Guenter Lewy

Guenter Lewy (born August 22, 1923) is a German-born American author and political scientist who is a professor emeritus of Political Science at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. His works span several topics, but he is most often associated with his 1978 book on the Vietnam War, America in Vietnam, and several controversial works that deal with the applicability of the term genocide to various historical events.

In 1939 he migrated from Germany to Mandatory Palestine. After World War II, he migrated to the United States to reunite with his parents. Lewy earned a BA at City College in New York City and a MA and PhD at Columbia University. He has been on the faculties of Columbia University, Smith College, and the University of Massachusetts Amherst. He currently lives in Washington, D.C., and is a frequent contributor to Commentary.

He has been labelled a genocide denier by the International Association of Genocide Scholars.[1]

Early life

Lewy was born in Breslau, Germany, (now Wrocław, Poland) in 1923. At the age of nine he joined a German-Jewish scouts organization called Die Greifen (lit. "the griffins"), which he has suggested was important in shaping his desire for an academic career.[2] Described by Lewy as a "quasi-Romantic" group, Die Greifen emphasized music, literature, and song, particularly Landsknechtlieder, encouraging the youths to avoid becoming "Spiessbürger" ("philistines").[2] By 1938, as persecution of Jews in Germany increased, Lewy began to lobby his family to leave Germany behind.[3] After Kristallnacht, in November 1938, when his father was interned in Buchenwald for four months and he was beaten, his parents sent him to Mandatory Palestine. Later in the war, when Lewy was of fighting age, he voluntarily took up arms against Germany, serving in the Jewish Brigade.[4]

Areas of research

The Catholic Church and Nazi Germany

First published in 1964, Lewy's The Catholic Church and Nazi Germany has proven both controversial and influential.[5] Rolf Hochhuth's play The Deputy had appeared only a year earlier, indicting the Vatican for failing to act to save the Jews during the Holocaust; amidst the Vatican's outrage with the play, Lewy's text continued in the same vein:

One is inclined to conclude that the Pope and his advisers—influenced by the long tradition of moderate anti-Semitism so widely accepted in Vatican circles—did not view the plight of the Jews with a real sense of urgency and moral outrage. For this assertion no documentation is possible, but it is a conclusion difficult to avoid.[6]

The text received much praise, including that of Alfred Grosser, who characterized the text as a "terribly precise volume" which demonstrated that "all the documents show the Catholic Church cooperating with the Nazi regime".[7] The Vatican opted to answer the critical allegations by releasing a series of documents aiming to refute the growing perception of the Vatican having been conniving in the Holocaust. One Jesuit priest answering Lewy's text on behalf of the Vatican suggested that Lewy's conclusions were based "not on the record but on a subjective conviction ... This ready acceptance of a Nazi-inspired wartime legend is a measure of Lewy's inability to plumb the motives of Pius XII ... There is no proof, in this book or anywhere else, that Pius XII thought Nazism was a 'bulwark' in defense of Christianity."[6]

In the context of other historical works examining the legacy of the Vatican in the era of the Holocaust, Lewy's work has been described as "exceedingly harsh".[8]

America in Vietnam

Lewy had suggested that his America in Vietnam, published in 1978, would "clear away the cobwebs of mythology that inhibit the correct understanding of what went on—and what went wrong—in Vietnam."[9] The text, which argues against traditional or "orthodox" interpretations of the war as an unnecessary, unjust, and/or unwinnable war replete with disastrous mistakes and widespread American atrocities, has proven influential for many western scholars that share similar views of the conflict. It predated and influenced other reinterpretations including those of Norman Podhoretz,[10] Mark Moyar, and Michael Lind. America in Vietnam thus attracted both criticism and support of Lewy for belonging to the "revisionist" school on Vietnam.[11][12][13] Lewy argues,

It is the reasoned conclusion of this study ... that the sense of guilt created by the Vietnam war in the minds of many Americans is not warranted and that the charges of officially, condoned illegal and grossly immoral conduct are without substance. Indeed, detailed examination of battlefield practices reveals that the loss civilian life in Vietnam was less great than in World War II and Korea and that concern with minimizing the ravages of the war was strong. To measure and compare the devastation and loss of human life caused by different war will be objectionable to those who repudiate all resort to military force as an instrument of foreign policy and may be construed as callousness. Yet as long as wars do take place at all it remains a moral duty to seek to reduce the agony caused by war, and the fulfillment of this obligation should not be disdained. I hope that this book may help demonstrate that moral convictions are not the exclusive possession of persons in conscience opposed to war, and that those who in certain circumstances accept the necessity and ethical justification of armed conflict also do care about human suffering.[14]

Lewy criticizes what he terms the "war crime industry", and what he perceives to be the double standards of the Western media, which, he alleged, neglected to report equally on the crimes of Vietnamese communists, giving the figure of 36,725 political assassinations perpetrated by the VC/NVA between 1957 and 1972.[15] About the crimes committed by American soldiers, Lewy asserts that "between January 1965 and March 1973, 201 Army personnel in Vietnam were convicted by court-martial of serious offenses against Vietnamese. During the period of March 1965 to August 1971, 77 Marines were convicted of serious crimes against Vietnamese."[16]

