "dumpster diving" for discarded food, although freegans are distinguished by their association with an anti-consumerist and anti-capitalist ideology and their engagement in a wider range of alternative living strategies, such as voluntary unemployment, squatting in abandoned buildings, and "guerrilla gardening" in unoccupied city parks.

Guerrilla Gardeners

Guerrilla Gardeners was an Australian television show that was broadcast on Network Ten. The show takes its name and basic premise from the guerrilla gardening environmental movement. Premiering on 18 February 2009, it was axed in April 2009 due to struggling viewership figures and an unsuccessful timeslot change, with a number of episodes still to be aired but was picked up by Network Ten's digital channel One on 26 July 2011. The show caused controversy due to the activities portrayed in the program.

Index of gardening articles

This is a list of gardening topics.

Metaxourgeio

Metaxourgeio or Metaxourgio (Greek: Μεταξουργείο pronounced [me.ta.xuɾˈʝio]), meaning 'silk mill', is a neighbourhood of Athens, Greece. The neighbourhood is located north of the historical centre of Athens, between Kolonos to the east and Kerameikos to the west, and north of Gazi. Metaxourgeio is frequently described as a transition neighbourhood. After a long period of abandonment in the late 20th century, the area is acquiring a reputation as an artistic and fashionable neighbourhood due to the opening of many art galleries, museums, and trendy restaurants and cafes. Moreover, local efforts to beautify and invigorate the neighbourhood have reinforced a budding sense of community and artistic expression. Anonymous art pieces containing quotes and sayings in both English and Ancient Greek have begun springing up throughout the neighbourhood, containing statements such as "Art for art's sake" (Τεχνη τεχνης χαριν). Guerrilla gardening has also helped to beautify this area, taking advantage of the ample sunshine in Greece. The heart of the neighborhood is Avdi Square, which draws residents and visitors with its open space, greenery, periodic festivals and gatherings, and adjacent restaurants, theatres and art gallery.

Moss graffiti

Moss graffiti is a recent trend in street art that uses living moss to write on the walls of public spaces. Moss can be blended and painted onto a wall, and may then grow in position. By replacing the harmful chemicals found in paints (such as methanol, which damages the nervous system when consumed in large quantities ) with plant matter, the artist can still create works without damaging the environment. After application, the moss grows, adding a new dimension to the art medium as well as extending the concept of guerrilla gardening.

Operation Overgrow

Operation Overgrow is the name, given by cannabis activists, of an "operation" to spread marijuana seeds wildly "so it grows like weed." The thought behind the operation is to draw attention to the debate about legalization/decriminalization of marijuana.

People's Park (Berkeley)

People's Park in Berkeley, California is a park located off Telegraph Avenue, bounded by Haste and Bowditch streets and Dwight Way, near the University of California, Berkeley. The park was created during the radical political activism of the late 1960s.The local Southside neighborhood was the scene of a major confrontation between student protesters and police in May 1969. A mural near the park, painted by Berkeley artist O'Brien Thiele and lawyer/artist Osha Neumann, depicts the shooting of James Rector, a student who died from shotgun wounds inflicted by the police on May 15, 1969.While legally the land is the property of the University of California, People's Park has operated since the early 1970s as a free public park. Although open to all, it is often viewed as a daytime sanctuary for Berkeley's low income and large homeless population who, along with others, receive meals from East Bay Food Not Bombs. Nearby residents, and those who try to use the park for recreation, sometimes experience conflict with the homeless people.

Perronet House

Perronet House is an 11-storey residential council tower block adjacent to the northern roundabout of the Elephant and Castle, in London.

Seed ball

Seed balls, also known as "earth balls" or nendo dango (Japanese: 粘土団子), consist of a variety of different seeds rolled within a ball of clay, preferably volcanic pyroclastic red clay. Into this medium various additives may be included, such as humus or compost. These are placed around the seeds, at the center of the ball, to provide microbial inoculants. Cotton-fibres or liquefied paper are sometimes mixed into the clay in order to strengthen it, or liquefied paper mash coated on the outside to further protect the clay ball during sowing by throwing, or in particularly harsh habitats.

Toronto Public Space Committee

The Toronto Public Space Committee (TPSC) is a volunteer-run, non-profit organization located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada that defends the city’s public space from corporate and private forces, including cars and outdoor advertising. The TPSC argues that public property, such as sidewalks, bike paths, parks, and squares, should be the independent and cultural “counterbalance” to the profit-driven private sector.

As a grassroots organization, the TPSC is financed almost entirely on donations, as well as various contributions in kind from its members, such as seeds and gardening tools. The TPSC uses a model of consensus decision-making at its monthly open meetings. The structure of the organization is currently undergoing a re-evaluation by its members.

In 2005, TPSC was called Toronto's Best Activist Group by the local Now magazine.

Wooster Collective

Wooster Collective is a website founded in 2003 that showcases street art from around the world. It features ephemeral art placed on streets in cities around the world. The site also offers podcasting with music and interviews featuring street artists. The name Wooster comes from Wooster Street, located in the SoHo neighborhood of New York City.

The website's archive starts in January 2003, and the category list is over 100 items long. Categories include entries as "Cardboard" art and "Guerrilla gardening", as well as locations with a street art presence such as Tokyo, Dublin and Milwaukee. It also contains interviews of street artists, with reviews of artists' new work or of recent gallery exhibits.

World Naked Gardening Day

World Naked Gardening Day (WNGD) is an annual international event celebrated on the first Saturday of May by gardeners and non-gardeners alike. According to NBC's Today News, WNGD "has become an annual tradition that celebrates weeding, planting flowers and trimming hedges in the buff. While it's linked to a movement of nudists who promote wholesome and unashamed acceptance of the human body, the day is meant to be funny, lighthearted and non-political, founders say."

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