In recalling the 1971 congressional testimony of some American veterans who were critical of the war, one of whom compared American action in Vietnam to genocide, Lewy suggests that some "witnesses sounded as if they had memorized North Vietnamese propaganda."[17] The book is critical of domestic opponents of American participation in the Vietnam War. In using the phrases "peace activists" or "peace demonstrations", Lewy often puts quotation marks around the word "peace", implying alternative motivations for the activism. The author alleges a possible connection between cases of sabotage in the Navy and the anti-war movement:

Between 1965 and 1970, the Navy experienced a growing number of cases of sabotage and arson on its ships, but no evidence could be found that antiwar activists had directly participated in a sabotage attempt on a Navy vessel. Cases of fragging and avoidance of combat may well have been instigated at times by antiwar militants, though no hard evidence of organized subversion was ever discovered.[18]

The text was praised by Vietnam veteran and United States Senator Jim Webb, Andrew J. Pierre of Foreign Affairs,[19] and by several newspapers, including The Economist, which described it as "in many way the best history of the war yet to appear".[20] Critics included historians of the "orthodox" school as well as polemical critics such as linguist and Vietnam War opponent Noam Chomsky.[21] Chomsky, after being singled out for criticism by Lewy in the book, wrote that "every state has its' Guenter Lewys".[21] According to Chomsky, Lewy's "concept of the writing of moral-historical tracts ... is misrepresentation of documents, uncritical regurgitation of government claims, and dismissal of annoying facts that contradict them, and [his] concept of morality is such as to legitimate virtually any atrocity against civilians once the state has issued its commands."[22]

Winter Soldier Investigation

America in Vietnam, which appeared seven years after the Winter Soldier Investigation, became controversial in the context of the 2004 United States presidential election. Presidential hopeful John Kerry had been involved with the Winter Soldier Investigation; in the context of the campaign, Lewy's suggestion that the Winter Soldier Investigation was dishonest and politically motivated was frequently cited to impugn John Kerry's reputation.[23] Vietnam Veterans Against the War, the group of which Kerry had been a part, alleged that American war policy and conduct in Vietnam was resulting in war crimes being committed. Lewy suggests that the group used "fake witnesses" in the Winter Soldier hearing in Detroit, and that its allegations were formally investigated:

The results of the investigation, carried out by the Naval Investigative Service, are interesting and revealing. Many of the veterans, though assured that they would not be questioned about the atrocities they might have committed personally, refused to be interviewed. One of the active members of the VVAW told investigators that the leadership had directed the entire membership not to cooperate with military authorities. A black marine who agreed to be interviewed was unable to provide details of the outrages he had described at the hearing, but he called the Vietnam war "one huge atrocity" and "a racist plot." He admitted that the question of atrocities had not occurred to him while he was in Vietnam, and that he had been assisted in the preparation of his testimony by a member of the Nation of Islam. But the most damaging finding consisted of the sworn statements of several veterans, corroborated by witnesses, that they had in fact not attended the hearing in Detroit. One of them had never been to Detroit in all his life. He did not know, he stated, who might have used his name.[17]

Government officials have said they have no record of any such Naval Investigative Service report, but that it is possible it could have been lost or destroyed. Lewy later said that he could not recall if he had actually seen the alleged report or simply been told of its contents. "I don't think Lewy is interested in presenting any of [the Winter Soldier testimony] as truthful," University of Richmond history professor Ernest Bolt told the Chicago Tribune. "He has an angle on the war as a whole." Bolt said it is impossible to tell whether Lewy fairly characterized the naval investigative report because no other historian had seen it.[24][25][26]

The Nazi Persecution of the Gypsies

Lewy argues in The Nazi Persecution of the Gypsies that the Gypsies' overall plight does "not constitute genocide within the meaning of the genocide convention."[27] Lewy concludes that in the case of the Nazi persecution of the Gypsies the "use of the term 'genocide' would seem to involve a dilution of the concept.",[27] but that the question is not to determine if the Holocaust is the Nazi's worst crime; to refuse the "genocide" label is not, Lewy argues, a way to minimize the sufferings of Gypsies, Poles, Russians and other non-Jewish victims of Nazism. The introduction is devoted to the long history of violence against Gypsies before the Nazis took power, with a special focus on the laws adopted in Bavaria and some other German Länder at the end of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century, showing the continuity between the last year of the Weimar Republic and the first years of Nazi regime. In a section entitled "Roots of Hostility", Lewy argues that the main reason of the persecution against Gypsies before 1933 was prejudice. Though Gypsies are not a violent people, he adds that prejudice is not always the single reason; the misbehavior of a minority among nomadic Gypsies contributed also to hostility and prejudices.

The book was praised by Saul Friedländer, who called it "a work of great compassion and exemplary scholarship."[28] According to Holocaust historian Raul Hilberg, "Lewy's account of Nazi measures against the powerless Gypsies is unsurpassed in the English language." Henriette Asséo, lecturer at the School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences, specialist of Gypsy history, wrote that Lewy's book "requires humility, giving a new, considerable documentation", adding, however, that the rejection of "genocide" label can be "discussed"[29] Hans Mommsen agreed completely with Lewy, including with the rejection of "genocide" qualification.[30]

The book was criticized by Norman G. Finkelstein who wrote in the Süddeutsche Zeitung:

Lewy's argument goes like this: Gypsies were as ruthlessly slaughtered by the Einsatzgruppen as the Jews, but only because they were suspected of spying; Gypsies were deported to Auschwitz like the Jews, but only "to get rid of them, not to kill them;" Gypsies were gassed at Chelmno like the Jews, but only because they had contracted typhus; most of the few remaining Gypsies were sterilized like the Jews, not however to prevent their propagation but only to "prevent contamination of 'German blood.'"[31]

The book has also been singled out for criticism, particularly by Romani scholars, who believe that it blames the Roma people for their own massacre.[32] Lewy's work has been criticized as a text which "overstates" the differences of the persecution of Jews and the persecution of Roma in the Nazi era,[33][34] in a manner indicative of "the priorities of latter-day scholarship, about the way that the murder of the Jews has been promoted to obscure so much of the rest of the Nazi record of atrocity".[35]

"Were American Indians the Victims of Genocide?"

In September 2004, Lewy published an essay in Commentary entitled "Were American Indians the Victims of Genocide?":

[E]ven if some episodes can be considered genocidal—that is, tending toward genocide—they certainly do not justify condemning an entire society. Guilt is personal, and for good reason the Genocide Convention provides that only "persons" can be charged with the crime, probably even ruling out legal proceedings against governments.

As to whether the American Indian experience resembles the fate of the Jews under the Nazi regime:

No matter how difficult the conditions under which the Indians labored—obligatory work, often inadequate food and medical care, corporal punishment—their experience bore no comparison with the fate of the Jews in the ghettos.[36]

The paper is highly critical of Ward Churchill, particularly in regards to his attributing the word "genocide" to the destruction of American Indian civilization. Lewy dismissed as bogus Churchill's assertion that the United States Army intentionally spread smallpox among American Indians by distributing infected blankets in 1837.[36][37]

Views on the Armenian Genocide

In The Armenian Massacres in Ottoman Turkey: A Disputed Genocide, Lewy argues that there is insufficient evidence of the Young Turk regime organizing the massacres of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire.[38] According to Professor Tessa Hoffmann of Berlin's Free University, Lewy had conceived of the idea of writing on the Armenian Genocide as early as 2000:

In the summer of 2000 a retiree, resting on my couch, expressed a strange intention. Guenter Lewy, the retired American political scientist, wanted to subject "the Armenian massacres" to a similar revision as he had done before with respect to the Sinti and the Roma. That revision, argued Lewy, had shown that even though their fate in World War II proved tragic, it did not represent a "real" genocide, as there were no centrally organized and state-sponsored premeditation and genocidal intention.[39]

In his book he states that the killings were not genocide, because they have not been proven to have been governmentally organized,[40] and also because "the argument that the deportations in reality constituted a premeditated program of extermination of the Armenians of Turkey is difficult to square with many aspects and characteristics of the relocations", including the non relocation of Armenian communities of cities like Istanbul, Smyrna (Izmir) and Aleppo; the fact that "the trek on foot that took so many lives was imposed only on the Armenian in eastern and central Anatolia, a part of the country that had no railroad. Although the one-spur Baghdad railway was overburdened with the transport of troops and supplies, the deportees from the western provinces and Cilicia who had the money were allowed to purchase ticket by rail and were spared at least some of the tribulations of the deportation process"; the "great deal of variation" exhibited by the resettlement process, "that depended on factors such as geography and the attitude of local officials".[41] According to Lewy, "the Ottoman government wanted to arrange an orderly process, but did not have the means to do so."[42]

On pages 204–205 of The Armenian Massacres in Ottoman Turkey, however, Lewy indicates that Marshal Otto Liman von Sanders was on an inspection tour of Smyrna, in November, when he was made aware of the deportation of Armenians, that included old women and sick children. Liman sent a message to the vali demanding an immediate stop to the deportations. Liman threatened that if the deportations did not stop he would use troops under his command to end the deportations.[43]

About the number of Armenian victims, Lewy argues that it "can only be estimated, because no death statistics for this period exist"; calculating the total losses of Ottoman Armenians between 1914 and 1919, Lewy uses the figure of 1,750,000 individuals for the pre-war population in the whole Ottoman Empire, figure used by historians like Charles Dowsett and Malcolm E. Yapp, then estimate the number of survivors in 1919 to around 1,108,000, making an average of several estimations, including the tabulation of George Montgomery (American official in the Paris Peace Conference in charge of Near East) and the figure of the Armenian National Council of Constantinople; so, Lewy estimates the total losses for World War I to around 642,000.[44]

Lewy's research on this and related topics has been criticized by University of California, Davis professor Keith David Watenpaugh:

[Lewy's] recent writings on mass violence including those on Native Americans, the Roma, and now the Armenians indicate a belief that the Shoah was the unique genocide of the 20th century, a position generally rejected by scholars of the Holocaust ... the larger purpose of Lewy's intellectual output ... [is] to construct a conceptual lattice for Holocaust exceptionalism and defend political claims that might be derived thereby.[45]

According to David B. MacDonald, Lewy "actually denies the Armenian genocide in a manner similar to his denial of the American Indian and Roma genocides", and "while the sources he uses are either Turkish or pro-Turkish, Lewy insists that 'debate' is ongoing and there has been no resolution".[46] MacDonald points out that sources like Kamuran Gürün and Bernard Lewis "hardly demonstrate the existence of a genuine academic dispute".[47]

According to Mark Potok, editor of the Intelligence Report journal of Southern Poverty Law Center,[48] the facts of the Armenian genocide are quite well known. The ruling party of the day massacred intellectuals, forced hundreds of thousands of Armenians into what amounted to death marches, and systematically despoiled the victims of their property. Professor Raphael Lemkin coined the word "genocide" in 1943 with the Armenian slaughter in mind. In 2005, the International Association of Genocide Scholars (IAGS) wrote the Turkish foreign minister to remind him that the massacre of Christian Armenians was indeed 'a systematic genocide'.[49]

On November 17, 2008 Lewy filed a defamation suit against the Southern Poverty Law Center, Inc., and writer-editor David Holthouse in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia.[50] On September 28, 2010 the case was settled when the SPLC agreed to publish a retraction and apologize to Lewy for suggesting that he was "a Turkish agent".[51] In its statement, the SPLC stated that it had erred in assuming that "any scholar who challenges the Armenian genocide narrative necessarily has been financially compromised by the government of Turkey."[51] The settlement with Lewy included an undisclosed monetary payment.[51] Lewy's counsel in the case, David Salzman and Bruce Fein, lead the TCA's Turkish American Legal Defense Fund.[51]

About the vote of the IAGS, Lewy wrote:

I am less than impressed by the unanimous vote of the International Association of Genocide Scholars that the Armenian case "was one of the major genocides of the modern era." The great majority of these self-proclaimed experts on Ottoman history have never set foot in an archive or done any other original research on the subject in question.[52]

In response, the IAGS labelled Lewy a "genocide denier".[1]

According to Joseph Albert Kechichian, writing in the International Journal of Middle East Studies,:

... Lewy has been amply rewarded by Turkish authorities in Ankara and abroad through the launching of a massive campaign to distribute his book free of charge to libraries and to select groups of diplomats. Equally noteworthy, Lewy has been decorated at a special ceremony in Ankara with, ironically, the İnsanlığa Karşı İşlenen Suçlar Yüksek Ödülü (High Award for Fighting in Opposition to Crimes Against Humanity) ... [by] a well-known organization whose mission includes the systematic denial of the Armenian genocide through propagandistic and partisan research and publications; the organization is sponsored and underwritten by the Turkish government.[45]

Writing in the International Journal of Middle East Studies, Professor of Political Science Michael Gunter has argued that the fact that Lewy's book was distributed free to libraries does not demonstrate that the argument of the book is somehow illegitimate. Nor does the fact that Lewy was presented with an award by the Center for Eurasian Strategic Studies (ASAM), a Turkish think tank, prove that he is lying or is in the service of the Turkish government.[45] Indeed, in many parts of his book, Lewy is highly critical of the quasi-official Turkish position which speaks of "so-called massacres".[53] Michael Gunter points out that Lewy's book has been praised by many reviewers, including the Ottoman military historian Edward J. Erickson in The Middle East Journal and by the German scholar of comparative genocide, Eberhard Jäckel, in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung of March 23, 2006.[45] Edward J. Erickson wrote indeed that:

Of particular note is Lewy's interest in the work of Vahakn N. Dadrian, an American sociologist, who is considered by the Armenian camp to be one of the preeminent writers on the Armenian genocide today. ... Lewy systematically examines the sources cited by Dadrian and finds that the latter frequently misrepresented and misquoted sources or failed to include important contextual information. Lewy contends that the implications of Dadrian's dishonesty cast doubt on the veracity of many of his assertions regarding the existence of a historical case proving genocide. ... This is an important book because it presents a much-needed corrective to the one-sided view that many have of the Armenian deportations and massacres.[54]

Canadian journalist Gwynne Dyer supported Lewy's thesis.[55] Turkish authors Fatih Balci (University of Utah) and Arif Argul (Princeton University) also praised Lewy's conclusions:

There could be some mistakes in the history, but it should be more objective to enlighten those mistaken events with the helping of the historians. Guenter Lewy's book, The Armenian Massacres in Ottoman Turkey, A Disputed Genocide, mainly focuses on the massacres in Ottoman Turkey, and he strongly stands on the way of the truths which he finds from the historical documents. After all, he mentions that trustfully the deaths of Armenians in Ottoman Turkey can not be called "genocide". There were some deaths but they can not be called as genocide. For calling genocide, it is needed to have a look at the definition of genocide which is mostly accepted to intention to annihilation of one group. To use or say genocide for an event it has to involve an intention of annihilation. In the Armenian case the main aim was not based on the intention of Armenian annihilation. The only thing was deporting· the Armenians from some places only for security purposes, because the Armenians became a big problem for the Turks during World War I with the rebellions and armed guerillas inside the country.[56]

Norman Stone, professor emeritus at Oxford University called Lewy's book "the best recent account of the Armenian massacres".[57] The sociologist Taner Akçam published a lengthy review of Lewy's work, criticizing his methodology and lack of familiarity with the workings of the Ottoman state. He also faulted him for basing his arguments on questionable premises and making select use of sources which conform to his own views and conclusions.[39]

Uniqueness of the Holocaust

In the Journal of Genocide Research, David Stannard called Lewy

one of the last of a disappearing breed: the extreme "uniqueness" advocate determined to assert—in the face of contrary and increasingly overwhelming fact and logic—that, of all the mass killings that have ever occurred in the history of the world, only the Holocaust, or more precisely the Shoah, rose to the level of true "genocide."[58]

Lewy's response included:

Let me try to set the record straight: In none of my writings have I ever asserted the uniqueness or singularity of the Holocaust, and indeed I do not believe that the Holocaust is the only instance of mass killing that deserves to be classified as an act of genocide. With Yehuda Bauer I would call the Holocaust unprecedented but not unique, because the term unique suggests that something like the Holocaust can never happen again. In point of fact, later in the 20th century we witnessed the terrible genocides of Cambodia and Rwanda. I would welcome it if critics of my work would limit themselves to dealing with the substance of my positions rather than falsely impute to me ulterior motives.[59]

Published works

  • Constitutionalism and Statecraft During the Golden Age of Spain: A Study of the Political Philosophy of Juan de Mariana. Geneva: Droz. 1960.
  • Religion and Revolution. Oxford University Press. 1974.
  • America in Vietnam. New York-Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1978. ISBN 0-19-502732-9.
  • False Consciousness: An Essay on Mystification. Transaction Publishers. 1982. ISBN 978-0878554515.
  • Peace and Revolution: The Moral Crisis of American Pacifism. Grand Rapids, Mich: W.B. Eerdmans Pub. Co. 1988. ISBN 0-8028-3640-2.
  • The Cause That Failed: Communism in American Political Life. New York-Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1990. ISBN 0-19-505748-1.
  • Why America Needs Religion: Secular Modernity and Its Discontents. Grand Rapids, Mich: Eerdmans. 1996. ISBN 0-8028-4162-7.
  • The Catholic Church and Nazi Germany. Da Capo Press. 2000. ISBN 0-306-80931-1. (First edition, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964.)
  • The Nazi Persecution of the Gypsies. New York-Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2000. ISBN 0-19-514240-3.
  • The Armenian Massacres in Ottoman Turkey: A Disputed Genocide. University of Utah Press. 2005. ISBN 0-87480-849-9.
  • Assisted Death in Europe and America: Four Regimes and Their Lessons. Oxford University Press. 2011. ISBN 978-0-19-974641-5.
  • Outlawing Genocide Denial: The Dilemmas of Official Historical Truth. University of Utah Press. 2014. ISBN 978-1-60781-372-9.
  • Harmful and Undesirable: Book Censorship in Nazi Germany. Oxford University Press. 2016. ISBN 978-0-19-027528-0.
  • Perpetrators: The World of the Holocaust Killers. Oxford University Press. 2017. ISBN 978-0-19-066113-7.


  1. ^ a b
  2. ^ a b Ascher, Abraham. A Community Under Siege. 2007, pp. 53–4
  3. ^ Ascher, Abraham. A Community Under Siege. 2007, p. 190
  4. ^ Glazer, Penina Migdal and Jacobson-Hardy, Michael. The Jews of Paradise. 2004, p. 60
  5. ^ Marchione, Margherita. Pope Pius XII: Architect for Peace. 2000, p. 213
  6. ^ a b Marchione, Margherita. Pope Pius XII: Architect for Peace. 2000, pp. 16–17
  7. ^ Afterword to Saul Friedländer, Pie XII et le IIIe Reich, Paris, Le Seuil, 1964.
  8. ^ Pawlikowski, John T. "The Holocaust: Failure in Christian Leadership?" in Grobman, Alex; Landes, Daniel; Milton, Sybil (eds.), Genocide: Critical Issues of the Holocaust, Behrman House, 1983, pp. 292–293
  9. ^ Campbell, Neil and Kean, Alsdair. American Cultural Studies: An Introduction to American Culture p. 255
  10. ^ Fellows, James (March 28, 1982). "In Defense of an Offensive War" (Book review). The New York Times.
  11. ^ Horwood, Ian. "Book review: Triumph Forsaken: The Vietnam War, 1954–1965". Reviews in History.
  12. ^ Morrow, Lance (April 23, 1979). "Viet Nam Comes Home". Time Magazine.
  13. ^ Divine, Robert A.; Lewy, Guenter; Millett, Allan R. (September 1979). "Review: Revisionism in Reverse". Reviews in American History. 7 (3): 433–438. doi:10.2307/2701181. JSTOR 2701181.
  14. ^ Lewy, Guenter, America in Vietnam, p. vii.
  15. ^ Lewy, Guenter, America in Vietnam, pp. 311–24, 454.
  16. ^ Lewy, Guenter, America in Vietnam, p. 324.
  17. ^ a b Lewy, Guenter. America in Vietnam. p. 317
  18. ^ Lewy, Guenter. America in Vietnam. p. 159
  19. ^ Pierre, Andrew J. (Winter 1978–79). "America in Vietnam; Certain Victory; Strategy for Defeat". Foreign Affairs.
  20. ^ America in Vietnam, paperback, 1980.
  21. ^ a b Noam Chomsky's review of America in Vietnam is titled "On the aggression of South Vietnamese peasants against the United States", collected in his book, Towards a New Cold War, (New York: Pantheon/Random House, 1982), ISBN 0-394-74944-8. ... every state has its Guenter Lewys who will stretch an elastic legal code to accommodate whatever atrocities "military necessity" and available military technology find convenient."...
  22. ^ Chomsky, Noam. Necessary Illusions: Thought Control in Democratic Societies. 2003, p. 350
  23. ^ "Swift Boat Veterans Anti-Kerry Ad: "He Betrayed Us" With 1971 Anti-War Testimony. Group quotes Kerry's descriptions of atrocities by US forces. In fact, atrocities did happen". August 23, 2004.
  24. ^ Kerry went from Soldier to Anti-war protester; Tom Bowman, The Baltimore Sun; February 14, 2004 Archive link
  25. ^ Foes lash Kerry for Vietnam War words; David Jackson, Chicago Tribune; February 22, 2004; p. 3A
  26. ^ Rejali, Darius. Torture and Democracy Princeton University Press; 2007, p. 588
  27. ^ a b Lewy, Guenter. The Nazi Persecution of the Gypsies p. 223
  28. ^ "Oxford University Press: The Nazi Persecution of the Gypsies: Guenter Lewy". Archived from the original on 2011-06-04. Retrieved 2010-07-28.
  29. ^ preface to French edition: La Persécution des Tsiganes par les nazis, Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 2003, pp. X and XI.
  30. ^ »Keine totale Tötungsabsicht«, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, July 21, 2001
  31. ^ "English translation Süddeutsche Zeitung, 11 August 2000". Archived from the original on 15 May 2012. Retrieved 2013-06-13.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  32. ^ Hancock, Ian F. We are the Romani People. 2002, pp. 60-1
  33. ^ Bloxham, Donald and Kushner, Antony Robin Jeremy. The Holocaust: critical historical approaches. 2005, p. 108
  34. ^ MacDonald, David B. Identity politics in the age of genocide. 2007, p. 33
  35. ^ Bloxham, Donald and Kushner, Antony Robin Jeremy. The Holocaust: critical historical approaches. 2005, p. 85
  36. ^ a b "Were American Indians the Victims of Genocide?". History News Network. Retrieved 2008-10-08.
  37. ^ "Rocky Mountain News". Archived from the original on November 27, 2005. Retrieved 2006-01-15.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  38. ^ Lewy, Guenter (Fall 2005). "Revisiting the Armenian Genocide". Middle East Quarterly.
  39. ^ a b See Taner Akçam, "Guenter Lewy’s The Armenian Massacres in Ottoman Turkey." Genocide Studies and Prevention, 3:1 April 2008, pp. 111–43.
  40. ^ Gultasli, Selcuk. "No Evidence of Ottoman Intent to Destroy Armenian Community". Today's Zaman.
  41. ^ Lewy, Guenter, The Armenian Massacres in Ottoman Turkey, pp. 251–52.
  42. ^ Lewy, Guenter, The Armenian Massacres in Ottoman Turkey, pp. 252–53.
  43. ^ Lewy, Guenter, The Armenian Massacres in Ottoman Turkey, (The University of Utah Press, 2005), 204–05.
  44. ^ Lewy, Guenter, The Armenian Massacres in Ottoman Turkey, pp. 233–40.
  45. ^ a b c d HNN Staff (August 17, 2007). "Historians in the News Michael Gunter: He blurbed a book ... Should he then have reviewed it?". History News Network.
  46. ^ MacDonald, David B. Identity Politics in the Age of Genocide: The Holocaust and Historical Representation. London: Routledge, 2008, p. 139. ISBN 0-415-43061-5.
  47. ^ Identity Politics in the Age of Genocide: The Holocaust and Historical Representation, By David B. MacDonald, Routledge, 2008, ISBN 0-415-43061-5, p. 241
  48. ^ David Holthouse (1915-04-24). "State of Denial: Turkey Spends Millions to Cover Up Armenian Genocide,". Intelligence Report. Archived from the original on 2010-01-20. Retrieved 2010-07-28.
  49. ^ Potok, Mark, ed. (2008). "Lying About History". Intelligence Report. Retrieved 2010-07-28.
  50. ^ "Text of the complaint" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-07-28.
  51. ^ a b c d
  52. ^ "Genocide?". Commentary Magazine: 8. February 2006.
  53. ^ Lewy, Guenter. The Armenian Massacres in Ottoman Turkey: A Disputed Genocide, pp. 94, 95, 106, 115, 122, 252.
  54. ^ Erickson, Edward (Spring 2006). "Book review". The Middle East Journal. 60 (2).
  55. ^ "A Question of Genocide in Turkey". 2005-12-20. Retrieved 2010-07-28.
  56. ^
  57. ^ Norman Stone, Turkey: a Short History, London: Thames & Hudson, 2010, p. 181.
  58. ^ David Stannard, Deja Vu All Over Again, Journal of Genocide Research, Volume 10, Issue 1, March 2008, p. 127.
  59. ^ Lewy, Guenter, Reply to Tony Barta, Norbert Finzsch and David Stannard, Journal of Genocide Research, Volume 10, Issue 2, June 2008, p. 307.

External links

America in Vietnam

America in Vietnam is a book by Guenter Lewy about America's role in the Vietnam War. The book is highly influential, although it has remained controversial even decades after its publication. Lewy contends that the United States' actions in Vietnam were neither illegal nor immoral, and that tales of American atrocities were greatly exaggerated in what he understands as a "veritable industry" of war crimes allegations.

The text returned to the limelight during the 2004 US Presidential Election, when it was cited by several groups supporting the reelection of George W. Bush, in contending that Democratic presidential contender John Kerry had betrayed his country for his participation in anti-war activities upon his return from service in Vietnam.

Bibliography of Pope Pius XII

This bibliography on Church policies 1939–1945 includes mainly Italian publications relative to Pope Pius XII and Vatican policies during World War II . Two areas are missing and need separate bibliographies at a later date.

The bibliography does not include theology, theological issues and publications on the Theology of Pope Pius XII, Mariology of Pope Pius XII, on his ecclasiastical promulgations such as the dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, Church reforms, or, the Beatifications of Pope Pius XII Saints canonized by Pope Pius XII, Encyclicals of the Pontiffand other theological issues.

Policies after World War Two are also not included such as Pope Pius XII Church policies after World War II, Persecutions of the Catholic Church and Pius XII, and Vatican policies regarding the Church in Russia, Poland and China and other countries.

Censorship in Germany

Censorship in Germany has taken many forms throughout the history of the region. Various regimes have restricted the press, cinema, literature, and other entertainment venues. In modern Germany, the Grundgesetz guarantees freedom of press, speech, and opinion. Censorship is mainly exerted in the form of restriction of access to certain media (examples include motion pictures and video games) to older adolescents or adults only. Furthermore, the publication of works violating the rights of the individual or those considered to be capable of inciting popular hatred (Volksverhetzung) may be prohibited. Possession of such works (including Adolf Hitler's Mein Kampf), however, is generally not punishable. Germany has been consistently rated among the 20 most free countries on the Press Freedom Index.

David Stannard

David Edward Stannard (born 1941) is an American historian and Professor of American Studies at the University of Hawaii. He is particularly known for his book American Holocaust (Oxford University Press, 1992), in which he argues that the genocide against the Native American population was the largest genocide in history.

Erich Klausener

Erich Klausener (25 January 1885 – 30 June 1934) was a German Catholic politician who was killed in the "Night of the Long Knives", a purge that took place in Nazi Germany from 30 June to 2 July 1934, when the Nazi regime carried out a series of political murders.

Family syndrome

Family syndrome was a term used by the United States military to describe a recurring situation in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam towards the end of the Vietnam War, in which ARVN soldiers confronted by the North Vietnamese military advance deserted their posts in order to rescue their families, contributing to a collapse of ARVN forces.

Following the 1968 general mobilization of the ARVN, a large number of troops had their families living in close proximity to the positions they were fighting to defend, rather than far away and safely behind the lines. Accordingly, if the enemy appeared likely to break through the ARVN defenses, it was in the interest of the individual ARVN soldier to desert to guide his family to safety, but to the great collective detriment of the ARVN defense. Family syndrome was described as a major factor in the ARVN's collapse, and the second-most common reason for desertions.In one representative case, during the battle of Ban Me Thuot, the division commander pulled a Ranger group away from the frontlines and sent them to defend a nearby training base to protect his own family while they awaited helicopter extraction.

Franz Justus Rarkowski

Franz Justus Rarkowski, S.M. (June 8, 1873 – February 9, 1950) was the Catholic military bishop of Nazi Germany. The existence of such a role was provided for by the Reichskonkordat (1933), and Rarkowski had been acting head of the military chaplaincy since 1929, before he was officially consecrated on February 29, 1938 as episcopus castrensis. Rarkowski's title was translated into English as "Field Bishop of the German Army".The first draft of the Apostolic Brief to regulate the military chaplaincy was given to the German government on June 26, 1934. The brief was issued on September 19, 1935.

Free-fire zone

A free-fire zone in U.S. military parlance is a fire control measure, used for coordination between adjacent combat units. The definition used in the Vietnam War by U.S. troops may be found in field manual FM 6-20:

A specific designated area into which any weapon system may fire without additional coordination with the establishing headquarters.

Günther (given name)

The given name Günther, Gunther, Günter or Gunter may refer to:

Gunther, semi-legendary king of Burgundy

Gunther Cunningham (born 1946), American football coach for the Detroit Lions of the NFL

Günter Grass (1927–2015), German novelist and Nobel laureate

Günther (singer) (born 1967), stage name of Swedish singer and musician Mats Söderlund

Günther Krause (born 1953), German politician and businessman

Guenter Lewy (born 1923), American political historian

Günther Lütjens (1889–1941), Kriegsmarine admiral

Günter Meisner (1926–1994), German actor

Gunther of Bohemia (955–1045), Bohemian hermit

Gunther of Cologne (died 873), Roman Catholic archbishop of Cologne

Günther Netzer (born 1944), former German football player

Günther Rall (1918–2009), German Luftwaffe pilot and third-ranking ace in history

Günther Reindorff (1899–1974), Estonian-Soviet graphic designer

Günther Schifter (1923–2008), Austrian radio presenter

Gunther Schuller (1925–2015), American musician

Günther Schumacher (born 1949), German track and road cyclist

Günter Schulz, former guitarist of KMFDM and Excessive Force, current guitarist of Slick Idiot and live guitarist for PIG

Günther Tamaschke (1896–1959), German Nazi SS concentration camp commandant

Gunther von Hagens (born 1945), German anatomist

Günter M. Ziegler (born 1963), German mathematician

Historical revisionism

In historiography, the term historical revisionism identifies the re-interpretation of the historical record. It usually means challenging the orthodox (established, accepted or traditional) views held by professional scholars about a historical event, introducing contrary evidence, or reinterpreting the motivations and decisions of the people involved. The revision of the historical record can reflect new discoveries of fact, evidence, and interpretation, which then provokes a revised history. In dramatic cases, revisionism involves a reversal of older moral judgments.

At a basic level, legitimate historical revisionism is a common and not especially controversial process of developing and refining the writing of history. Much more controversial is the reversal of moral findings, in which what had been considered to be positive forces are depicted as being negative. This revisionism is then challenged by the supporters of the previous view, often in heated terms, and becomes an illegitimate form of historical revisionism known as historical negationism if it involves inappropriate methods such as the use of forged documents or implausible distrust of genuine documents, attributing false conclusions to books and sources, manipulating statistical data and deliberately mis-translating texts. This type of historical revisionism presents a re-interpretation of the moral meaning of the historical record.The term "revisionism" is used pejoratively by those who claim that revisionists are distorting the historical record. This is especially the case when it is applied to Holocaust denial.

Justin McCarthy (American historian)

Justin A. McCarthy (born October 19, 1945) is an American demographer, professor of history at the University of Louisville, in Louisville, Kentucky. He holds an honorary doctorate from Boğaziçi University, Turkey, and is a board member of the Institute of Turkish Studies and the Center for Eurasian Studies (AVIM). His area of expertise is the history of the late Ottoman Empire.McCarthy's work has faced harsh criticism by some scholars who have characterized McCarthy's views as genocide denial.

Kreuz und Adler

Kreuz und Adler (Cross and Eagle) was a pro-Nazi Catholic organization founded in 1933. It was founded at the behest of German Vice-Chancellor and Catholic Franz von Papen as a means to create reconciliation between the Nazi regime and the Catholic Church that had previously held hostility to the Nazis. It was founded after 28 March 1933 when the Catholic Church ended its previous ban on Catholics being members of the Nazi Party.The first meeting of the Kreuz und Adler was held on the 15 June 1933. At the first meeting, von Papen called for its followers to support the overcoming of liberalism and complimented the Nazi regime for being the "Christian counterrevolution to 1789", referring to the French Revolution that instituted secularization of society.Its membership largely consisted of wealthy German Catholics. Members included Otto Schilling, Theodor Brauer, Emil Ritter and Eugen Kogen.

Lewy (surname)

Lewy is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Alfred J. Lewy, psychiatrist

Bergnart Carl Lewy, Danish chemist

Casimir Lewy, philosopher

Frederic Lewy, neurologist best known for discovering Lewy bodies

Glen Lewy, National Chair of the Anti-Defamation League

Guenter Lewy, political scientist

Hans Lewy, Mathematician

Israel Lewy, German-Jewish scholar

Robert Ira Lewy, American doctor

List of American Enterprise Institute scholars and fellows

The following notable persons are or have in the past been scholars, fellows, or staff members affiliated with the American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research (AEI). If known, titles and dates of affiliation are included.

Norman Stone

Norman Stone (born 8 March 1941) is a Scottish historian and author. He is currently Professor of European History in the Department of International Relations at Bilkent University, having formerly been a professor at the University of Oxford, lecturer at the University of Cambridge, and adviser to British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. He is a board member of the Center for Eurasian Studies (AVIM), an organisation founded to deny the Armenian Genocide.

The Memoirs of Naim Bey

The Memoirs of Naim Bey: Turkish Official Documents Relating to the Deportation and the Massacres of Armenians, also known as the "Talat Pasha telegrams", is a book written by historian and journalist Aram Andonian in 1919. Originally redacted in Armenian, it was popularized worldwide through the English edition published by Hodder & Stoughton of London. It includes several documents (telegrams) that constitute evidence that the Armenian Genocide was formally implemented as Ottoman Empire policy.

The first edition in English had an introduction by Viscount Gladstone.

The University of Utah Press

The University of Utah Press is the independent publishing branch of the University of Utah and is a division of the J. Willard Marriott Library. Founded in 1949 by A. Ray Olpin, it is also the oldest university press in Utah. The mission of the Press is to "publish and disseminate scholarly books in selected fields, as well as other printed and recorded materials of significance to Utah, the region, the country, and the world."The University of Utah Press publishes in the following general subject areas: anthropology, archaeology, Mesoamerican studies, American Indian studies, natural history, nature writing, poetry, Utah and Western history, Mormon studies, Utah and regional guidebooks, and regional titles. The Press employs seven people full-time and publishes from 25 to 35 titles per year. The Press has over 450 books currently in print.

Vahakn Dadrian

Dadrian leads here. For American football player Dadrian Brown, see Dee Brown (American football)Vahakn N. Dadrian (Armenian: Վահագն Տատրեան; born May 26, 1926) is an Armenian-American sociologist and historian, born in Turkey, professor of sociology, historian, and an expert on the Armenian Genocide. He is one of the early scholars of the academic study of genocide and recognized as one of the key thinkers on the Holocaust and genocide.

Vietnam War casualties

Estimates of casualties of the Vietnam War vary widely. Estimates include both civilian and military deaths in North and South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.

The war persisted from 1955 to 1975 and most of the fighting took place in South Vietnam; accordingly it suffered the most casualties. The war also spilled over into the neighboring countries of Cambodia and Laos which also endured casualties from aerial and ground fighting.

Civilian deaths caused by both sides amounted to a significant percentage of total deaths. Civilian deaths were partly caused by assassinations, massacres and terror tactics. Civilian deaths were also caused by mortar and artillery, extensive aerial bombing and the use of firepower in military operations conducted in heavily populated areas. Some 365,000 Vietnamese civilians are estimated by one source to have died as a result of the war during the period of American involvement.A number of incidents occurred during the war in which civilians were deliberately targeted or killed. The best-known are the Massacre at Huế and the My Lai massacre.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.